With Malus Toward None | Grammatical Gender | Grammatical Number

August 21, 2017 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Documents
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Some pronunciation guidelines are presented, and more will be added. Many words have .... Si hoc signum legere potes, op...


WITH MĀLUS TOWARD NONE revised 21 September 2012 With Mālus Toward None Notes on Scientific Names and Roots Copyright pending. A NEW LATIN FOR DUMMIES, (new dummies for Latin?) With Greek and other sources, some everyday Latin phrases, and a pun or two. New Latin (sometimes referred to as post-classical Latin, Neo-Latin, Modern Latin, modern Latin, scientific Latin, or botanical Latin) refers to Latin used since the end of the medieval period, in special reference to scientific description and classification. It is a Latinization of words originating from roots from many languages. Latin is used as the standard for scientific description because it is a dead language. Modern languages are not static, but are changing constantly and evolving rapidly. With the exception of the Vatican City, Latin is not used as the language of any country, hence, it is essentially politically neutral and stable. Although Latin did change in post-classical times, reform movements have kept Classical Latin very close to the form it had about 400 A.D. (One may see classical Latin or Classical Latin.) Many modern terms have Latin equivalents, but the core vocabulary and grammar are constant. It is assumed you know your four conjugations with 300 verb forms, and your five declinations, with masculine, feminine, and neuter forms, and 5 to 7 cases, including the nominative, genitive, dative, acusative, and ablative, and have heard about a vocative, and perhaps the locative. I apologize, for when I studied Latin, it was not dead yet. (The 60’s were good.) Actually, it never died, for French, Italian, Romanian, Portuguese, and Spanish are some current forms of Vulgar or common spoken Latin. Some authorities say that there were nearly always two Latins, one written or Classical Latin and a second spoken or vulgar Latin, the Latin spoken by the vulgus, the people. Most literate Romans spoke vulgar Latin. Even in American English, it is still common today to speak in one manner and write in another. Some pronunciation guidelines are presented, and more will be added. Many words have the harsh, hard consonants of Classical Latin (with all due respect to Lola Behrens of Manlius High School, old Latin teachers don’t die, they just decline), while others have northern Illinois, more ecclesiastical soft consonants. To a speaker of American English, Classical Latin is a rigid, complex, highly structured, seemingly intimidating language. Modern English has few inflections, mostly relicts, as ox, oxen, goose, geese, while Classical Latin is highly inflected. (Indo-European is a highly inflected language group.) Classical Latin has a structured grammar the likes of which most English-speaking Americans are simply not aware. However, Latin is not beyond the reach of the average to slightly-above-average high school freshman. If you are a taxonomist or botanical explorer and plan on finding and describing new plant species, then study, study, study; decline and conjugate, decline and conjugate. If you wish to understand plant names, be of lighter heart, for the main concern is nouns and adjectives, mostly in the singular nominative or possessive, occasionally plural possessive, (-orum), and a few verb forms that are used as adjectives. The genus name is a noun, and the specific (or trivial) epithet is an adjective describing the noun. Latin adjectives differ from English adjectives in that they agree with the noun in gender, masculine, feminine, or neuter, and number, singular or

plural, hence the multiple forms albus, alba, album, or acaulis, acaulis, acaule. It would be as though we had a different word brown for brown heifer (feminine), brown bull (masculine), and brown steer (neuter). As this data is being gathered, many entries are from a single source and are untested. There are undoubtedly errors and misinformation, transcriptional errors, theirs and mine. Transcriptional errors are somewhat common, for instance when one sees altior translated time and again as ‘higher, taller, or deeper’, and suddenly one sees it used to mean ‘a nurse’, it is clear an author’s eyes skipped a few lines in their source to the root altor, altric-, a nurse. When I think a translation is slightly ‘off”, it is noted as (?), or as struckthrough, or (noted as a questionable translation in parenthesis). Always be alert for transpositional errors in any source. They are fairly common. Badly translated entries are being corrected. In the last ten years, botanical etymology as part of floras and plant guides has become a popular interest. The number of guides being marketed has increased greatly in the past decade. Many floras and websites are now including botanical etymology. Unfortunately, some information is seemingly obligatory, mentioned in passing, gathered from less than totally accurate sources, and not critically reviewed. It is just part of the less than perfect to down right bad etymology out there, on-line and hard copy, especially in the more popular books. Some work that is coming out of respected institutions and high powered projects are sloppy, 2.0 on a 4.0 scale. I have found that many books and websites on plant names contain errors and over simplifications. There is also some very good etymology out there, but even the very best of authors make transcriptional and other minor errors. Part of the problem is the lack of qualified proof-readers and editors, and of late, the limits of computer spell checks. The proliferation of bad information in the unreviewed and unregulated internet is multiplying in our cut and paste world. If you pursue any of the original sources, you will find even a F.L.S. will make a few mistakes, even in alphabetizing entries. When in doubt, see the more reliable books by Umberto Quattrocchi, David Gledhill, Tim Williams, Roland Brown, or the OED. Be aware of popular sources with “lumped’ translations. Some sources have lumped some similar terms and definitions, where the original meanings have shades of difference, as in resiniferus and resinosus. Both may be translated as resinous, but one means resin-bearing, and the other full of resin or very resinous; slightly different. Some of my early sources used bad lumping, and some of that damage remains to be fixed. A typical example is the combination of stipulaceus, stipularis, stipulatus, and stipulosus into one entry: -aceus: resembles, of..., ...like, mixture using, fragrance of; borrowed from nouns declined like ...ax, ...acis + eus; -aris: from -alis: of or pertaining to; -atus: possessive of or likeness of something (with, shaped, made)/ for verb participles: a completed action, -ed; -osus: noting plenitude or notable development. (after www.winternet.com/~chuckg/dictionary.html ) When Latin vocabulary proper is given, nouns are typically given as nominative and genitive singular, followed by the gender and meaning, as faeniseca, -ae m. a mower, a country-man, (a few are given as nominative and genitive plural). The genitive may be abbreviated as above or, for those not inclined to decline, written out, as in genus, generis, especially with irregular genitives. The genitive is important as it always contains the base of the noun, where the nominative may or may not. Adjectives are given as masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative singular, as faenus -a -um, of hay. Too many times, the available data are incomplete, leaving many holes to fill. Greek is still a personal work in progress, and diacritics are treated differently by different authors. Early diacritical errors are being corrected, but discrepancies between authors are being noted, which invoke a desire to play dry-wall roulette. Many geographic terms are for place names that were used when the plant was described, such as the early 20th century, with the many references to Russia as a term for the area of the former U.S.S.R, or terms dating to colonial Africa. Other historic geographic terms are classically ancient and obscure, reflecting the times when the earth was flat as a pancake. I apologize for setting political geography back anywhere from the better part of a century to up to five millenia. To Professor David Ganyard, who thought I slept through all of his Historical Geography class. Ce sont mes contradictions. Caveat lector! 11/01/07; 10/14/09 This draft contains errors, primarily in Greek root words, in letters A thru P, and in Latin vs. Greek as sources, which, in my ignorance, were unknowingly sourced from a horribly inaccurate website.

Many words listed as Greek roots are actually Latin. They are slowly being corrected. Do not believe what you read online. Or here. Or Anywhere. Always check at least three sources. If you receive this as a MS Word document do not change any fonts! The Greek text will go bonkers. All letters with diacritics will turn into little rectangular boxes. These characters must be in Times or some strange Oriental font, though some want to be in and revert to Lucinda. If you find a little square box, change it into Times then Times New Roman font. Some double diacritics (aspirated rho) must be in Times. Times New Roman is a little cleaner, a little less ornate, and keeps lowercase Kappa κ distinct from Chi χ, and keeps Rho ρ on the straight and narrow. If a letter looks odd or out of scale, especially a vowel with a diacritic, it may be in Lucinda, please change it to Times, then Times New Roman. It just works for most but not all letters. Some letter/diacritic combinations may not change, some combinations are not available in some fonts, including Times New Roman. Some letters, particularly φ, are available only directly from the Mac Character Viewer (select all characters, European Scripts, Greek). If you receive a copy of this PDF with little rectangular boxes in some Greek source words, MS Word has automatically changed the font; please email, bring the entry to my attention, and you will receive a corrected copy. Variation in MS Word preferences from computer to computer may cause font variations. For most of written history, and especially in Classical Latin, the consonant v and the vowel u have been written simply as v, which was for the most part pronounced as w. The distinction between j from i is relatively recent also. Some data is occasionally cited in the old fashion, such as lolivm perenne. ΑαΒβΓγΔδΕεΖζΗηΘθΙιΚκΛλΜµΝνΞξΟοΠπΡρΣσςΤτΥυΦφΧχΨψΩω Please excuse the damage I have done to the Greek language, because when it comes to accents and breaths, it is all Greek to me. Many scientific descriptive words of Greek origin are Latinized with the suffixes -us and -um. In fact, more scientific root words are of Greek origin than of Latin origin (Williams 2005). Botanical Greek is overwhelming for those of us that have never studied a language written in a non-Roman alphabet. Many upper and lower case Greek letters have no apparent relationship, but then take a close look at our Roman alphabet. (In both the Greek and Roman alphabets, the majuscule and miniscule letters are from separate alphabets developed centuries apart, and merged much later.) Roman alphabet equivalents of Greek names are being added. The goal is to give a letter by letter equivalent of Greek, not to ‘Latinize” the Greek, as is usually done, another, intentional level of inaccuracy. Transliterations are minimized but some are unavoidable. Eta with a rough breath, ἑ becomes he. Final eta is usually ‘a’ or occasionally ‘e’ and when in doubt (often) may be noted as (η?). Gamma gamma, γγ is gg and becomes ng; gamma kappa, γκ is gk and becomes nk; gamma chi, γχ is gkh and becomes nch, nkh (hard c); gamma xi, γξ is gx and becomes nx. Initial rho, ρ becomes rh, medial rho rho, ρρ becomes rrh. Upsilon, υ becomes variously y or u. Some sources maintain υ as u, even when most usage is as y, as in αχυρον, achyron, or achuron. Chi, χ, becomes kh (or ch) pronounced as in loch. Plagiary classical Latin plagiārius person who abducts the child or slave of another, kidnapper, seducer, also a literary thief (Martial 1. 53. 9), in post-classical Latin also (adjective) concerning plagiarism (15th cent.) < plagium kidnapping (OED). Some of them will saye, seeing that I graunte that I have gathered this booke of so many writers, that I offer unto you a heape of other mennis laboures, and nothing of mine own … To whom I answere that if the honye that the bees gather out of so many floure of herbes, shrubbes, and trees, that are growing in other mennes meadowes, feldes, and closes may justelye be called the bee’s honye … so maye I call that I have learned and gathered of so many good autores … my booke. William Turner (1551), suggested by A. W. Anderson (1950) in The Coming of the Flowers, (Retitled as How We Got Our Flowers (1966) referenced in Jones and Fuller (1955). The manuscript that follows is largely the words of others, and briefly credited in the bibliography. There is no pretense that there is very little original thought here, and as I have researched this, I have found the translation data are often word for word from one source to another source, and another, and yet another. (“The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources.” Einstein) Two wrongs do not make a right, (but three lefts do) but as an analogy compare any entry in Merriam-Webster Unabridged dictionary with that of the OED, or compare the etymology of the Freckmann Herbarium website with California Plant Names (both are highly recommended, quite substantial works). This is merely a word list with sources and

definitions. If a definition is rewritten or paraphrased, it is no longer a definition, it is an opinion, and opinions are, well, like ... Everybody has one, and they all stink. Si hoc signum legere potes, operis boni in rebus Latinus alacribus et fructuosis potiri potes! this sign, you can get a good job in the fast-paced, high-paying world of Latin!

If you can read

Prairie Plants and Etymology? How does one go from growing prairie plants to studying the origin of plant name? The origin and meaning of plant names are an important part of the body of knowledge of our flora. If understanding the name helps one to remember the plant, or to learn more about a plant, then it is worthwhile. Moreover, in the prairie peninsula, etymology seems to be a perfectly natural part of grasslands culture, history, and restoration when you realize our language (the American English you are reading) originated a long time ago in a grasslands, far, far away. Very briefly, plant names are from mostly Latin and Greek roots. Latin and Greek are Indo-European languages, part of a family of languages that formerly stretched from the Iberian peninsula, Iceland, Ireland, Iran, India, and into western China. The recent, world-wide proliferation of English, a Germanic IndoEuropean language, as a lingua-franca of business, has made this group one of the most spoken language families in the world. Most languages, but not all, of Europe, some of Asia Minor, Iran, parts of India, and formerly the Tamir Basin of western China are, or were, Indo-European. Included are the Albanian, Armenian, Anatolian (extinct), Greek, Indo-Iranian, Italic, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Tocharian (extinct) and Slavic language subfamilies. Today, most of Europe speaks an Indo-European language except the Basque, Hungarians, Finnish, Estonians, Maltese, and the extinct Etruscans. Anthropologists and linguists have reconstructed a “mother tongue” or a protolanguage that gave rise to all these related modern languages. A protolanguage is a collection of all the retentions of the daughter languages. By comparing root words for basic concepts that existed 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, such as mother, father, house, fire, chariot, wheel, grass, horse, etc., a root language has been developed, Proto-Indo-European, or P.I.E. The culture extrapolated from the root vocabulary of P.I.E., and confirmed archaeologically is that of the horse-based, grasslands culture of the Pontic-Caspian steppes, the grasslands north of the Black and Caspian seas, part of a great steppe which extended west to Romania and east to Mongolia. So, studying plant names in Latin, Greek, or even English, may bring some back to their ancestral grassland-language roots. etymologia, etymologae f. Latin etymology, from Greek ἐτυµολογ-ὲειν, etymolog-eein, from ἐτυµολογία, etymologia, from ἐτυµολόγ-ος, etymolog-os, an etymologer, from ἔτυµον, etymon, true, and -λογος, -logos, one who discourses. etymon the primitive form or root of a word, from Latin, from Greek ἔτυµον, etymon, originally the neuter of ἔτυµος, etymos, true, from Old Aryan *es, to be, and P.I.E. (?) *s-etumo-s. Glossary Genus names are capitalized. A double entry as Aphyllanthes, aphyllanthes, indicates the entry is a genus name and a specific epithet. Entries, entries c., that are bold and end in a period (.) have been checked and are fairly reliable. Unbolded entries are caveat lector. In the pronunciation guidelines, the stressed syllable is the is the one before the stress mark and the capit'alized (kap-IT-ah-liz-ed) one. Thank' (THANK) you' (YOU). The capitalizing guidelines are being reviewed and corrected (starting November 2011). Some published pronunciation guidelines are contrary to the root origins and split root words apart. These are being corrected, such as (ass-ih-DAN-ther-us) is properly (ass-ihd-AN-ther-us), as the roots are Acid and anthera not Aci and danthera "Botanical Latin is essentially a written language .... How they are pronounced really matters little provided they sound pleasant and are understood by all concerned..." W.T. Stearn “They do not know very good Latin, these botanists.” Albert Hofmann. vide infra Etymology remains the redheaded stepchild of botany. a Greek not, without; together. a-, an- ἀ-, αν- ἀ-before a consonant, Greek prefix meaning not, there is not, without, -less.

a-, ab-, abs- Latin prefix meaning off, apart, out, away from-, downwards-, very-; (privation) un-, without-. -a Latin feminine termination for many adjectives. a posteriori Latin from what comes after a priori Latin from what comes before aages- Greek ααγης, aages, unbroken, hard. aapt-, aapto- Greek ααπτος, aaptos, invincible, unapproachable. aaronis for the prophet Aaron, Aaron’s. aato- Greek αατος, aatos, insatiable. Abaca a synonym for Musa textilis. abact- driven away, send away, aborted, from Latin abactus -a -um, driven away, aborted, or abactiōn-em, n. of action, from abigere to drive away. abactus -a -um repelling, repulsive, driving away, from Latin abigo, abigere, abegi, abactus, drive/send away/off; expel, repel; steal, plunder cattle, rustle; seduce; remove or cure a disease; drive away (an evil); force birth; procure abortion. abaxialis away from the axis, from Latin ab away, and axis, axis. abayensis -is -e from the region Lake Abaya, Ethiopia. abbibo, abbibere, abbibi Latin verb, drink, take in by drinking; drink in, absorb, listen eagerly. abbreviatulus -a -um somewhat shortened, from Latin abbreviatus, from abbrevio, shorten, and -ulus, adjective suffix, diminutive. abbreviatus -a -um Latin meaning abbreviated, shortened in some aspect, or when one part is shorter than another, from Latin ab-brevis, abbreviatus, participle of abbrevio, abbreviare, to shorten, cut off. abchasicus -a -um, abschasicus -a -um from Abkhasia, a region in the Caucasus, from abchasicus, Abkhasia, Caucasus region, Abkhas from Russian. abdicat- Latin disinherit, disowned, from Latin abdicātus, participle of abdicāre, to renounce, disown, reject, resign, from ab, off, away and dicāre, to proclaim, make known. abdicatus, abdicati m. Latin noun, disowned son, disinherited son. abdit- secret, hidden, from Latin abditus, hidden, concealed. abditus -a -um hidden, removed, from Latin abditus, concealed, secret, hidden away, past participle of abdo, abdĕre, abdidi, abditum, to put away, hide, set aside. abditus, abdita, abditum Latin adjective, hidden, secret, out of the way, remote, secluded; obscure or abstruse in meaning. abdo-, abdit- from Latin abdo, abdere, to put away, remove, hide, secrete. abdo- Latin abdomen, the belly. abdom-, abdomen, -abdomen, abdomin- Latin the abdōmen, possibly from abdĕre to stow away, conceal, cover; and from adeps, adipem, fat. abdomen, abdominis n. Latin noun, abdomen, paunch, lower part of the belly; gluttony; as indicative of obesity. abduc- lead from, Latin abŭdcĕre to lead away, to carry off, from ab off, away, and dŭcĕre to lead. abeba- Greek αβεβαιος, abebaios, uncertain, wavering, fickle. Abelia named for the Dr. Clark Abel (1780-1826), British botanist, physician, and writer on China. abeliceus -a -um Abelia-like. Abeliophyllum Abelia-leaved, for the similar foliage. Abelmoschus from Greek Ab-el-mosch, grain or seed of musk; alternately from ...and moschus, Greek musk, referring to musk (odor) of the seeds (Okra). (Malvaceae) abelt- from Greek αβελτερος, abelteros, silly, stupid, foolish. Abdenglut German cv. evening glow aberconwayi for Charles Melville McLaren (1913-2003), third Lord Aberconway of Bodnant, former president of the RHS. aberdeenensis of, from, or pertaining to Aberdeen, Cape Province, South Africa, and -ensis, adjective suffix, country or place of origin or habitat. Aberia from Mount Aber in Ethopia, provenance of the type species. aberr- Latin aberrare, to stray, to wander. aberran- Latin going astray. aberrans deviating from the normal, aberrant, differing, present participle from Latin abero, aberrare, aberravi, aberratum, to wander from the way, to go astray, to divert, hidden. abertii aber'tii (a-BARE-tee-eye)

abet- Old French help. abhor- Latin abhorreo, dislike, shrink from. abibles Greek α-βιβλης, -ον, ό, a-bibles, -on, o, a man without books. abie-, abies, -abies, abiet Latin abies, the silver fir, (Pinus picea?). abien Latin abire, to depart. Abies A'bies (A-bee-ayz, or casually AY-bees) New Latin, from the classical Latin name for European silver fir or a fir tree, abies, abiet; alternately rising one, from abeo, ancient Latin name for a tall tree or a ship. abietifolius -a -um leaves like a fir tree, Abies-leaved, from abies, silver fir; fir tree, -i-, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. abietinus -a -um abieti'nus (ay-bee-eh-TY-nus) Abies-like, like Abies, fir, fir tree-like, resembling a fir, from Abies. abietis -is -e of Abies, as in Adelges abietis, a gall aphis on spruce. abil- Latin habilis, easy to be handled. Abildgaardia for Peder Chritian Abildgaard (1740–1801), Danish professor of veterinary medicine -abilis -is -e Latin adjectival suffix indicating capacity or ability, used with a verb base; -manageable, -able, capable of, (preceded by some action) from Latin habilis, adjectival suffix used to indicate a capacity or ability to do something, and employed when the root infinitive ends in -are. abiritus common poppy. abject- Latin abiecto, despair, a throwing away. abject-, abjectus Latin downcast, spiritless, rejected, low, mean, worthless. abjectus -a -um abandoned, cast down, unpleasant, from Latin abicio, abicere, abieci, abiectum. ablat- Latin ablatus, removed, taken away, weaned. ablatus -a -um remove, withdraw; steal, obtain. able- Latin habilis, apt, fit, expert. -able, -ible, -uble, -ble Latin suffix -ibilis, tending to be, capable of, worthy of. ablechro- Greek αβληχρος, ablechros, weak, feeble. ablemo- Greek αβλεµης, ablemes, feeble. ablep-, ableps- Greek αβλεψια, ablepsia, blindness. albus- Latin ablusus, different. ablut- washed, cleansed, from Latin abluere, to wash. abnormis -is -e unorthodox, departing from normal in some structure from Latin abnormis. abnormalis abnormal, deviating from the type, unusual, out of the common. Abobra from a Brazilian vernacular name. aboethet-, aboetheto-, aboethetus Greek αβοηθητος, aboethetos, hopeless, incurable. abolla Latin abolla, Greek αβολλα, abolla, a cloak of thick wollen cloth. abolo-, abolos Greek αβολος, abolos, uncast, unshed. aborigin- Latin aborigineus, ancestral, native original. aboriginus -a -um abori'ginus (a-bore-IJ-in-us) Latin ancestral, native, original. abort-, abortiv- born prematurely, from Latin abortus, untimely birth. abortivus -a -um abor'tivus (a-BORE-ti-vus) Latin aborted, miscarried, undeveloped, stunted, not coming to maturity, parts failing, malformed or missing, imperfect; producing abortion, from aborior, aboriri, abortus. abr-, abro-, abro-, abros- Greek delicate, soft, dainty, pretty, from αβρος, abros. abram-, abramis, -abramis Greek αβραµις, abramis, kind of fish abramsii a'bramsii (AY-brams-ee-eye) abras- rubbed off, scraped off, from Latin abradere, to scrape off, to shave. abrasus Latin as though rubbed or scrapped off abro- Greek αβρος, abros, dainty, delicate, pretty, soft, graceful, splendid, luxurious. abroch-, abrochos from Greek αβροχος, abrochos, dry, waterless. Abroma from the Brazilian vernacular name. Abromeitiella delicate-Meitiella, from Greek αβρος, abros, and µειων, meion, delicate and very small. Abronia Abro'nia (ab-ROE-nee-a) delicate from Greek abros, αβρος, delicate or graceful, for the involucre. Abrophyllum delicate leaved, from Greek αβρος, abros, and φυλλον, phyllon, leaf. abrot- Greek not edible; divine; splendor abrot- Greek αβρωτος, abrotos, uneatable. abrot- Greek αβροτης, abrotes, splendor, luxury, charm. abrot-, abrotos Greek αβρωτος, abrotos, uneatable.

Abrotanella Abrotanum-like, feminine diminutive. abrotani-, abrotanoides Artemisia-like, from αβροτανον, abrotanon, and -οειδης, -oeides, from an ancient Greek name αβροτανον, abrotanon, for several fragrant-leaved plants. abrotanifolius -a -um abrotanifo'lius (ab-ro-tan-i-FO-lee-us) botanical Latin, abrotanum-leaved, wormwoodleaved, with leaves like Artemisia abrotanum, Southernwood, from Greek αβροτανον, abrotanon, and Latin folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. abrotanoides resembling Southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum, from Greek αβροτανον, abrotanon, and οειδης, -oeides. Abrotanum, abrotanum Medieval Latin, alteration of Latin abrotonum, from Greek Ἁβρότονον, Habrótonon, abrotonon wormwood, southernwood; alternately meaning divine, from αβροτος, abrotos, an ancient name for southernwood. abroton- Greek a kind of plant, vide supra. abrotonum, -i, n. Latin also, abrotanum, southern-wood, an aromatic herb. abrotonus, -i f. Latin southern-wood, an aromatic herb. abrum- Latin abrum, a holder. abrum- Latin abrumpere, to break off. abrupt- Latin abruptus, broken away from, torn off; steep, precipitous. abrupte Latin abruptly abruptus -a -um ending suddenly, abrupt, blunt ended, coming to a sudden termination, not gradually tapering, from classical Latin abruptus broken off, precipitous, disconnected, the past participle of abrumpo, abrumpĕre abrupi, abruptum, to break, to break or burst apart, to rupture, to sever, to interrupt, to break off short, to put an end to, to cut off, to separate, to detach, to break, to violate, from ab off, and rumpĕre to break. abruptifolius -a -um with shortened leaves, as if broken off, from Latin abruptus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Abrus soft, from Greek αβρος, abros, for the foliage of crab’s eyes. abs Latin off, from, away, apart, out. abs quill-cassia. abscess- Latin abscessus, a purulent tumor. abscis-, absciss Latin abscidere, to cut off. abscissus -a -um Latin cut off, as if bitten off, past participle of abscindo, abscindere, abscidi, abscissum. Absconde obesito illegitimo. Get outta here you fat bastard. absconditus -a -um hidden, concealed, residual, from Latin abscondit, from Latin abscondo, abscondere, abscondi (abscondidi, absconditum) hidden, secret, unknown. absimilis -is -e different, un-like, from Latin ab-similis. absinth-, absinthium Latin wormwood absinthiatus made of absinthe. Absinthium the old generic name for wormwood, from αψινθιον, apsinthion, in the works of Xenophon. absinthium, -i, n. the Latin and pre-Linnaean name for wormwood, absinth(e), from Lucretius. In biblical times a symbol of calamity and sorrow. absinthius -a -um from an ancient Greek name, αψινθιον, apsinthion, or a Syrian name for wormwood. absinthoides absinthe-like, like Artemisia absinthium, Wormwood, from αψινθιον, apsinthion, and -οειδες, oeides. absit- Latin absiti, distant, gone away. absolutus finished, ended, from Latin absolutus, finished, ended, concluded absolutescens from Latin absolutio, absolutionis f. acquittal, perfection absolutus intact, complete, perfect, from Latin absolutus, from past participle of absolvere to set free, from absolve, from ab- and solvere to loosen, release absum different, distant, distinct, from Latin absum, abesse, abui. absurdus -a -um unmusical, absurd, incongruous, from Latin absurdus. abstemi- Latin abstemi, temperate, moderate. abund- Latin abundare, to overflow, to abound, to be rich. abundiflorus -a -um flowering copiously, from Latin abunde-flora. abundus -a -um prolific, abounding, from Latin abundo, abundare, abundavi, abundatum. abussusi centaury. Abuta from a West Indian vernacular name. abutiloides resembling Indian Mallow, from Arabic Abutilon.

Abutilon Abu'tilon (ab-YOO-ti-lon) New Latin, from Arabic awbūtīlūn, a member of this genus. (Malvaceae) abyss-, abysso Greek αβυσσος, abyssos, unfathomed, deep, bottomless, bottomless pit, deep sea. abyssicolus -a -um inhabiting ravines or chasms, late Latin, from abyssus-colus, from Greek α-βυσσος, abyssos, without bottom. abyssinicus -a -um Abyssinian, of Abyssinia, from Ethopia, formerly Abyssinia. -ac Greek ακος, ακη, ακον, of, belonging to. ac-, ad-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at- Latin to, towards-, near-; ac is a Latin prefix assimilated form of Latin ad- before c (k) or qu. ac- Modern Latin with. aca Greek a point; silence; healing aca- Greek ακα, aka, softly, gently. Acacallis etymology uncertain. Acacia Aca'cia (ak-AY-see-a) Greek, from Dioscorides name ακακια, akakia, from ακη, ακις, ake, akis, thorn, a sharp point, ἀκάζὴ, akaze, to sharpen, referring to the spines. (Leguminosae) acaciformis shaped like or resembling Acacia , from Acacia-forma. acadiensis from Nova Scotia, Canada, formerly the French colony, Acadia. Acaena (Acena) from the Greek word for thorny-one, ακαινα, akaina, from the bur-like seeding heads. acaeno- Greek ακαινα, akaina, thorn, spine. acaenoides resembling-Acaena, from ακαινα, akaina, and οειδες, oeides. acalanth-, acalanthi, acalanthis, -acalanthis Greek a goldfinch acaleph-, acalepha, -acalepha, acalepho Greek ακαληφα, akalepha, the sting, as of a nettle. acalephe stinging-nettle. acallo- Greek ακαλλνς, akallns, (???? in Williams, but probably ακαλλος, akallos) ugly, without charms. acalycalis having no calyx or no adhesion to one acalycinus -a um lacking (or apparently lacking) a calyx, noting privation, from Greek α-καλυκος, akalykos. Acalypha Acaly'pha (ak-al-IF-a) New Latin, unpleasant to touch, a reference to the hispid leaves, from Greek akalyphē, acklephes for nettle, alteration of akalēphē, an ancient name for a type of nettle applied by Linnaeus to the genus Acalypha, from α-καλος-αφη, a-kalos-aphe(η?), from ακελπε, akelpe, for a nettle. acalypho Greek ακαλυφης, akalyphes, ακαλυπτος, akalyptos, uncovered, unveiled. acalypto Greek ακαλυπτος, akalyptos, ακαλυφης, akalyphes, uncovered, unveiled. acaman-, acamanto- Greek ακαµαντος, akamantos, unresting, untiring. Acamptopappus Acamptopap'pus (ak-amp-toe-PAP-us) Greek akamptos, stiff or unbending, and pappus, alluding to thick pappus elements acanth-, acantha-, acantho- Greek a spine, thorn, prickle, referring to a thorn, prickle, spines, spiny, thorny, from ἀκανθο-, akantho-, ἄκανθα, akantha, a thorn. Some plant-name authors confuse ἀκανθο-, akantho-, thorn, with ἄνθος, anthos, flower. Acantha Greek ἀκανθα, akantha, spine, thorn, prickle Acanthaceae Acantha'ceae (ak-anth-AY-see-see) plants of the Acanthus, Bear-Foot family, from the genus name, Acanthus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. acanthi-, acanthid-, acanthis, -acanthis Greek a goldfinch acanthicarpa, acanthocarpus -a -um acanthocar'pus (ak-an-tho-KAR-pus) acanthicar'pa (ak-an-thi-KAR-pa) with thorny fruits like those of Acanthus, from Greek ακανθο, akantho, and καρπος, karpos. acanthifolius -a -um thorny-leaved, acanthus-leaved, with leaves like Acanthus, Bears-foot, from Greek Acanthus and Latin folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. acanthium a spine, a thorn, or a prickle, from from the root ακανθ-, akanth- spiky, spiny or thorny, and -ium, characteristic; Dioscorides name, ακανθιον, akanthion, for a kind of a thistle. acanthiz Greek ακανθης, akanthes, thorny. Acanthocereus from Greek ακανθα, akantha, thorn, and Cereus, a genus of cacti acantho-, acanthus spiny-, thorny-, from Greek ακανθα akantha, ακανθος, akanthos, ακανθο-, akantho-. acanthocalyx thorny-calyx, from Greek ακανθα, akantha, and καλυξ, kalyx. Acanthocarpus, acanthocarpus -a -um spiny fruited one, from Greek ακανθο, akantho, and καρπος, karpos. acanthocladus -a -um with thorny branches. acanthocomus -a -um spiny-haired or spiny-crowned, with tufts, fascicles of thorns; thorny-haired, from Greek ακανθα, akantha, and κοµη, kome(η?).

Acanthogilia spiny-Gilia, (= Baja california). acanthoides resembling Acanthus, Bears-breech, Bears-foot, Acanthus-like, appearing like a spike or a spine, from Greek ακανθο, akantho, and -οειδης, oeides. Acantholimon thorny-Limonium, from Greek ακανθο, akantho, and Limon. Acanthometron thorn-measure, from ακανθο, akantho, and µετρεω, metreo (spiny plankton). Acanthomintha Acanthomin'tha (ak-an-tho-MIN-tha) from Greek ακανθο-, acantho, thorn, and mentha, mint Acanthonema thorn-threaded, from Greek ακανθα, akantha, and νηµα, nema, for the processes on the filaments of the two lower stamens. Acanthopanax spiny-Panax, from Greek ακανθο, akantho, and Panax, for the spiny nature of the plant. acanthophlegmus thorn entangled acanthophyllus with thorny-leaves acanthophysus -a -um having inflated spines, from Greek ακανθο-φυσα. acanthopodus with thorny-stalks, petiole or peduncle furnished with spines, from and Greek, πους, ποδος, pous, podos, a foot. Acanthopsis Acanthus-like, from ακανθιον, akanthion, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, likeness, sight. Acanthorrhiza with thorny roots, from , and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. acanthos a prickle or thorn, Greek ακανθος, akanthos, from ἄκανθα, akantha, thorn, from άκή, aka, a sharp point. Acanthoscyphus Acanthoscy'phus (ak-an-tho-SKY-fus) Greek acantha, thorn, and scyphos, cup, goblet, or jug, referring to an awn on involucre Acanthospermum spiny-seed, from Greek ακανθο, akantho, prickle, and σπερµα, sperma, seed, in reference to prickly "fruits". acanthostachys, acanthostachyus with thorny ears or flower spikes acanthostephus surrounded with thorns or spines acanthothamnos Acanthus bush, from Greek ακανθο, akantho, and θαµνος, thamnos, shrub, in reference to the spiny nature of Euphorbia acanthamnos. Acanthus Latin adopted from Greek ακανθος, akanthos,from ἄκανθα, akantha, thorn, prickly one, a prickly plant, from Dioscorides. The nymph Acantha, loved by Apollo, was changed into an Acanthus. A stylized representation of the leaf of Acanthus spinosus is used in the decoration of the capitals of Corinthian and Composite columns. (Acanthaceae) acanthus, acanthi, m. Latin bear's foot, a plant; a thorny evergreen Egyptian tree, P. Vergilius Maro. acar-, acarin- Greek a kind of mite; tiny, from ἄκαρι, akari, a mite, from ἀκαρής, akares, minute. acar-, acari- Late or modern Latin acarus, Greek ἄκαρι, akari, a mite. acar- Greek ακαρης, akares, short, small, tiny. acariferus, acarifer harboring mites, from New Latin, from Greek ακαρι, akari, a mite; probably akin to Greek keirein to cut off, shear acaro-domatia a formation on plants for sheltering mites when in service to the host Acarus modern Latin, from Greek ἄκαρι, akari, a mite, from ἀκαρής, akares, minute, too short for cutting, from ἀ, a, not and καρ, kar, aorist stem of κείρειν, keirein, to cut. acat-, acat-, acatum Greek ακατιον, akation, a light boat, a woman’s shoe. acaul-, acaulus Greek ακαυλος, akaulos, without a stalk, cf., Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft.. acaulis -is -e, acaulos -os -on acau'lis (ak-AWL-is, or ay-KAW-lis) lacking an obvious stem, without a stem or stalk, or seemingly so, noting privation, from Greek α-καυλος, a-kaulos, Latin a-caulis, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft.. acaulescens without a stem or stalk, or seemingly so, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and . acced- Latin accedere, to support. accedens jointed on, added on, from Latin accedere, from ad- and cedere to go, yield; approaching, agreeing with, present participle of accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum. accele-, acceler Latin accelerare, to hasten, to quicken, speedy accens Latin accensus, kindled, excited, set on fire. accinct- Latin accinctus, well girdled, well equipped, well armed. accip- Latin accipere, to seize, to accept, to receive.

accipit-, accipiter, -accipiter Latin a hawk, accipiter -tris m. Accipitrina hawks’, of a hawk, from Latin accipiter, analogy with Hieracium. accisus -a -um with a small acute apical cleft, emarginate, cut into, from Latin accido, accidere, accidi, accissus, to hew or hack at; hence to weaken, ruin. accliv- Latin acclivus, steep, up-hill, incline. acclivis -is -e, acclivus -a -um gradually ascending, rising, uphill, sloping upwards, inclined, from Latin acclinis -e, leaning towards, inclined to; acclino, acclinare, acclinavi, acclinatum, to lean towards, inclined to. accol-, accola-, accolus -a -um neighbor, dwells near, from accola -ae m. or f., neighbor; as an adjective, living near, neighboring, acollo, accolere, accolui, accuitum, to live near. accomodatus -a -um accommodated or accommodating, fitting on, adapted, adaptable, adjusting, suitable, from Latin accommodo, accommodare, accommodavi, accommodatum, to make suitable, adjust, adapt. accre- Latin accrescere, to increase. accrensis -is -e from Accra, Ghana, W. Africa. accresc- Latin increase accrescens increasing, improving, spreading, as a calyx after flowering: growing together, coalescing, accreting, from Latin accresco, ac-(cresco, crescere, crevi, cretum), to grow , increase; with the dative, to be joined to (a thing). accretus grown together, natural grafting accumbens clinging, holding on, lying against another body; becoming adjacent, coming face to face, present participle of accumbo, accumbere, accubui, accubitum, to lie down or recline, esp. at a table. -ace(...) partaking of ace-, aceo- Greek ακεοµαι, akeomai, heal, cure, remedy, relief, staunch, quench, repair. -acea Latin -aceus, suffix meaning: of, belonging to, having the nature of. -aceae -aceous, -associates, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. acedo- careless, negligent, harmless, unburied, from Greek ἀκηδής, akedes, careless, heedless, from ἀ- a-, privation, and κῆδος, kedos, care, concern, (from the same P.I.E. root as pre-Germanic *kodos, kodesos, hate), and -ία -ia, suffix for Latin and Greek nouns; compare ancient Greek ἀκήδεια, akedeia, carelessness, indifference; similar to post-classical Latin acedia, or its etymon ancient Greek ἀκηδία, akedia, indifference, listlessness, apathy, lit. ‘non-caring-state’ (as a Greek word in Cicero Ad Atticum 12. 45). (OED) aceo- Greek ακος, akos, ακεος, akeos, cure, remedy. -aceous Latin -aceus, suffix denoting of the nature of, belonging to, elating to. acephalus headless, without a head, from Greek ἀ- a-, privation, and κεφαλή, kephale, head. Acer A'cer (classically A-ker, or AY-ser) sharp, vigorous, from Latin acer, acris. New Latin, from Ovid’s classic Latin name for the maple tree or its wood, either from the woods use for lances or its leaf shape; akin to Old High German, Old Saxon, & Middle Low German ahorn, maple tree, Old Danish ær, Greek akastos, a maple tree, akarna laurel, and probably to Latin acer sharp. Etymologically linked to oak, acorn, and acre. (Aceraceae) acer, aceris n. Latin the maple tree or maple wood. acer- without horns acer, acris, acre Latin acer, sharp, cutting, rough, biting, pointed, piercing; sharp-tastng, acid. Sometimes used as acris -is -e. acer, -acer Latin acer, sharp, a maple tree acer, acre Latin acris, acre, pointed, pungent, stinging, sharp, sour. Aceraceae Acera'ceae (classically ak-er-AY-see-ee, or as-er-AY-see-ee) plants of the Maple, Acer family, from the genus name, Acer, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Aceras without a horn, noting privation, from Greek α-κερας, a-keras, the lip has no spur. acerat- Latin acerous, full of chaff, mixed with chaff. Acerates acerb- Latin bitter, sour, from acerbus -a -um, harsh to the taste. acerbifolia sour or bitter leaved, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. acerbus harsh to the taste, bitter, sour, tart, rough, stinging; troublesome, from Latin acerbus. acerinus -a -um of maples, living on Acer, as Gypsonoma, a lepidopteran gall insect on the white poplar, αχερωις, akherois. acerifolius -a -um maple-leaved, with leaves like Acer, Maple, from Acer- and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aceroides Maple-like, like Acer, from Acer-oides.

acerosus needle-shaped, stiffish needles as of Pines; pointed, needle-like; sharp, bitter, from acer, acris. Use by error from Linnaeus, from acerōs-us chaffy, from acus, aceris, chaff; apparently afterwards referred in error to acus, acu-s, a needle or acer sharp; now used to mean needleshaped and rigid, as it has been used by botanists since Linnæus. (OED) acerrimus -a -um most bitter, most sharp; superlative of acer, for the burning taste. acerus without wax acerv-, acervus, -acervus Latin acervus, a heap, a mass. acervus -i m. a heap, mass; in logic, an argument by accumulation. acervatus heaped up promiscously, as with some fungus, from Latin acervātus, past pple. of acervāre to heap. acest- acesto- Greek ακεστος, akestos, healing, curing; remedy acestr-, acestra, -acestra Greek ακεστρα, akestra, a darning needle acet-, acet-, -aceto, acetum, -acetum, acetyl, -acetyl Latin acētum (aceta), vinegar, referring to acid acetab- Latin acetabulum, a vinegar cup, the socket of the hip joint. acetabul-, acetabulum, -acetabulum Latin a vinegar cup or saucer, or a saucerful, from acētābulum, an ancient Roman and old medical fluid measure, about 2 fluid ounces, from acētum vinegar, and -abulum dimutive of -abrum, a holder or receptacle; in anatomy, the little, cup-shaped, hip socket; also a term for a cupshaped organ on many plants and animals. acetabulosus -a -um like a little cup, saucer-shaped, saucer-like; cup-shaped, concave; from Latin acetabulum-ulosus (or just -osus), suffix for plenitude or notable development. acetabuliformis bowl-shaped or cup shaped acetophylla acid-leaved Acetosa from acetum -i n., Latin vinegar, and -osus, adjectival suffix noting plenitude or notable development, full of, prone to. Acetosella, acetosellus -a -um acetosel'la (ass-eh-toe-SEL-la) literally little vinegar, the feminine diminutive of acetum, by extension sour, slightly acid, vinegary. acetosus -a -um slightly acid; sour, acid, from Latin acetum. Sour gives the cognate sorrel. acetum -i n. Latin vinegar -aceus -a -um -resembling, Latin -aceus, adjectival suffix indicating a resemblance, of..., ...like, of the nature of, belonging to, mixture using, fragrance of, used with noun bases (a plant name, as Rose-aceous); borrowed from nouns declined like ...ax, ...acis + eus. ach- Greek αχος, achos, ache, pain. achaetus -a -um lacking bristles, from Greek α-χαιτη, a-chaita(η?). achan- Greek αχανης, achanes, mute with astonishment, yawning, wide-mouthed, achatinus -a -um banded with colors, the color of agate, chalcedony-like, from Greek αχατης, achates. achelensis -is -e from the Sierra de Achela, Argentina. achen Greek αχην, achen, poor, needy; not gaping. achet-, acheta, -acheta, acheto Latin singing, sounding; a cicada (Borror). achet-, acheta- Greek αχετας, akhetas, ηχτης, ekhtes, clear-sounding, musical, shrill; chirping (of a cicada). Achicodonia the composite generic name for hybrids between Achimenes and Eucodonia (properly XAchicdonia), Achille Greek mythology a character who had a vulnerable heel Achillea Achil'lea (classically a-kil-LEE-a, a-KILL-ee-a, or locally a-KIL-lee-a) New Latin, from Latin achillea, achilleos, a plant, from Greek achilleios, a plant supposed to have been used medicinally by the warrior Achillēs, Achillēus, (Latin), Ἀχιλεύς, Akhileus, of Greek mythology, from ἀχίλλειος, akhilleios, of Achilles. Achilles is said to have discovered it’s healing power and used plants of this genus to staunch his wounds or the wounds of his soldiers at the battle for Troy. Achilles learned medicine from Chiron the centaur. (Compositae) achilleaefolius Achillea-leaved, from Achillea, the genus, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. achilleoides resembling milfoil, or Yarrow, Achillea Achimenantha the composite generic name for hybrids between Achimenes and Trichantha. Achimenes etymology uncertain; magic-plant, from Greek αχαεµηνις, akhaemnis; tender-one, from Greek αχειµαινω, a-chemaino, (cold-hating). Achaemenes was the reputed founder of the Persian dynasty of 553-330 BC. achlamydeus without a cloak, without a perianth as in Willows. achly-, achlyo-, achlys, -achlys Greek αχλυεις, akhlyeis, gloomy, darkness, dismal. Achlys Greek for Achlus, a god of night; for Achlys, the goddess of obscurity.

achotensis -is -e from the region of the Achote river, Ecuador. achn-, achna, -achna Greek chaff, froth Achnatherum Achna'therum (ak-NA-ther-um) from Greek achna for chaff or scale and ather for an awn, for the awned lemma. achor-, achorus Greek αχωρος, achoros, homeless, without a resting place. achoreum achoreut- Greek αχορευτος, achoreutos, melancholy, joyless. achoro Greek αχωρ, achor, αχορος, achoros, scurf, dandruff. achos Greek αχος, achos, pain, greif, sorrow, distress. achr-, achroio, achroo, achrost Greek colorless achraceus -a -um Achras-like. Achras the wild Pear, an old Greek name, αχρας, achras, for the wild pear, αχερδος, acherdos, used by Linnaeus for Achras sapota, the sapodilla or chicle tree (the marmalade plum). achrest- Greek αχρηστος, achrestos, useless, unprofitable. achr-, achro-, achromat-, achrost- lacking light, pale, without color, from Greek α-χρωµα, a-chroma, αχρωατος, achroatos, (Williams)(? typo for άχρὡµατος, achromatos). achther Greek αχθηρης, achthres, annoying, burdensome. achth-, achtho-, achthos- Greek αχθος, achthos, burden, load, distress. achth-, achtho, achthus, -achthus Greek a weight, burden achy-, achyro Greek ἄχυρον, achyron, αχυρο-, achyro-, αχυ-, achy, chaffy, chaff-like, from ἄχυρα, achyra, ἄχυν, achyn, chaff. achypodus -a -um scaly-stemmed, chaffy-stemmed, from Greek αχυ-ποδος, achy-podos, and Greek, πους, ποδος, pous, podos, a foot. achyr-, achyro, achyrum, -achyrum Greek, αχυρον, akhyron, chaff, scale, bran. Achyrachaena Achyrachae'na (ak-i-ra-KEE-na) Greek αχυρον, akhyron, chaff, scale, and Latin achaenium, achene, fruit, referring to the cypselae. Achyranthes chaff-flower, from Greek αχυρον, achyron, chaff, scale, and ανθος, anthos, flower. achyranthoides resembling chaff-flower, Achyranthes achyro- Greek αχυρον chaff, husks Achyronychia Achyrony'chia (ak-i-ron-EE-kee-a) Greek αχυρον, akhuron, chaff, and onyx, onychos, nail or fingernail, referring to the chaffy sepals. Achyrophorus, achyrophorus -a -um chaff-bearer, from Greek αχυρο-φορο, achyro-phoro, in reference to the receptacular scales. Achyrospermum chaffy-seed, from Greek αχυρο-σπερµα, achyro-sperma. aci, acido-, acidus, -acidus Greek ακις, akis, a point, a barb, a needle. acianthus with pointed flowers, from Latin acus-anthus. -acias New Latin -acias, -tendency. acicul-, acicula, -acicula Latin aciculum, a small needle acicularifolius -a -um with needle-like leaves, from Latin aciculus-folium, having acicles, dimimutive of acus, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. acicularis -is -e acicular'is (classically a-kik-ew-LAH-ris, or a-sik-yoo-LARE-is) needle-like, needle-shaped, like a pin or needle, from Latin acicula, a small pin for a head-dress, and -aris, from –alis, of, or pertaining to, needleshaped, needle pointed, slender; or diminutive of acus, acis, aci-. Many authors lump aciculatus and acicularis together. aciculatus -a -um finely marked as with needle scratches, diminutive from Latin acus. aciculine -a -um finely marked as with needle scratches, diminutive from Latin acus. aciculus -a -um sharply pointed, diminutive of Latin acus, as in leaf tips. acid Latin acidus, sour, sharp. acid-, acidno Greek ακιδνος, akidnos, weak, feeble, insipid. Acidanthera pointed anthers, from Greek ακις-ανθερα, akis-anthera. acidissimus -a -um very sour or very sharp tasted, superlative of Latin acidus. acidosus -a -um acid, sharp, sour, from Latin acidus. acidotus -a -um sharp-spined, from Greek ακιδωτος, akidotos. acidulus slightly acid, from Latin acidus -a -um acid, sour-tasting, from Latin aceo, acere. acifer, aciferus needle-bearing

acifolius with leaves like needles, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aciformis needle-shaped acin- Greek ακαινα, akaina, a thorn, a goad. acin-, acini, acino, acinus, -acinus Latin acinus, a berry, cluster of grapes. acina-, acinac-, acinaces, -acinaces Latin acinaces, a short sword. acinaceus -a -um saber or scimitar shaped, like a scimitar, from Latin acinices, acinacis; or full of kernels, from Latin acinus-aceous. acinacifolius -a -um scimitar-leaved, with leaves like swords, long sabres, or scimitars, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf.. acinaciformis scimitar-shaped, sword-shaped (two-edged) acinet- Greek ακινητος, akinetos, motionless, unmoved, steadfast. acinifolius -a -um Acinos-leaved, basil-thyme-leaved, from Latin Acinos-folium. aciniformis -is -e dagger-shaped, from acinaces-forma, for the leaves of the Hottentot fig. acinitus acinoides resembling balm, field calamint, Calamintha acinos. Acinos Greek, ακινος, akinos, Dioscorides’ name for a heavily scented calamint (Clinopodium or Satureja) acinos an aromatic herb mentioned by Pliny, variously ascribed to be wild basil, basil-thyme; a grape acinos, acinosus -a -um Acinos-like, berried. acinosus full of pips, kernels (?); like grapes acinus Latin acinus, a berry or grape. Acioa pointed, from Latin acus, for the needle-toothed bracts of some species. -acious English suffix, abounding in. acipenser, acipenser Latin the sturgeon Aciphylla, aciphyllus -a -um needle leaved, pointed leaf, from ακις-φυλλον, akis-phyllon. acis, -acis, acidis Greek ἀκις, akis, ἀκιδος, akidos, f., pointed object, something pointed, a point, barb. acladotes twigless or branchless Acleisanthes from Greek a, without, cleis, thing that closes, and anthos, flower; alluding to lack of involucre acli, aclid, aclis, -aclis Latin aclys, a small javelin aclysto Greek ακλυστος, aklystos, sheltered. acm-, acma, -acma, acme Greek άκµη, akme, f. the highest point of anything; a point, edge, prime, climax. acmae-, acmaeo- Greek ακµαζω, akmazo, flourishing, abonding in; mature. Acmella a Singhalese name for a plant now known as Blainvillea acmella (Linnaeus) Philipson, alphabetplant, formerly Spilanthes acmella Acmella, acmellus -a -um of the best, or pointed; vigorous, from Greek ακµη, akme(η?). Alternately from Greek ἀκµή, akme, a point, a possible reference to the sharp taste of the foliage. (Compositae) acmeto- Greek ακµητος, akmetos, untiring, unwearied. Acmispon Acmis'pon (ak-MIS-pon) acmo- pointed-, from Greek ακµη, akme(η?) (followed by a part of a plant), anvil-shaped. acmodontis with pointed teeth acmon, -acmon, acmono Greek ακµον, akmon, an anvil, pestle, head of a battering ram. acmonotrichus with pointed hairs acmopetalus -a -um pointed petaled, with petals shaped like the pointed part of an anvil, from Greek ακµηπεταλον, akme-petalon. acmophyllus with pointed leaves, Greek ακµη-φυλλον, akme-phyllon, a leaf. acmosepalus -a -um with pointed sepals, with sepals shaped like the pointed part of an anvil, from Greek ακµη-σκεπη, akme-skepe. Acnida New Latin, from a- and Greek knidē nettle, sea nettle acniso- Greek ακνισος, aknisos, lacking in fat, lean, meager, spare. aco Greek ακος, akos, a cure, remedy, relief acoca Greek ακωκη, akona, a sharp point. Acoelorraphe Greek α-κοιλος-ραφη, α, a-, without, κοιλος, coelos, hollow, and ραφη, raphe, seam, in reference to shape of the seed, or for the ovules separate. acoet-, acoetes, -acoutes Greek ακοιτης, akoites, a bedfellow, spouse, husband, wife. Acokanthera pointed anther, from Greek ακοκε-ανθερα, akoke-anthera. acolo- Greek ακολος, akolos, a morsel, a little bit. acoluth- acolutho- Greek ακολουθος, akolouthos, following after, succeeding.

aconio- Greek ακονιας, akonias, a kind of fish. aconitifolius -a -um aconite-leaved, with the leaves of Aconitum, Monkshood, from Aconitum and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Aconitum from the Latin name, aconitum, the Monk's Hood, a poisonous plant, from ancient Greek ακονιτον, akoniton, loosely translated as unconquerable poison or according to Pliny, the name aconite is from the Black Sea port of Aconis. Alternately from the Greek name akonite, without dirt, or άκονῖτος, akinitos, without dust, because the plant grew in rocky soil or on dry rocks; alternately from Latin lycoctonum, lykoktonon, Greek lykoton, from lykos, wolf, and the base of kteinen, to kill, wolf-slaying, referring to the plant’s use as an arrow poison when hunting wolves. According to Gledhill, Aconitum is the name of a hill in Pontus, used by Theophrastus for the poison aconite, ακονιτον. (Aconitum lycoctonum) (Ranunculaceae) Aconogonon from Greek ακον, acon, whetstone, and γονη, gone, seed or offspring, possibly referring to rough seeds. acont-, aconti, acontum, -acontum, aconto- Greek ακωντιον, akontion, a javelin, a small javelin, dart. acoresto Greek ακορεστς, insatiable, unsatisfied. acoroides resembling Acorus, resembling calamus, Acorus calamus, from ακορον-οειδες, akoron-oeides. Acorus classically A-ko-rus, or a-KO-rus, New Latin, from Latin, an aromatic plant (perhaps sweet flag), from Greek ακορος, akoros, classical name for Iris pseudoacorus; or akoron, presumed name of an ancient plant. From Dioscorides name for an iris, Greek, ακορον, akoron, from a, without, and core, the pupil of the eye, for the plants use in treating eye diseases, particularly cataracts. acost-, acosta, -acosta Greek ακοστη, akosta, barley acostae without ribs, veinless, from Latin a- and costa, costae. Acourtia Acour'tia (ak-UR-tee-a) for Mrs. A’Court, a British amateur botanist acous-, acoust Greek ακουω, akouo, hear; heard. acoustic Greek ακουστικος, akoustikos, pert hearing. acpunctus -a -um spotted above, with spots towards the apex, from Latin ac-(pungo, pugere, pupugi, punctum). acr-, acra, -acra, acre Greek ακρα, akra, ακρη, akre, highest or farthest point, end, extremity, at the apex. acr-, acra, acro- summit-, highest-, from Greek ακρα, akra, ακρις, akris, ακρο-, akro-, (followed by a noun or verb). acr-, acri Latin acri-, sharp, keen. acracanthrus -a -um spined-tipped, from ακρο-ακαντος, akro-akantos. Acrachne apical-chaff, from Greek ακρ-αχνη, akr-achne(η?) (the racemes radiate more than the length of the axis bearing them). Acradenia, acradenius -a -um acrade'nius (ak-ra-DEE-nee-us) apical gland, from Greek ακρ-αδην, akr-aden, gland-tipped. acraeus -a -um of windy places, of hilltops, from Greek ακρης, akres; living on the heights. acranto- Greek ακραντος, akrantos, futile, fruitless, idle. acras- Greek ακρασια, akrasia, incontinence, intemperence, bad mixture. acraspeda- Greek ακρασπδος(?-πεδος?) akraspdos(?-pedos?), without fringes. acrato- Greek ακρατος, akratos, pure, unmixed, pure, undiluted. acre from Middle English, from Old English æcer; akin to Old High German ackar field, Old Norse akr arable land, Gothic akrs field, Latin ager, Greek αγρος, agros, Sanskrit ajra, Latin agere to drive. (MWU) acremono Greek ακρεµον, akremon, a bough, a branch, a spray. acreus -a -um of high places, of the summit, from Greek ακρα, akra. acri-, acrid, acris, -acris Greek ακρις, akris, hilltop, mountain peak; a locust, grasshopper. acrib-, acribo- Greek ακριβεια, akribeia, exactness, precision. acrido- Greek ακρις, akris, ακιδος, akidos, ακιδιον, akidion, a locust, grasshopper, cricket. Acridocarpus locust-fruit, from Greek ακρις, akris, ακριδος, akridos, and καρπος, karpos. acrifolius -a -um sharp-leaved, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. acris Greek ακρις, akris, hill top, mountain peak. acris, acre sharp-tasted, acrid, see acer (some times used as masculine, see acer.) acrit-, acrito Greek ακριτος, akritos, for confused, unarranged, disorderly, indistinguishable. Acritochaete entangled-hair, from Greek α-κριτος-χαιτη, a-kritos-chaite, for the hispidulous upper glume and lower lemma have entangled awns. acro- Greek topmost, the tip, summit-, apex-, referring to the top of an entity, height, from ακρα, akra. acro- Greek ακρον, akrop, ακρος, akros, height, top, extremity, pointed, apex, summmit.

acrobaticus -a -um walking on points, twining and climbing, from Greek ακρο-βεινιν, akro-beinin, ακροβατες, akrobates. Acrobolus apical bulb, from Greek ακρα-βολβος, akra-bolbos, for the archegonia are surrounded by minute leaves at the apex of the stem. acrocarpus with pointed fruits; with rough fruits; with terminal fruits Acroceras Apex horn, from Greek ακρα-κερας, akra-keras, for the glumes having an excurrent vein at the tip. Acrocomia hair at the top, from Greek ακρον, akron, summit, and κοµη, kome, hairs of the head, in reference to the high crown of leaves; akrokomos, with leaves at the top, said especially a palm genus with pinnate leaves, when viewed from a distance acrolasius rough-woolly acrolepis -is -e scale-tipped, from ακρο-λεπις, akro-lepis, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. acromi-, acromo-, acromom, -acromom Greek for the point of the shoulder blade acropetalus with pointed petals Acroptilon Acrop'tilon (a-KROP-ti-lon) Greek akron, tip, and ptilon, wing or feather, soft feather for the pappus bristles acros Greek ἀκρος, akros, at the tip, end, summit acrostachyus, acrostachus with rough ears or spikes acrostichoides a-kro-sti-KOI-deez resembling Acrostichium, elk’s-horn fern, a related genus, from Greek ακρος, acros, extreme, upper, topmost, -o-, Greek connective vowel, and στιξ, stix, a row, line, rank, and oides, -οειδες, like, resemble. Acrostichum upper spotted, from Greek ακρος, acros, at the end, tip, and στικτος, stichos, row, referring to the distal spore-bearing pinnae, the sori cover the backs or whole of the upper pinnae. acrotriche hairy-lipped?? in one source but see below acrotrichus -a -um with pointed hairs, hair tipped, from ακρο-τριχος, akro-trichos, for the apical tufts of leaves. act-, acta, -acta, acte, acti Greek ακτη, akta(η?), the beach, seashore, headland, promintory. actaeo- Greek ακταιος, aktaios, on the coast or the seashore. Actaea Actae'a (ak-TEE-a) from Pliny, from Greek ακτεα, ακταια, aktea, aktaia, an old name for the elder (Sambucus nigra), for the similar leaves, and from its wet habitat, or for the leaves or the fruits. Alternately Latin actaea from Pliny, for a strong-smelling plant, herb Christopher. Fruit of both species of Actaea is poisonous, or at least unpalatable. (Ranunculaceae) actaeifolius -a -um Actaea-leaved, from Actaea and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. actaeoides resembling bane-berry, herb Christopher, Actaea acti-, actin-, actino, actis, -actis Greek ακτις, aktis, a ray, a beam of sun. actin-, actino- referring to a ray, radiating, ray-, light-, splendour-, from ακτις, aktis, ακτινος, aktinos, ακτινο-, aktino-, (followed by a part of a plant.) (Actinidia, the Kiwi Fruit; cut one across and see the rayed arrangement of the carpels (ovaries) actinacanthus -a -um ray-spined, from Greek ακτις- ακανθα, aktis-akantha, or with fascicles of thorns, in one source as with ray-like clusters Actinea from Greek ακτιν-, aktin-, a ray. Actinella little ray, the diminutive form of ακτις, aktis, a ray, for the capitulum. Actinia sea-anemone, from Greek ακτιν-, aktin-, a ray. actineus, -a -um, actinia sea anemone, with a notable radial structure, rayed, from Greek ακτις, aktis. Actinidia rayed, from ακτις, aktis, ακτινος, aktinos, refering to the radiate styles. (Actinidiaceae) Actinidiaceae plants of the kiwifruit family, from the genus name, Actinidia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. actinioides resembling Actinidia, from Actinidia-oides. Actiniopterus rayed fern, from ακτινο-πτερυξ, aktino-pteryx, for the digitate fronds. actinius -a -um sea anemone-like, with radial form, of the beach, from ακτη, akte. actinocarpus -a -um from Greek ακτινο, actino, ray and καρπος, karpos, fruit, for the fruit with radial carpels as the spokes of a wheel. Actinomeris partially radiate, from Greek ακτις, ἀκτίν, aktis, aktin, a ray and µέρος, meris, a part, for the irregular rays. (Compositae) actinomorphus ray-like formation

actinophyllus -a -um with radiating leaves, rayed leaves, with ray-like leaves, from ακτινο-φυλλον, aktinophyllon, a leaf. actinosus full of rays; glorious Actinotus rayed, from ακτινος, aktinos, for the involucre. Actis, actinos Greek ἀκτις, aktis, ἀκτινος, aktinos, ray. actit-, actito-, actites, -actites Greek ακτιτης, aktines, of or inhabiting the sea shore, a shore or coast dweller. actoni ac'toni (AK-ton-eye) actuos- Latin actuosus, lively, active acu- pointed, acute, sharp like a needle, from Latin acus. acu-, acus, -acus Latin a needle acu-, acus- Latin acumen, a sharp point, a point, cunning. acu-, acust Greek hear, heard acualis -is -e a-KAW-lis stemless, from Greek ἀ, a not, without, less, and καυλος, kaulos, the stem of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. Acuan acuarius -a -um prickly, with small needles, from Latin acus. acuatus -a -um sharpened, with sharp edges, from Latin acuo, acuere, acui, acutum. acul-, aculus Latin aculeus, a prickle, a sting, a point. acule, aculeus, -aculeus Latin a sting, thorn aculea Latin aculeate, stinging. aculeatissimus Latin superlative very prickley. aculeatus -a -um prickley, having prickles, thorny, with thorns prickly and pointed, stinging, from Latin aculeus, aculei; cognate with eglantine, aiglentina. aculeolatus -a -um having small prickles or small thorns, comparative from aculeus (?Gledhill?). -aculum n. Latin indicates an instrument or means, used with a verb base. aculiosus -a -um decidedly prickly, comparative from aculeus (?) (Gledhill) acumin-, acumina Latin acuminatus, sharpened; a point; pointed acuminatifolius -a -um Latin acuminate-leaved, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. acuminatissimus -a -um Latin superlative very acuminate. acuminatus -a -um acumina'tus (ak-yoo-min-AY-tus) Latin acuminate, long-pointed, pointed, tapering to a narrow point, with a long, narrow and pointed tip, from Latin acumen, acuminis. acuminosus -a -um with a conspicuous long flat pointed apex, from Latin acumen, acuminis. acus, aceris n. Latin noun, husks of grain or beans, chaff. acus, acus f. Latin noun, a needle, pin; hair-pin; pipefish, needlefish; detail; plural means husks or chaff . acus, -acus Latin acus, a needle or pin; a bodkin (a short pointed weapon). -acus Latin suffix -acus, ‘in connection with’. acus, -acus Greek a cure, remedy, relief acust- Greek hear; heard, of hearing acut, acut- Latin acutus, sharp, sharpened, pointed, acute. acute Latin acutely acutangulus -a -um acutely angled, acute pointed angle, with sharp edges, from Latin acutus-angulus. acutatus sharpened, somewhat sharp acutidens acu'tidens (ak-YOO-ti-dens) sharply-toothed, from Latin acutus and dens, dentis. acutifidus acutely cut acutiflorus -a -um with pointed petals, acute flowered, with pointed flowers, with sharply pointed flowers, from Latin acutus and floreo, florere, florui. acutifolius -a -um with acute leaves, sharply-leaved, with sharply pointed leaves, from Latin acutus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. acutiformis -is -e acute-shaped, in the shape of a point, from Latin acutus and formis, often a reference to leaf shape; with the form of Carex acutus. acutilobus -a -um with pointed lobes, or acutely lobed, from Latin acutus, sharpened, sharp pointed, -iconnective vowel used by botanical Latin, and Greek λοβος, lobos, lobe of the ear; late Latin: husk, pod, and – us, Latinizing suffix. acutipetalus Latin with pointed petals acutiserrata acutely serrate, sharp pointed, saw-like, serrated, saw toothed acutissimus -a -um very pointed, most pointed, very sharp, sharpest, very acute, superlative of acutus.

acutiusculus sharply pointed acutus -a -um, acuti- acu'tus (ak-YOO-tus) acutely angled, acutely pointed, sharp, tapering to a point, made pointed, sharply angled at the top, from Latin acutus. acylo- Greek ακυλος, akylos, an acorn of the holm oak, Quercus ilex. ad, ad-, as- Latin preposition and prefix, at, to-, towards-, near-, compared with-, into, on, onto, from Latin ad (ads- often becomes as-, as adscendo becomes ascendo). ad- Anglo Saxon suffix towards. -ad Greek -αδ, -ad, Latin -ad, suffix ‘to’, towards, near. Ad astra per alia porci Latin "to the stars on the wings of a pig" A favorite saying of John Stienbeck. One of his professors told him that he would be an author when pigs flew. Every book he wrote was printed with this insignia. ad hoc Latin for this purpose ad hominem Latin dealing with an individual Ad rem Latin dealing with an issue Ad infinitum indefinitely, from Latin until infinite ad libitum off the cuff, from Latin at pleasure ad nauseum endlessly, from Latin until sickness adam- Latin adamus, Greek αδαµας, adamas, unconquerable, -hence the hardest of metals; diamond. adama-, adamanto Greek unconquerable; diamond; iron adamantinus -a -um diamond-like, hard, steely, from Greek αδαµαντινος, adamantinos, Latin adamas, adamantis; adamanteus, adamantinus; also from Diamond Lake, Oregon, USA, or from Brazil. adamantis -is -e from Diamond Head, Hawaii, from Latin adamas, adamantis, diamond. adamantinus -a -um adamant, unyielding, impenetrable, from Latin adamanteus, adamantinus. adamast- Greek αδαµαστος, adamastos, untamed, unconquered. adamsii ad'amsii (AD-ams-ee-eye) adanensis -is -e from Adana, Turkey. Adansonia for Michel Adanson (1727-1806), French botanist in Senegal, author of Familes des Plantes (1763), who used anatomy and statistics in his work: the baobab tree genus. adap- Latin adaperire, to fully open. adapi- New Latin Adap-is, a rabbit, of unknown origin, an extinct genus of lemur-like primates. adapt- Latin adaptare, to fit to. adarca, adarcae f., or adarce, adarces f. Latin noun, a salty deposit or effolescence on reeds; froth on sedge forming spongy growth. adauctus multiplied, increased addict- Latin devoted, compelled addisonii adduct- Latin adductus, stretched, strained, contracted. adductus -a -um fused together, from Latin adduco, adducere, adduxi, adductum. ade Greek αδεια, adeia, enough, abundant, abundantly; to be sated. -ade, -ad Latin suffix pertaining to, relating to, akin to, made of. adeag- Greek αιδοια, aidoia, genitals. adecto- Greek αδηκτος, adektos, not recieved, incredible. adel-, adelo- Greek unknown, secret, unseen, invisible, obscure, concealed, uncertain, from αδηλος, adelos. Adelostigma obscure stigma, from Greek αδηλος, adelos, unseen or obscure, and στιγµα, stigma. adelph-, adelpho-, adelphus, -adelphus Greek a brother, kinsman, colleague, brotherly, fellow-like, coupled, from αδελφος, adelphos, relating to features of the stamens or androecium. adelphicus -a -um being brothers, brotherly, coupled, appearing in pairs, closely related, from Greek αδελφος, adelphos. -aden Greek combining form suffix, -ἀδήν, -aden, gland, from ἀδήν, ἀδένα, aden, adena, an acorn, a gland. aden, -aden, adeno- Greek a gland, gland-, glandular-, from αδην-, aden-, αδηνος, adenos, αδηνο- adeno-. adenanthus a -um with glandular flowers, from αδην, aden, a gland and ανθος, anthos. Adenium from Aden, for the provenence of one species. Adeno, adenos Greek ἀδην, aden, ἀδενος, adenos, f. gland, referring to a gland adenocalycus, adenocalyx with glandular calyx, studded with glands from Greek αδηνο- adeno-, and καλυξ, kalyx.

Adenocarpus, adenocarpus -a -um gland-fruit, with glandular fruits, with sticky fruits, from Greek αδηνοκαρπος, adeno-karpos, for the glandular pod. Adenocaulon, adenocaulon, adenocaulis -is -e with a glandular stem, or glands stipitate, from Greek αδην, aden,gland, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλός, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. (Compositae) adenochaetus -a -um with long glandular hair, from Greek αδηνο-χαιτη, adeno-chaite(η?), gland and long hair or bristle. adenodes with glandular knots, from Greek αδην-, aden-, a gland, and Latin nodus, knot. adenogynus -a -um with a glandular ovary, with a sticky glandular ovary, from Greek αδηνο-γυνη, adeno-, a gland, and gyne, woman, female. Adenophora, adenophorus -a -um adenoph'orus (ad-en-OFF-or-us) bearing glands, gland-bearing, from Greek αδηνο-φορα, adeno-, a gland, and phora, bearing, carry. Adenophyllus, adenophyllus -a -um Adenophyl'lus (ad-en-oh-FIL-us) with glandular leaves, with glands on the leaves, or with sticky leaves, from Greek αδηνο-φυλλον, adeno-, a gland, and phyllon, a leaf. adenopodos, adenopodus -a -um glandular-stemmed, or glandular-footed, from Greek αδηνο-ποδιον, adeno, a gland, and podion, a small foot, a base or pedestal. adenopteris with glandular wings, from Greek αδηνο- adeno-, a gland, and πτερον, pteron, a wing, a feather. adenopus having glandular petiole or glandular peduncle, from Greek αδηνο- adeno-, a gland, and πούς, pous foot. adenorrhachis with glandular ribs, or glandular veins, from Greek αδηνο- adeno-, a gland, and ῥάχις, rhachis, the spine, the backbone. adenoscepes with a glandular surface, from Greek αδηνο-σκεπη, adeno-, a gland, and skepe, a covering. Adenostemma glandular-crown, from Greek αδηνο-στεµµα, adeno-, a gland, and stemma, garland, from στέφειν, stephein, to crown. Adenostoma Adenosto'ma (ad-en-OS-to-ma) Adenostyles glandular styles, from Greek αδηνο-στυλος, adeno-, a gland, and stylos, a pillar or pole (actually for the stigmatic arms). adenosus -a -um glandular, comparative from Greek αδηνος, adenos, a gland. adenothrix glandular hairy, from Greek αδηνο-θριχ, adeno-, a gland, glandular, and thrix, hair. adenotrichus -a -um with glandular hairy, from Greek αδηνο-τριχος, adeno-, a gland, and trichos, hair. adephag-, adephago- gluttonous, greedy, from Greek αδηφαγος, adephagos, voracious, from ἀδην, aden, enough, and Latin -phagus, Greek φαγος, -phagos, -eating. Adephaga is a genus of carnivorous beetles. adep-, adeps, -adeps, adip, adipo from Latin adeps, fluid fat, grease. adept- Latin adeptus, proficient, having attained, from the participle of adipisci, to attain, acquire, from ad, to, at, and ap-, to get. aderco- invisible, unexpected from Greek αδερκης, aderkes. adercto not seeing, from Greek αδερκτος, aderktos. -ades Greek -αδες, -ades, a patrnymic suffix indicating ‘son of’, ‘descendant of’. Adeste fideles “O come, all ye faithful!” origin unknown adet-, adeto- free, loose, from Greek αδετος, adetos. adfinis -is -e related, related by marriage, connected to, from Latin adfinis. adglutinatus grown together adhaerens clinging to, staying close, adhering, attached, attaching itself, from present participle from Latin adhaero, adhaerere, adhaesi, adhaesum, cognate with adhere and adhesive. Adhatoda, adhatoda from the Brazilian vernacular name for A. cydonifolia. adhe- to cling to, to stick to, from Latin adhaere. adhoc, adhuc Latin adverb until now, as yet, thus far, to this point. adiantifolius -a -um with Adiantum-like foliage, maiden-haired-leaved, Adiantum, from Latin Adiantum, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. adiantoides adiantum-like, like Adiantum, Maidenhair Fern, maiden hair-like. Adiantum Adian'tum (ad-ee-AN-tum) from Greek αδιαντος, adiantos, unwetted, referring to the way the glabrous fronds repel water, from the old Greek name αδιαντον, adiantov, refering to its staying unwetted under water. (Adiantaceae) Adiantaceae plants of the Maidenhair Fern family, from the genus name, Adiantum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. adiantum, adianti n. Latin noun, maidenhair, Capillus Veneris, a type of fern; also called callitrichos/on.

Adiantum-nigrum black-spleenwort, from Greek αδιαντον, adiantov, in reference to the lower rachis. adico- injurious, unjust, from Greek αδικος, adikos. Adina crowded, from Greek αδινος, adinos, for the flowering head. adinstar, ad instar Latin undeclined adjective, like, after the fashion of; according to the likeness of; about. adipo- Latin fat adiposus -a -um greasy, fat, oily; corpulent, from Latin noun adeps, adepis c.; adips, adipis c. fat, lard, grease; fatty tissue; bombast; corpulence, obesity (pl.). adipson, adipsi n. Latin noun, licorice. adipsos, adipsi f. Latin noun, a kind of Egyptian date; licorice (?). adir- from Latin adire, to approach, possibly (?) from the verb adito, aditare, aditavi, aditatus, approach often/frequently/habitually adirondackensis of or pertaining to the Adirondack Mountains adit- from Latin aditus, entrance. adjacens neighboring, adjacent to, at the border, lying close to, from Latin adiaceo, adiacere, adiacui, indicating a systematic relationship. adjustus -a -um adligans hanging on, attached, as by aerial holdfasts of ivy Adlumia New Latin, from Major John Adlum (1759-1836), American horticulturist and pioneer in viticulture and New Latin -ia. Born in York, Pa., died in Georgetown, D.C. A genus of vining bleeding hearts. (Fumariaceae) adminicul-, adminiculor, -adminiculor from Latin adminiculum, a support, prop. admirabilis -is -e admirable, to be admired, uncommon, wonderful, noteworthy, from Latin admiror, admirari, admiratus. admotum quite adnascens joined to, adnate; growing to or upon something else, growing on or with, present participle of Latin ad-(nascor, nasci, natus). adnat- from Latin adnatus, united with, joined to. adnatus -a -um attached through the whole length, joined to, adnate; growing to or upon something else, from Latin ad-(nascor, nasci, natus). adnex bound to, annexed, from Latin adnectere, to bind to, to connect with. adoceto- Greek αδοκητος, adoketos, unexpected. adocimo- Greek αδοκιµος, adokimos, false, spurious, base, not legal, unsatisfactory. adoensis from Aden in Arabia adol-, adolo- Greek αδολος, adolos, honest, guiless, genuine, pure. adolesc- growing up, from Latin adolescere, to grow up. Adolphia Adol'phia (ad-OL-fee-a) adoneus -a -um Adonis-like, resembling pheasant’s eye. adonidifolius Adonis-leaved, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Adonis from Greek mythology, the flower called Adonium that sprouted from the blood of Adonis, Greek god, lover of Aphrodite (Venus), wounded and killed by a wild boar, an allusion to the blood red flowers. (Ranunculaceae) ador Latin noun, a kind of pure wheat, from Greek α, not, and δύρυ, duru, a spear ‘this corn being without beard or spear;; alternately from athor, from ὰθὴρ, ather, a beard of corn. Also suggested to be from adoro. adore-, adoreus Latin adoris, a grain, spelt, Triticum spelta. adornatus adorned, beautiful adorno Latin adornatus, decorate, embellish. ados Greek αδος, ados, loathing, satiety. adox-, adoxo- Greek αδοξος, adoxos, obscure, ignoble, despised; insignificant; disreputable. Adoxa without-glory, from α-δοξα, a-doxa, in reference to its small greenish flowers. Adoxaceae Adoxa'ceae (ad-ox-AY-see-ee) plants of the Moschatel, Adoxa family, from the genus name, Adoxa, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. adoxoides resembling Adoxa, from α-δοξα-οειδης, a-doxa-oeides. adpressipilosus -a -um with closely flat-lying indumentum, adpressed hairy, from Latin adpressus and pilosum. adpressus -a -um pressed against or together, pressed on, lying flat against, fitting close to, as in the hairs on a stem, from Latin ad-(premo, premere, pressi, pressum).

adr-, adro- Greek αδρος, adros, thick, stout, bulky. adran- Greek αδρανης, adranes, feeble, impotent; listless. adras Latin adradere, to shave, to scrape away. adria Greek Αδριας, Adrias, the Adriatic. adriaticus -a -um from the Adriatic region, from Latin Hadriaticus. Adromischus stout-stemmed, from Greek αδρος-µισχος, adros-mischos, sturdy, grown up. adroseus -a -um near roseus -a -um, from Latin ad and roseus. adscendens ascending, rising upwards, curving up from a prostrate base, half-erect, from Latin ascendo, ascendere, ascendi, ascentum. Some lump ascendens into this, which see. adscensionis adscension'is (ad-sen-see-OWN-is) adscitus -a -um assumed, acquired, alien, from Latin ad-(scisco, sciscere, scivi, scitum). adsimilis -is -e similar to, imitating, comparable with, from Latin adsimulo, adsimulare, adsimulavi, adsimulatum (see assimilis). adspersus -a -um besprinkled, besplattered; sprayed, sprinkled, past participle of Latin aspergo, aspergere, aspersi, aspersum. adstringens drawn together, constricted, tightened, binding, from Latin ad-(stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictum). adsurgens adsur'gens (ad-SIR-jens) ascending, erect, upright, rising up, arising, standing up, from Latin ad(surgo, surgere, surrecxi, surrectum). adul-, adula- Latin adulare, to flatter, to fawn, to cringe before. adult- Latin adultus, fully grown, grown up. adulter- Latin adulterare, to corrupt, to pollute, to defile. adulterinus -a -um of adultery, adulterated, unreal, not genuine, forged, from Latin adulterinus, a term for a species intermediate between two other species suggesting hybridity, as Asplenium adulterinum. adultus Latin adult, grown up adun-, adunat Greek αδυνατεω, adunateo, without strength. aduncus -a -um adun'cus (a-DUNK-us) Latin adjective hooked, bent like a hook, having hooks, hooked; curved from Latin ad- and uncus. adust- Latin adustus, burned, sunburnt, tanned. adustus -a -um with a singed or burnt appearance, fulginous, soot colored, sun browned, from Latin ad and uro, urere, ussi, ustum, to scorch, cauterize, or to inflame. adve Latin advehere, to carry to. adven Latin advenire, to arrive. adventicius -a -um come from abroad, foreign, adventitious, by chance, accidental, out of the ordinary, applied to plants lately introduced, from Latin advenire to come, arrive, and -itius adjectival suffix indicating the result of an action. adventit Latin coming to adventit Latin adventitius, extraordinary. adventus -a -um approach, arrival, from Latin ad- and venio, venire, veni, ventum, a reference to a recent mutant or sport. advenus -a -um (ad-VEN-us) alien, exotic, stranger, foreign, adventive, newly arrived from Latin advenusa adventive, foreign, from Latin, advenus, advena, foreign; or from advenuus? adversarius Latin grown to one side or turning to one side adversalis, adversus turned towards one side adversifolius having leaves opposite to each other, from ,and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. adversispinus with thorns opposite to each other advert Latin advertere, turn towards. advocatus diaboli devil’s advocate, one who argues against a canonization. adzaharicus -a -um from Adzhariya, Georgia, near the Turkish border (Batumi). ae see also ai, e, or oe -ae Latin -ae, a suffix making forms plural. -ae, -aea, -eaum, -aeus Latin suffix of, belonging to, pertaining to. aechm-, aechma, -aechma, aechmo Greek αιχµη, aichma, a spear, the point of a spear, an arrow. Achmea pointed, from αιχµη, aichme(η?), αιχµο-, aichmo-, a point, edge or lance. aeci-, aecia, aecidi Greek an injury, Modern Latin diminutive of Greek αἰκία, aikia, injury; Greek αικια, aikia, torture, assalt, suffering, outrage.

aed- Greek αιδοια, aidoia, the genitals. aed-, aedes, aedi Latin aedes, temple; a dwelling, from ædēs a dwelling, or ædes a temple; a building, room, temple, the cell of bees. aedeag New Latin aedaeg, the genitals. -aedes Greek αηδης, aedes, disagreeable, unpleasant, nauseous. aedo- Greek αιδως, aidos, reverence, awe, shame. aedoe-, aedoeo- Greek αιδοιος, aidoios, having a claim to regard, reverence, compassion. aedoe-, aedoeo Greek regard with reverence; the genitals (badly lumped reference). -aedon Greek αηδων, aedon, a nightingale aegaeus -a -um of the Aegean region, from the Greek archipelago, from Latin Aegaeus, adopted from Greek Αἰγαῖος, Aigaios, Aegean. aefter Anglo Saxon farther away, behind. aeger-, aegeri Latin mythology a nymph aegi-, aegidi, aegis Latin a shield, protection, a bulwark, from ægis, adopted from Greek αἰγίς, aigis, of uncertain etymology, but see aegis. aegi-, aego Greek a goat, from αἴξ, αἶγα, αιγι-, aix, aiga, aigi-, goat. aegial-, aegialo, aegialus, -aegialus Greek αιγιαλος, aigialos, the seashore, beach. Aegiceras goat’s-horn, from αιξ-κερας, aix-keras, for the shape of the horn. Aegilops Ae'gilops (EE-gil-ops) New Latin, from Latin ægilops, from Greek αἰγίλωψ, aigilōps havergrass, from αἴξ, αἰγός, aix, aigos, a goat, αἴγῐλ-ος, aigil-os, an herb eaten by goats, and ὤψ, ops, eye, face; also a name for several plants, including Turkey oak, Quercus cerris (or Quercus ægilops) aegirophyllus with sea-green leaves Aegirus an ancient Greek name αιγειρος, aigeiros, for Populus nigra. aegis Greek αιγις, aigis, the shield of Zeus. aegith-, aegitho, aegithus Greek αιγιθος, aigithos, a hedge sparrow, a linnet, or similar bird, from αἴγιθος, aigithos, a name of an unknown bird. aegithus, aegithi m. Latin a small bird, blue tit; species of hawk. Aegithallos goat’s shoot, from Greek αιξ, aix, and θαλλος, thallos. aegl- Greek αιγλη, aigla (η?), radiance, splendor, glory; shining, splendid. aegl- Greek αιγλη, aigla (η?), a nymph, daughter of Zeus and Neara. Aegle one of the Hesperides, or the daughters of Hesperus, of mythology, who helped guard the golden apples in the Isles of the Blest, beyond the Pillars of Hercules. “Their names are, Æglé,Brightness; Erytheia,Blushing; Hestia, the (spirit of the) Hearth; Arethusa, the Ministering.” aego- Greek a goat, from αἴξ, αἶγα, αιγος, aix, aiga, aigos, a goat. aegocephalus, aegocephali m. Latin a species of bird, possibly the horned owl, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. aegoceras, aegoceratos/is n., Latin noun, fenugreek, Greek hay; flour from seeds, herb medicine, pickled as a dainty. aegoceros, aegocerotis m. Latin a wild goat; poetically for sign of zodiac - Capricorn. aegolethron, aegolethri n. Latin a plant supposed to be injurious to goats, possibly Azalea pontica; goat's bane. aegolios, aegolii m. Latin a species of owl. aegonychos, aegonychi f. Latin name of a plant, lithospermon; goat's hoof. aegopod- Greek goat-foot, New Latin, from Greek αιγο-, αἴξ, αἶγα, αιγός, aigo-, aix, aiga, aigos, goat, New Latin -o- and πόδιον, podion, a small foot. aegopodioides resembling goutweed, Aegopodium Aegopodium New Latin, from Greek αιγο-, αἴξ, αἶγα, αιγός, aigo-, aix, aiga, aigos, goat, New Latin -o- and πόδιον, podion, a small foot; in reference to the shape of the leaflets. (Umbelliferae) aegr-, aegro Latin argere, to be sick, diseased, from Latin ægritūdo sickness, from Latin æger, sick. aegre unwilling, hardly, scarcely aegrostans wonderful, dreamlike aegrotat- in English universities, the name for an unclassified degree or certificate given to someone who is too sick to attend lectures or take exams, from 3rd pers. sing. of Latin ægrōtāre ‘he is sick’. aegypio- Greek αιγυπιος, aigypios, a vulture. aegypt, aegyptus, -aegyptus Latin Aegyptus, Egypt aegypticus -a -um, aegyptiacus Latin Egyptian, of Egyptian origin.

aelino- Greek αιλινος, ailinos, mournful, plaintive. aell-, aella, aello Greek αλλα, alla, a storm, stormy, wind, whirlwind, whirling motion. aelophilous -a -um wind loving, from Greek αελλο, aello, and φιλος, philos, for plants disseminated by the wind. aelur-, aeluro, aelurus a cat; tail-wagging, from Modern Latin Æluroidea neuter plural, from Greek αἴλουρος, ailoiros, a cat. Aeluropus creeping stalk, from Greek ειλυω, eiluo, and πους, pous, for the stoloniferous culms. aem-, aema, aemato, aemo Greek blood, from αἷµα, aima, blood. aema [heme] Greek αιµα, aima, blood. aema Greek αηµα, aema, wind, blast. aemulans jealous, rivaling, imitating, from Latin aemulus. aemulus -a -um emulative, imitating, rivaling, jealous, similar, comparable to, from Latin æmulāri, from æmulus, a rival. aen-, aeno Greek, dreadful, destructive, terrible. aene- Latin aeneus, bronze; bronze-colored aeneus -a -um bronze-like in color, bronzed, of bronze, copper or bronze; also for verdigris from Latin a(h)ēneus, brazen, from from aēneus of copper or bronze aeno- Greek αινος, ainos, tale, story, dread, horror. aeol- Latin and Greek mythology Αιολος, Æolus, god of the winds; changing, variable. aeol-, aeoli, aeolo Greek quick-moving, nimble, wriggling, shifting, from αἰόλος, aiolos, changeful. Aeolanthus wind flower, from Greek αελλω, aello, and αηθος, anthos, for its craggy, high-altitude, windswept habitat. aeon Greek αιων, aion, a period, an age, eternity. Aeonium eternity, the Latin name from the Greek αεναος, aenaos, from αει, aei, αιει, aiei, for ever. aeoreto- Greek αιορητος, aiopetos, suspended, hovering. aep-, aepi-, aepy- Greek tall, high, lofty, from αιπος, airos, αἰπύς, airus, high. aephnidio- Greek αιφνιδιος, aiphnidios, sudden, quick, unforeseen. aepsero- Greek αιψηρος, aipseros, quick, sudden, speedy. aepy- Greek prefix high, lofty, steep, tall. aequ- Latin aequor, a flat surface, e.g. a sea, plain, desert. aequa-, aequabil-, aequali, -aequali Latin aequus, equal, level, from æquābilis, equable. aequabilis, aequalis uniform, similar in size aequalis -is -e aequa'lis (ee-KWAY-lis) resembling, equal, like, uniform, from Latin æquālis, from æquus level, even, just. aequans of equal size, equal length aequator- referring to equatorial regions aequatorialis aeque in the manner, equally aequaliter uniformly, equally aequatorialis from the equatorial region aequi-, aequali-, equi- equally-, just as-, from aeque. aequidistans at equal intervals aequiformis uniform aequilateralis -is -e equal sided, of equal length, from Latin aeque- and latus, lateris. aequilaterus -a -um equal-sided, from Latin aeque- and latus, lateris. aequilobus with equal lobes aequinoctialis -is -e equinoctial, referring to an equinox, mid-tropical; pertaining to or of an equinox, from Latin aequinoctium, used of flowers which open and close at stated hours, or for the flowering time; also from equatorial (tropical) regions. aequinoctiianthus -a -um flowering at about the time of the equinox, from Latin aequinoctium and anthus. aequipetalus equal-petaled, with equal petals aequitrilobus -a -um equally three-lobed, with three equal lobes, from Latin aeque, tri, and lobus. aequoreus Latin aequoreus, of any smooth surface, from æquoreus, of the sea, from æquor sea. Æquorea æquorea is a luminescent jellyfish. aequoreus pertaining to a bog aer-, aerar-, aere- Latin aeris, of copper, money; copper and the alloy of copper, bronze.

aer Greek αηρ, aer, the air, atmosphere. aer-, aeri, aero air-, mist-, the air, atmosphere, from Latin aer, aeris, and Greek αηρ, aer, ἀερο-, aero, ερος, eros, (? Ἒρως, Eros, is the god of love, and eros is generally a reference to erotic love, as opposed to ἀγάπη, agape, brotherly love). aera, aerae f. Latin darnel, a weedy grass, grows among wheat, subject to ergot, thereby dangerous; parameter from which a calculation is made; item of account; era/epoch. Aerangis air vessel, from Greek αερ, aer, and αγγειον, aggeion (angeion) epiphytic orchids. Aeranthes air flower, from Greek αερ, aer, and ανθος, anthos, epiphytic orchids. aeranthos -os -on air-flower, from Greek αερ, aer, and ανθος, anthos, not ground rooted. Aeranthus air-flower, from Greek αερ, aer, and ανθος, anthos, for rootless epiphytes. aeratus -a -um bronzed, coppery, from aeratus. -aeresis Greek αιρεσις, airesis, suffix indicating take or taking. aereus -a -um copper colored, from aereus. aergos Greek αεργος, aergos, idle, not workng. Aerides of the air, from Greek αηρ, aer, and ειδης, eides, indicating epiphytic. aerinus -a -um Latin adjective connected with/of darnel (weed found with wheat); of air, aerial. āerius, āereus referring to the air, aërial, having roots above ground, or plants suspended above ground or water, classical Latin of or produced in the air, from ancient Greek ἀέριος, aerios, in the air, of the air, from ἀήρ, aer, air, and -ιος, -ios, adjectival suffix. aerius -a -um lofty, of the air, from Latin aerius. aersi Greek αειρω, aeiro, lift up, raise, in the air. aeruginascens turning verdigris colored, from aerugo, aeruginis. aerugineus -a -um, aeruginosus -a -um rusty, rusty-colored; or blue-green, verdegris colored, from classical Latin aerūginōsus rusty, from aerugo. aerugino Latin aeruginosus, greenish. aerugo rust of copper. aesal-, aesalum, -aesalum, aesalr-, aesalro- Greek αισαλον, aisalon, a kind of hawk, probably the merlin, a small falcon. aesalon, aesalonis m. Latin a species of hawk or falcon. aesch-, aescho- Greek shame, ugliness, from αἰσχυνόµενος, aischynomenos, ashamed, bashful; Greek αισχυνη, aischyne(η?) shame, dishonor. aesch-, aeschr-, aeschro-, aeschyn- Greek causing shame, from αἰσχὺνη disgrace; ugly; or Greek αισχροτης, aischrotes, ugliness, deformity. Aeschynanthus shame flower, from αἰσχυν, aischyn, and ανθος, anthos, in reference to the curved corolla suggesting a bowed head. aeschyno- reverent-, to be ashamed-, to deform-, from αισχος, aischos, αἰσχὺνη, aischyne, αισχυνω, aischyno. Aeschynomene deformed moon, from αισχυνω, aischyno, and µηνη, mene. Alternately Greek ᾳὶσχύνοµαι, aiskhynomai, to be modest, referring to the sensitive property. The leaves of Aeschynomene sensitiva fold when touched. A. aspera was the source of pith for pith helmets. (Leguminosae) aeschynomene, aeschynomenes f. Latin a plant which shrinks when touched, Mimosa pudica; sensitive plant. aescul-, aesculus, -aesculus Latin aesculus, the Italian or winter oak, the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastrum. aesculetum, aesculeti n. a forest of durmast or Hungarian or Italian oak; a district of Rome. aesculi- horse-chestnut like-, from Latin Aesculus. aesculifolius -a -um Aesculus-leaved, with leaves like the chestnut, Aesculus, from Latin Aesculus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Aesculus, Æscŭlus, Escŭlus Aes'culus (classically IES-ku-lus, or ES-kew-lus) New Latin, Linnaeus’ name from Latin, aesculus, aesculi, or esculus, for the durmast oak, an oak with edible acorns (alternately the beech, or bay oak or holm oak), from esca, or escul-, edible, from Greek αἰγίλοψ, aigilops, havergrass, Turkey oak. Alternately from Greek αἰγίλοψ, aigilops, a kind of beech, hence Latin ægilus, æcilis, then æsculus. Related to Greek φηγὸς, phegos. The Turks are reputed to have used ‘conkers’ or horsechestnuts of Aesculus hippocastrum in the treatment of bruising in horses, the nuts having the principle aescin, that has anti-inflammatory properties. aesio- Greek αισιος, aisios, auspicious, opportune, lucky, fortunate. aest- Greek αιστος, aistos, unseen.

aest-, aesta-, aestatis, -aestatis Latin aestas, the summer heat. aestas, aestatis f. Latin summer; summer heat, summer weather; a year. aesth-, aesthes, aesthesis, -aesthesis Greek αισθησις, aisthesis, a sensation, perception. aesth-, aesthet- Greek αισθητης, aisthetes, perciever. aesthem-, aesthema, -aesthema, aesthemato Greek sensation, perception aesthet Greek sensitive, perceptive aestiv- Latin aestivus, of summer. aestival- Latin root for of or pertaining to summer. aestivalis -is -e from Latin aestivus -a -um of summer, relating to summer, flowering in summer. aestivus -a -um aesti'vus (es-TI-vus) from Latin aestat-, aestatis, aestivus, of summer, flowering in summer or developing in summer, alternately from aestivus -a -um, summer-like, summer; pertaining to/occurring in/used for/appearing in summer. aestuans heating up, burning, flame-like, glowing, becoming hot, from Latin aestus wavering. aestuarius -a -um of tidal waters, of estuaries, from Latin aestuarium, aestuari(i) n., tidal marsh/inlet/opening, marsh; (river) estuary; air shaft, vent. aestus, aestus m. Latin aestus, aestus m., heat, agitation, fervor, passion, unrest. aesum, aesi n. Latin live-forever, houseleek, Sempervivum tectorum. aesylo Greek αισυλος, aisylos, godless, evil, unseemly. aesyro Greek αισυρος, aisyros, agile, light as air. aet-, aeto-, aetus, -aetus Greek an eagle aet-, aeto-, aetus Greek αετος, aetos, eagle as a bird of omen, eagle as a standard. aet- Greek αιτιον, aiton, a cause. aeta- Latin aetas, age, life-time, aged. aeth-, aethe Greek unusual, from ἀήθης, aethes, unusual, strange, unwonted (sic). aeth-, aetho Greek burn; fiery, from αἴθειν, aithein, light up, kindle, or αἶθος, aithos, fire. aethal-, aethalo-, aethalus Greek αιθαλους, aithalous, smoke, soot; smooky, sooty. aethalus, aethali m. Latin a sort of grape in Egypt, soot grape. (A possible reference to dusting vines with soot to kill or drive away flea beetles. aethanolum, aethanoli n. Latin ethanol (drinkable alcohol). aethereus -a -um of the sky, aerial, from Latin aether, (epiphytic). aethero Greek αιθεριος, aitherios, the upper atmosphere, on high, heavenly. aethi- Greek αιθος, aithos, burnt. aethio Greek αιθιοψ, aithiops, αιθοψ, aithops, sunburnt, fiery-looking, fiery, black, scorched. Aethionema etymology uncertain, possibly meaning unusual filaments, from Greek ἀήθης, aethes, unusual and νηµα, nema, in reference to the filaments of the long stamens being winged and toothed. Other translations have been proposed. aethiopicus -a -um African, of Africa, of Northeast Africa, referring to Ethiopia or Africa, of Ethopian origin (the land of the burnt faces, Greek αιθειν-ωψ, aithein-ops); also used as South African. aethiopis; aethiopum from Ethiopia; also used as South African aethiops of uncommon appearance, from Greek αηθης-ωψ, aethes-ops. Aethiorhiza unusual root, from Greek αηθης-ριξα, aethes-rhiza, from , and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. aetho- Greek αιθων, aithon, fiery, burning, flashing, glittering. aethri-, aethria, -aehtria, aethrio Greek open sky, open air, from αἰθρία, aithria, the open sky; or αιθριος, aithrios, fair, clear, bright (of weather). aethusa Greek burning, vestibule (Borror). Aethusa, aethusa from Greek burning-one, from αιθω, aitho, αιθων, aithon, to burn, for the shining foliage or its pungency, more aptly poisonous acridity; Gilbert-Carter (1964) notes αιθουσα, aithousa, meant a sunny vestibule or veranda. (Umbelliferae) aethusifolius -a -um Aethusa-leaved, with leaves like Fool’s parsley, Aethusa, from Aethusa and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aethyctero Greek αιθυκτηρ, aithykter, rushing violently, darting. aeti, aetia, -aetia, aetio Greek a cause, from αἰτία, aitia, cause, reason. aetio Greek αιτιο, aitio, causing, responsible for. aetiolatus -a -um lank and yellowish, etiolated, from early French, étieuler. aetnensis -is -e from or growing on Mount Etna (Aetna), Sicily

aeto-, aetus, -aetus an eagle, from Latin āetītēs, adopted from Greek ἀετῑτης, aetites, of the eagle, aquiline, or ἀετός, aetos, eagle. aetolicus -a -um from Aetolia, Greece. -aeus -a -um Greek adjectival suffix indicating ‘belonging to’ (of a place), used with a noun base. aevum (evum) Latin, eavum, lifetime, age. aexi Greek αεξω, aexo, increase, grow, exalt. Aextoxicon goat arrow (poison), from Greek αιξ, aix, -τοξικον, -toxikon, (φαρµικον, pharmikon). aezeno Greek αιζηος, aiznos, strong, active, lusty. af- Latin prefix assimilative form of Latin ad-, before f, at, to, towards. afares from Africa, from Latin afer, afri afer, afra, afrum Latin African, of African origin, from the land of Afer, Africa; more extensive than the Roman Africa, Africae. Afer ventus,or Africus is Latin for the diety of the southwest wind, blowing out of Africa, also known in Greek as Livas or Lips. Afer was also the name of a son of the Libyan Hercules. affer Latin afferre, to bring. affini-, affinis -is -e affi'nis (a-FY-nis, a-FY-nee) Latin adjective affinis, related to, allied, similar, of near alliance, neighbor, from Latin ad, to, and finis, boundary, meaning to the border of. affinis, affinis c. Latin noun, relation by marriage; neighbor; accomplice. affinis -is -e Latin adjective, neighboring, adjacent, next, bordering; related (marriage), akin, connected. affinitas, affinitatis f. Latin noun, relation(ship) by marriage; relationship of a man and wife, bond or union; neighborhood. affinitas Latin relationship, from affinis, bordering, and -itas suffix indicating the abstract or general result of an action affixis fixed to, fixed upon, attached to affluen-, affluens, -afluens, affluent Latin abundant, rich afghanicus -a -um, afghanistanicus from Afghanistan. Afióni from Greek αφιόνι, aphioni, poppy seeds. aflatunensis -is -e from Aflatun, central Asia. afoliatus -a -um without leaves, from Latin a- and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Aframomum African-Amomum (Amomum grows from the East Indies to Japan). In the Ginger family, the seeds of Aframomum melegueta are used in Samuel Adams Summer Ale. africanus -a -um africa'nus (af-ri-KAY-nus) African, of African origin, from Africa, Africae, and -anus adjectival suffix indicating position, conection, or possession by. africus Latin African. Afrocalathea African-Calathea (Calathea is a New World genus). Afrofittonia African-Fittonia. Afrothismia African-Thismia. Gledhill has Thismia, sensu lato, as growing in Indo-Malaya and South America, with our apologies to Norma Pfeiffer. Afrotrilepis African-Trilepis, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. africus African, of African origin Afrikánikó pipéri from Greek αφρικάνικό πιπέρι, aphrikaniko piperi, negro pepper. Afzelia, afzelianus -a -um for Adam Afzelius (1750-1837), Swedish botanist and agricultural advisor in West Africa c.1792. ag- Latin prefix assim. form of Latin ad-, before g, at, to, towards. aga- Greek αγαν, agan, very, very much, too much. aga- Greek very, very much, αγαν, agan, adverb meaning very, much, very much. aga-, agatho- good, noble, useful, from Greek αγα-, aga-, αγαθος, agathos. agaeo- Greek αγαιος, agaios, enviable, leading the procession. Agalinis wonder-flax, or remarkable flax, New Latin, irregular from Greek αγα- aga, agē- wonder and Latin linum flax. agall-, agallo Greek αγαλλω, agallo, glorify, exalt, adorn. agalli-, agallid, agallis, -agallis Greek an iris, or flag, from αγαλλίς, agallis, dwarf iris. agalma, -agalma Greek αγαλµα, agalma, glory, delight, a pleasing gift; a statue. agamus flowerless, from Greek α-γαµος, a-gamos, without marriage. agan-, agano Greek αγανος, aganos, -mild, gentle. agan- Greek very much, too much. aganactico irritable, peevish, vexed.

aganniphus -a -um of snow coverings, from Greek αγαννιφος, aganniphos, ἀγάνῖφος, aganiphos, -ον, -on, living at altitudes, very much snowed on, snowy, from ἄγαν, agan, and νίφω, nipho. agano- Greek αγανος, aganos, broken, sticks broken for firewood. aganophilus springs loving, moisture loving aganos- Greek αγανος, aganos, mild, gentle. agao- Greek αγαοµαι, agaomai, αγαµαι, agamai, to wonder. agap-, agapa- Greek αγαπαω, agapao, show affection, persuade, caress. agap-, agapa, -agapa Greek brotherly love, charity, from to ἀγάπη, agape, brotherly love, in opposition to ἒρως, eros, a reference to erotic love. agap-, agapet-, agapetos Greek αγαπη, agape, love (in a wide sense). Agapanthus love flower from Greek ἀγάπη, agape, love, and ανθος, anthos, flower Agapetes beloved, from Greek αγαπητος, agapetos. agapetus -a -um desirable, love, from Greek ἀγάπη, agape. agaric-, agaricum Greek a mushroom agaric-, agaricum Latin agaricum, a fungus. Agaricus Tungus (? possible typo for fungus, in Gedhill), Latin agaricus, from Greek αγαρικον, agarikon, from Agaria, Sarmatia (Gledhill places this in the Ukraine) (Tungus is generally a reference to eastern Siberia and Manchuria. Greek αγαρικον means a sort of tree fungus.) Agarista for Agariste, daughter of Clisthenes of mythology. agast-, agasto Greek wonderful Agastache Agasta'che (classically a-GA-sta-kee or a-GA-sta-she, ag-as-TAY-kee) from Greek agan, much, or very much, and σταχυς, stakhys, a spike, or an ear of wheat, referring to the numerous flower spikes; alternately, pleasantly spiked from αγα, aga, and σταχυς, stakhys. agastachyus with tapering ears or spikes agastor Greek αγαστορ, agastor, near kinsman, brother. agastus -a -um charming, pleasing, admirable, from αγαστος, αγετος. agath-, agathis Greek αγαθις, agathis, a ball of thread. agath-, agatho, agathos Greek ἀγαθος, agathos, good, brave, gentle, valiant. Agathelpis Good-hope, from αγα, aga, and θελπις, thelpis. Agathis ball of twine, from Greek αγαθις, agathis, for the appearance of the male strobili. agatho-, agathos strong-, noble-, good-, from Greek αγαθος, agathos, αγαθο-, agatho-, possibly akin to Old English gōd, good. agathodaemonis -is -e of the good genius, of the noble deity, from Greek αγαθο-δαηµων (δαίµων) agathodaemon (daimon), (associated with rites), sometimes interpreted as the good dragon. agathophyllus having smooth-edged leaves (not serrated) Agathophytum good plant, from Greek αγαθο-, agatho-, and φυτον, phyton (vide bonus henricus). agathosmos, agathosmus -a -um strong-perfumed, pleasantly perfumed, smelling good, fragrant, from Greek αγαθ-, agath-, good, pleasing, and οσµη, osme. agatolepis with thick membraneous scale, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. agau-, agav- Greek αγαυος, agauos, illustrious, noble, glorious. Agavaceae plants of the Agave family, from the genus name, Agave, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Agave Aga've (ag-AH-vee, or ah-GA-vee) New Latin admired-one, from Greek αγαυος, agauos, or agauē, agave, noble or admirable, illustrious, brilliant, for the stature of many species. Agave was one of the mythical Amazons. (Agavaceae) agavifolius -a -um with leaves like Agave, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. agavoides agave-like, resembling Agave from Agave and oides. Agdestis a mythical hermaphrodite monster, in reference to the original inclusion in Menispermaceae, where it was the only genus with bisexual flowers age- Latin agere, to drive. -age French suffix, collection of, conditon, state. agel-, agela, -agela Greek αγελη, agela, a herd, flock. agel-, agelaeo-, agelo- Greek αγελαιος, agelaios, gregarious, belonging to a herd. agel- Latin agelus, a small field. agen-, agene, ageni Greek αγενης, agenes, unborn, uncreated, young. agenio Greek αγενειος, ageneios, beardless, boyish.

ager, -ager Latin ager, a field, land. agera Greek αγηραος, ageraos, not growing old, ageless, undecaying; αγηρασια, agerasia, eternal youth. agerat- referring to the genus Ageratum ageratifolius -a -um Ageratum-like leaves, with leaves like Ageratum, from Ageratum and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Ageratina Agerati'na (aj-er-a-TIE-na) like a small Ageratum, from the generic name Ageratum and Latin -ina, feminine diminutive suffix. (Compositae) ageratoides ageratum-like, resembling Ageratum, floss-flower, from Ageratum and oides. Ageratum, ageratus -a -um unaging, from Greek αγεραιος, ageraios, not growing old, not withering readily, from Greek α, a, not, privation, and γῆρας, geras, old age, i. e. fadeless, misapplied, or a possible reference to long-lasting nature of flowers. Dioscorides’ name αγηρατος, ageraton refered to several plants. (Compositae) agerochos Greek αγερωχος, agerochos, high minded, lordly, arrogant. agetus -a -um wonderful, from Greek αγητος, agetos, αγαστος, agastos. agetos Greek αγητος, agetos, admirable, wonderful. aggero, aggerāre Latin to form a mound, heap up, increase. aggestus heaped up, from Latin aggest-, participle stem of aggerēre to carry to, heap up; from ag- (= ad-) to and gerēre to carry agglomer-, agglomerat- Latin agglomerare, add to, join to; or collected, heaped up (the latter dubious, a transcription error, see aggestus). agglomeratus -a -um pressed together, crowded or congregated together, gathered into a close head, from Latin past participle stem of agglomerāre, from ag- (=ad) and glomero, glomerare, glomeravi, glomeratum, to wind or gather into a ball, as in the flowers of Scabious. agglut-, agglutin, agglutinat- Latin agglutinare, to glue on, glued together. agglutinatus -a -um glued together or firmly joined together, from Latin ag- and glutino, glutinare, glutinavi, glutinatum, to glue on. aggre- Latin aggressus, attacked. aggregat- Latin aggregare, to add (to a flock), brought together. aggregatae flowering in bunches, like the teasel, Dipsacus, or dodder, Cuscuta aggregatus -a -um clustered together, in dense clusters, bunched, crowded, aggregated, added or collected together, joined together, from Latin aggregatus, collected, clustered, united, from aggrego, to attach to, connect with, to bring together, collect, gather, from ag- and grex, gregis m. a flock, herd, drove; troop or band of people, sometimes refering to clustered spiketlets. agil- Latin agilis, agile, nimble. agitat- Latin agitare, to vex, to agitate, to harry. agius -a -um from Agen, France (Aginum). agla-, aglai-, aglao-, aglaus Greek αγλαος, aglaos, splendor, shining, bright, beautiful. aglao- bright-, magnificent, pompous-, delight, proud-, from Greek αγλαια, aglaia. Aglaodorum bright-bag, from Greek αγλαια, aglaia, and δορο, doro, in reference to the spathe around the inflorescence. Aglaonema bright-thread, from αγλαια-νηµα, aglaia-nema, a possible reference to the naked male inflorescence. agleuco Greek αγλευκης, agleukes, sour, not sweet, harsh. Áglis Greek Ἄγλις, Aglis, garlic. agm-, agma-, agmato-, agmet- Greek αγµα, agma, a fragment, a fracture. agm-, agmen, -agmen, agmin Latin agmen, a stream. agnatha- without a jaw, from Greek α-γναθος, a-gnathos. agnatus -a -um related, offspring of the father, from Latin agnatus, agnati m., a relation descended from a common male ancestor. agn-, agni-, agnus from Latin agnus, agni m. lamb, meaning lambs-wool. agninus -a -um of a lamb, lamb-like, from Latin agnus, agni m. lamb; Valerianella locusta, the apothecaries’ lactuca agnina, was Englished by Gerard to lamb’s lettuce (Gledhill). agnipilus -a -um covered with woolly-hair, from agni- and pilus. Agnorhiza possibly Greek agnostos, unknown, and rhiza, root, alluding to the initially unknown roots; in protologue of basionym of type species, Greene stated, "Root unknown." from and, ῥίζα, rhiza, root. agno, agn- Greek αγνος, agnos, pure, chaste, holy. agnoi-, agnoia Greek αγνοια, agnoia, ignorance, lack of perception, mistake.

Ágnos Greek Ἄγνος, Agnos, Chaste Tree. agnost-, agnosto- Greek αγνωστος, agnostos, unknowing, unknown, forgotten, unfamiliar. agnus lamb (used in compound words) agnus-castus lamb-of-heaven, chaste-lamb, from Latin agnus, a lamb, and castus -a -um, clean, pure, chaste; Greek αγνος, agnos, also means pure, chaste, holy ago Greek αγο, ago, lead, fetch, carry, bring, guide. ago from Latin agere, to set in motion. -ago f. a Latin feminine botanical suffix indicating like-, a resemblance (often an inferior or lesser kind) or connection, the possession of a property, or having the nature of, often used on masculine nouns, as vir, hero, virago, heroine. agog-, agogue, -agogue Greek αγωγος, agogos, lead, lead away, leading, guiding, drawing, attracting. agon-, agono Greek αγων, agon, assembly, a contest, a struggle. agon-, agonis Greek αγωνιστης, agonistes, champion. agonos Greek αγανος, aganos, unfruitful, barren. agor-, agora, -agora Greek αγορα, agora, a marketplace, an assemblage. agos Greek αγος, agos, leader, chief, pollution, guilt. Agoseris Ago'seris (a-GO-ser-is, or a-go-SER-is) from Greek αγος, agos, leader, chief, pollution, guilt, and seris, endive, chicory, succory, a pot-herb; allusion unclear. (Compositae) agost-, agosto- Greek αγοστος, agostos, the flat of the hand, the arm, the bent arm; an angle. agourensis agouren'sis (a-goor-EN-sis) agr-, agra, -agra Greek αγρα, agra, hunting, the chase, quarry, prey, booty. agr-, agri, agro Greek ἄγριος, agrios, wild, savage. agr-, agri, agro Latin agri, Greek αγρος, agros, a field. agraphis is -e without-writing, from Greek α-γραφω, a-grapho (= non-scriptus). agrarius, agrestris referring to fields or farms, of fields, growing on arable land. Comparing these two below, these are examples of terms that should not be lumped! agrarius -a -um of the land, growing in fields, from Latin ager agri m. land, territory; as cultivated, a field; open country, as opposed to towns, land as opposed to sea. agraulos Greek αγραυλος, agraulos, dwelling in the field. agreiphn-, agreiphna, - agreiphna Greek αγρειφνα, agreipha, a harrow, rake. agrest-, agresti- Latin agrestis, in the country, of the fields and country, wild, growing wild, rustic. agrestis -is -e rustic, barbarous, wild on arable land; of or petaining to the fields; rustic, rural, of fields, from Latin agrestis -e, belonging to the field or country; wild, rustic; hence, countrified, boorish, clownish. agrestis -is m. a countryman. agreu-, agreuo Greek αγρευω, to hunt, take hunting, hunt after, pursue. agreu-, agreus-, agreut- Greek αγρευτης, agreutes, a hunter. agri-, agro Latin grassy-, grass-like-, field-, meadow-, land, from ager, agri. agri-, agrio- Greek wild, fierce. agricola -ae m. Latin classically a 1st declension noun, a farmer, also countryman, of the fields, rustic, from agris- and colo. (One of the few masculine nouns in the 1st declension, including poeta and nauta.) agrifolius -a -um agrifo'lius (ag-ri-FO-lee-us) scabby-leaved; or with leaves like grass, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Agrimonia (ag-ri-MOE-nee-a) New Latin from the Latin plant name transliterated by Pliny, a name for a plant similar to the Greek agrimone or a corruption of argemonia, or argemone, neither of which is known, doubly misspelled as agrimonia, possibly from Greek αργεµον, agremon, cataracts, from the medicinal value of Papaver argemone; also from Greek argema, an eye-disease, because of the plants supposed medicinal value. Alternately from Greek αγρὸς, agros, a field, and µόνος, monos, alone, a name of dignity for its medicinal qualities. (Rosaceae) agrimonioides resembling agrimony, Agrimonia, from Agrimonia and -oides. Ágrio skórdo from Greek Άγριο σκόρδο, Agrio skordo, bear’s garlic. Agriokerasiá Greek Αγριοκερασιά, Agriokerasia, Mahleb Cherry. agrip- Greek αγριππος, agrippos, wild olive. agrippinus -a -um for Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12BC), Roman general. agrios Greek wild, savage, ἄγριος, agrios. agro Latin a field Agrocybe field cap, from Greek αγρος, agros, and -κυβη, kybe, for the meadow habitat of some species.

X Agrohordeum agrophilus -a -um grass loving; liking grain fields, from Greek αγρος, agros, and φιλειν, philein. Agropogon the composite name for hybrids between Agrostis and Polypogon. Agropyron, Agropyrum (Agriopyrum) Agropy'ron (ag-ro-PIE-ron) wild wheat, from Greek ἄγριος, agrios, wild and πυρος, pyros, wheat, as in the second alternate spelling; alternately field-wheat, from Greek αγρος, agros, and πυρος, pyros. agrost-, agrostes, -agrostes Greek αγρωστης, agrostes, a hunter; a person living in the country; wild; a kind of spider. agrost-, agrostis Greek a grass; a hunter Agrostemma field garland, New Latin, a name from Linnaeus from Greek ἀγρουστεµµα, agroustemma, crown of the field, from αγρο-, αγρος, agro-, agros, field, and Greek στεµµα, stemma, wreath, crown, or garland for the plants former use in garlands, or Linnaeus’ view of its suitability. (Caryophyllaceae) agrostichoides agrosticho'ides (a-gros-ti-KO-i-dees) Agrosticrinum grass-like-lily, from Greek αγρωστις-κρινον, agrostis-krinon. agrostideus of the type of Cloud-grass and Spear-grass, Agrostis Agrostis from Greek ἀγρωστις, agrostis, f., grass; or αγρωστης, agrostes, dog’s tooth grass. (Gramineae) Agrostis, agrostis -is -e Agros'tis (ag-ROS-tis) field-grass, growing in a field or pastures, from Old Greek αγρος, agros, a field, referring to the place of growth, or from Greek, αγρωστις, agrostis, or agrosteis, field grass eaten by mules, variously ascribed to Triticum repens and Cynodon dactylon. Αγρωστις, Agrostis, was a name used by Theophrastus for a ἄγριος, agrios, wild and savage αγρωστις, agrostis, grass. (Gramineae) agrostoides resembling Cloud and Spear-grass, Agrostis -agrus -a -um -chase, -hunt, -capture, from Greek αγρα, agra. agrycto- Greek αγρυκτος, agryktos, not to be spoken of. agrypno- Greek αγρυπνος, agrypnos, sleepless, watchful. aguro- Greek αγουρος, agoyros, a youth. agyia- Greek αγυια, agyia, a street or highway. agyrto- Greek αγυρτος, agyrtos, got by begging. ai- (see also ae, ei or oe) ai-, aio- Greek eternally-, always-, ever- from αιων, aion, αει-, aei-, αι, ai. aianthus -a -um perpetual flowering; everlasting-flowered, from Greek αει-ανθος, aei-anthos. aichm-, aichma, -aichma, aichmo Greek αιχυµ, aichme, point of a spear or point of an arrow, a spear. Aichryson Dioscorides’ name for Aeonium. Aidia everlasting, from Greek αιδιος. aido- Greek αιδως, aidos, reverence, awe, shame. aidoi- Greek αιδοια, aidoia, the genitals. aidoi-, aidoio- Greek regard with reverence; the genitals (from Borror, note the danger of lumping close roots!). aiet-, aieto- Greek αιετος, aietos, an eagle as a bird of omen, an eagle as a standard. aig Greek a goat; a waterfowl (see -aix). aig- Greek αιγειος, αιγαγρος, aigeios, aigagros, a goat, a wild goat. aigeir, aigeiro, aigeirus, -aigeirus Greek αιγειρος, aigeiros, the black poplar, Populus nigra. aigial-, aigalo-, aigalus, -aigalus Greek αιγιαλος, aigialos, the seashore, beach. ailanthifolius -a -um with leaves like Ailanthus, from Ailanthus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. ailanthoides resembling Ailanthus, from Ailanthus and -oides. Ailanthus Ailan'thus (aye-LAN-thus) tree of heaven, New Latin, from Amboinese ai lanto, or Aylanto, literally, tree (of) heaven, or tree of the gods; or Moluccan ailanto, or aylanto, sky tree; or Chinese Ailanto. Modern Latin Ailantus. (Simarubaceae formerly Rutaceae) ailur- a cat, from Greek αιλυρος, ailouros. aima, or haema blood-colored Ainsliaea for Sir Whitelaw Ainslie (1767-1837), of the East India Company, author of Materia Indica. Aio, quantitas magna frumentorum est. Yes, that is a very large amount of corn. aiophyllus -a -um always in leaf, evergreen, from Greek αειφυλλος, aeiophyllos. Dryas First used as a genus-name by Linnæus, Genera Plantarum (1737) 148. (Rosaceae) Aiphanes abrupt, from Greek αιφανες, aiphanes, for the apices of the leaflets, from αιφνιδιος, aiphnidios, sudden. aiphyll-, aphyllo Greek αειφυλλος, aeiphyllos, evergreen.

air-, airo Greek αιρω, airo, to raise, carry, start, exalt. Aira New Latin, from an old Greek name, αιρα, aira, for a crop weed, possibly darnel; alternately αἴρα, aira, a deadly weapon, originally applied to a poisonous grass. (Gramineae) airoides airo'ides (air-OH-i-dees) resembling Hair Grass, Aira, from Greek αιρα-οειδες, aipa-oeides. aist-, aisto Greek αιστος, aistos, unseen. ait- Greek αιτιος, aitios, causing. aitchsonii for Dr. James Edward Tierney Aitchson (1836-1898), botanist on the Afgan Delimitation Expedition 1884-5. aithales Greek αειθαλης, aeithales, evergreen. Aitonia for William Townsend Aiton (1766-1849), Superintendent at Kew, successor to his father Willian Aiton (1731-1793. aithyi- Greek αιθυια, aithyia, a sea gull; a diver; a diving bird, probably shearwater. aix, -aix Greek -αιξ, -aix, a goat, probably ibex; a waterfowl of the goose kind, fiery meteor. Aizoaceae Aizoa'ceae (eye-zoe-AY-see-ee) plants resembling Aizoon, from the genus name, Aizoon, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. aizoides resembling Aizoon, from Aizoon and oides. aizooides aizoon-like, resembling Aizoon, from Aizoon and oides. Aizoon, aizoon always-alive, ever-living, evergreen from Aizoon, New Latin, from Greek αει, aei always, and ξωον, -zoon (New Latin?). ajacis -is -e, ajacus(?) Greek for Ajax, Αἴας, genitive Αἴαντος, Aiantos, son of Telemon (Telamon), from whose blood grew a red hyacinth with AI, (or AIA) the initial letters of his name born on its leaves. Delphinium ajacis is sometimes seen spelled ajacus. -ajaia; ajaja, -ajaja South American the roseate spoonbill Ajania from Ajan, east Asia (A Chrysanthemum) ajanensis -is -e from Ajan or the Ajan Bay in the extreme northeast of Asia Ajuga New Latin, from a- and -juga, from Latin jugum yoke, or from medieval Latin ajuga, a variation of Latin abiga (in Pliny, abigo, to drive away), a plant that has the power to induce abortions; or from Scribonius Largus’ corrupted Latin for an aborifacient. Scribonius Largus was court physician and pharmacologist to Emperor Claudius. Scribonius was the father of electroshock therapy, he recommended treating patients with electric eels.

ajugae of bugle, living on Ajuga (Eriophyes ajugae, acarine gall mite). ajugi- Ajuga-, bugle-. ajugifolius with leaves like Bugle, Ajuga, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. ajugoides ajugo'ides (aj-oo-GO-i-dees) akaiensis -is -e from Akaki, Ethiopia, or Akaki, Cyprus. akakus -a -um harmless, innocent, from Greek ακακος, akakos. akamantis -is -e from Akamas, Cyprus. akane a Japanese vernacular name. akasimontanus -a -um from Mount Akasi, Honshu, Japan. akbaitalensis -is -e from Akbaytai, Tajikistan. Akebia Modern Latin, a name coined by J. Decaisne, from the Japanese name akebi, name for Akebia quinata. akebioides resembling Akebia, from Akebia and -oides. akis Greek ακις, akis, needle, barb, arrow, akitensis -is -e from Akita, Honshu, Japan. akoensis -is -e from Ako, Honshu, Japan. akt-, akta-, akte, akti Greek ακτη, akte, the coast. aktauensis -is -e from Aktau, Kazakhstan. al- Latin prefix to, toward, at, an assimilative form of ad- used before l-, meaning at, to, towards.

al Arabic, the article the. al-, ala, -ala, ali Latin a wing, from ala. alabamensis -is -e, alabamicus -a -um from Alabama alabastrinus -a -um like alabaster or onyx-marble (alabaster-onyx or calcite onyx), from Latin alabaster, from Greek αλαβαστρος, alabastros, αλαβαστρον, alabastron, possibly from ancient Egyptian word a-labaste, a vessel of the Egyptian goddess Bast, or the town of Alabastron in Egypt, while the al- prefix may suggest an Arabic origin. alac-, alacer, -alacer, alacr- quick, active, from Latin alacer, lively, active, animated. alacranensis -is -e from Arricife de Alacran, Yucatan. alacriportans, alacriportanus -a -um from Porto Alegre in Brasil aladaghensis -is -e from the Ala Dag mountain range, in Asia Minor. alagebsis -is -e from the Alag river, Mindinao, Phillipines. alagoanus -a -um, alagoensis -is -e from the Alagoas region of Brazil. alaicus -a -um from the Alai mountains, Tajikistan. alalos Greek αλαλος, alalos, speechless, dumb. alamosensis -is -e from Mount Alamos, Mexico, or from the Los Alamos area of the southern Rocky Mountains. Alangiaceae from the genus name, Alangium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Alangium from an Adansonian name for an Angolan tree, some attribute it to a Malabar vernacular name, alangi. (Alangiaceae) alao-, alaos Greek αλαος, alaos, blind, invisible, imperceptible. alapadno- Greek αλαπαδνος, alapadnos, easily exhausted, feeble, weak. alarconicus from Alarçon, Province Cuena alaris -is -e winged, alar, growing out of the axil, axillary; on the wing, from Latin ala, alae. alaskanus -a -um from Alaska, North America. alast- Greek αλαστος, alastos, unforgetable, unceasing, avenging, insufferable. alat- Latin winged, with wings alatamaha from the environs of the Alatama river, Georgia. USA. alatauensis -is -e, alatavicus -a -um from the Ala Tau mountains, Turkestan, Russia/ alaternoides resembling Christ’s thorn, Paliurus aculeatus Alaternus, alaternus -a -um an old generic name for a buckthorn (=Rhamnus), resembling the buckthorn’s fissured bark. alatipes with winged stems, from Latin alatus and pes. alatocaeruleus -a -um blue-winged, from Latin alatus and caerulus, a reference to the stems. alatum-planispinum winged and with flat spins, from Latin alatus, planus, and spina. alatus -a -um, alati-, alato- alate, winged (stems with protruding ridges wider than thick), or wing-like (fruits), from Latin alatus -a -um, adjective, furnished with wings, winged. alaud-, alauda, -alauda from Latin alauda, a lark alax-, alaxa, -alax New Latin Alaska alazon Greek αλαζων, alazon, vagrant, charlatan, quack, braggart. alb-, albi, albid-, albo from Latin albus, white (followed by an organ or indument suffix). albanensis -is -e from Albany, South Africa; or from St. Albans (Verulamium). albanus from the Albany mountains albanus -a -um from Alba Longa, Caspian area (Albana). albanus (?), albanicus -a -um from Albania Albâtre French cv. alabaster albatus -a -um turning white, whitened, clad in white, from Latin albatus -a -um, clothed in white. albellus -a -um of whitish color, whitish, Latin, diminutive of albus. albens al'bens (AL-bens) whitening, whitish, Latin present participle of albesco, albescere, to become white. albensis -is -e from the banks of the river Elbe (Elba). Alberta for Albertus Magnus (1193-1280), A. magna is from Natal. alberti, albertianus -a -um for Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel, Prince Consort (1819-1861. albertii for Dr. Albert Regel (1845-1908), Russian plant collector in Turkestan. albertinus -a -um alberti'nus (al-ber-TEE-nus) from the environs of Lake Albert, Uganda.

albescens becoming white, turning white, lightening, whitish, with a whitish shading, with a whitish cast, from Latin albus, white, and -ascens adjectival suffix indicating a process of becoming or developing a characteristic, idicating an incomplete manifestation, present participle of albesco, albescere, to become white. albicans al'bicans (AL-bi-kans) whitish, with a whitish shading, tending to white, foamy, from Latin albus, white, plus Greek ikanos, becoming, becoming white, or whitish; being white, from the present participle of albico, albicare, to be white. Or alternately not quite perfect white, from Latin albicans, from albico, to be white albicaulis -is -e albicau'lis (al-bi-KAW-lis) white-stemmed, with white stalks, from Latin albi, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. albicomus -a -um white haired from Latin albi- and comus. albido-flavus Latin of a yellow-white color albidus -a -um, albido- al'bidus (AL-bi-dus) whitish, dirty white, whitish, from Latin albus, white, and -idus adjectival suffix indicating a state or action in progress. albidulus, albidus, albineus AL-bi-dus white, whitish, nearly white from Latin albidus, whitish, white, albiflorens white-flowered albiflorus -a -um, albiflos albiflor'us (al-bi-FLOR-us) white-flowered, with white bloom, New Latin from Latin albus, albi-, white, dead white, pale, bright, -i-, and florus (floreus), from floreo, I bloom, I flower. albifrons al'bifrons (AL-bi-frons) white-fronded, having white foliage, from Latin albi and frondeus. albimontanus from the White Mountains, in various places including New England, from Latin albus. albi-, white, dead white; pale; bright, -i-, and montanus, of or belonging to the mountains albinatus whitish, pale albinotus with white markings albionis -is -e of Britian, of uncertain Celtic etymology (Gledhill), but an allusion to the white cliffs of Britian; also Latin from Pliny Albion -onis f., old name of Great Britain, Greek Άλονίων, Alonion, (Ptolemy), Celtic *Albio, gen. *Albionis; *albho (from Latin albus) white. albispathus with a white sheathing bract albispinus white-spined, with white thorns Albizia (Albizzia) Albiz'ia (al-BIZ-ee-a) for Philippo degli Albizzi, Italian naturalist. albobrunneus -a -um white and brown, modern Latin albus and brunneus. albo-caerulus of a bluish-white shade albocereus white-waxy albo-cinctus, albocinctus with white surrounding, or white-girdled, white-crowned albococcineus -a -um white and red, from Latin albus and coccineus, coccinus. albo-costatus with white ribs or nerves albo-lineatus with white lines or dashes albolutescens white becoming yellowish, from Latin albus, white, dead white, pale, bright, and luteus, golden, saffron, orange yellow, clay yellow, and -escens, becoming like, having an incomplete resemblance. albomaculatus -a -um having white spots, white-spotted, white stained from Latin albus and maculo, maculare, maculavi, maculatum, to spot, stain, defile, pollute. albo-marginatus, albomarginatus -a -um albomargina'tus (al-bo-mar-gin-AY-tus) with a white margin or edge, from Latin albus and margino, marginare, to border, in reference to leaf margins. alboniger, albonigrus, -a -um white and black, from Latin albus, white, dead white; pale; bright, -o-,and niger, nigri black. albinitens brilliant white, from Latin albus and nitens, nitentis, shining, bright, sleek, blooming, from niteo nitere, to shine, glitter, be bright; to glow, be sleek, flourish. albopictus -a -um white-painted, white ornamented, with white markings, from Latin albus and pingo pingere pinxi pictum, to paint, to draw; to embroider; to stain, dye; to decorate, adorn. albopilosus -a -um white-pilose, with white hairs, white-shaggy, from Latin albus and pilosus. albo-punctatus with white dots albopurpurescens white and purple colored, from Latin albus, purpureus, and essentia. albo-roseus, alboroseus -a -um white and red colored, of a rose-white shade, from Latin albus and roseus. albo-setaceus beset with white bristles albosinensis -is -e Chinese white, white Chinese, white from China, from Latin albus and sinensis (Betula). albospicatus white-spiked albospicus with white spikes albostriatus -a -um with white stripes, from Latin albus and striata, striatae.

albotomentosus white woolly albo-vaginatus with a white tubular base of a leaf, leaf-stalk, or stem albovariegatus white-variegated alboviolaceus -a -um white and violet, from Latin albus and violaceus. albrechtii for Dr. M. Albrecht, Russian naval surgeon. Albuca whiter, from albucus. albucifolius -a -um with Albuca-like leaves, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. albulus, alba, album whitish, dead white, without lustre, watery white albulus -a -um whitish, from Latin albulus -a -um, whitish, as substituted Albula -ae (sc. aqua), an old name of the Tiber river. album-, albumen, -albumen, albumin Latin album, the white of an egg albursina Latin alba white and ursinus like a bear, for the abundance of the Carex albursina near White Bear Lake, Minnesota albus -a -um, albi-, albo- al'bus (AL-bus) bright, dead-white, from Latin albus, white, particularly a dull rather than a glossy white, or dead white; pale; bright. A general white. alc-, alcae Greek αλκη, alke, strong; strength, prowess, courage. alc-, alces, -alces, alci- Latin alces, an elk. alca, -alca Icelandic alka, the auk. alcaeoides resembling Alcea, from Greek αλκαια-οειδες, alkaia-oeides, Latin Alcea and -oides. alcalinus -a -um alkaline, Latinized Middle English, alkali, from Arabic, al-kali (Mycena alcalina smells of ammonia). Alcea Latin alcea, a mallow, from Greek name used by Dioscorides αλκαια, alkaia, αλκεα, alkea, vervain mallow. alced-, alcedin, alcedino, -alcedino Latin alcedo, a kingfisher. alceifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Alcea, from Alcea and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. alceus -a -um mallow-like, resembling Alcea. Alchemilla from Arabic al-kimiya, or âlkêmelyeh, in reference to its reputed property that dew from its leaves could transmute base metals to gold (alchemy) or to the fringed leaves of some species. (Rosaceae) alchemilloides alchemilla-like, resembling Alchemilla, from Alchemilla and -oides. alcicornis antler-shaped, elk-horned, like the horns of the elk, from alces, elk, and cornu, cornus; cornum, corni. alcim-, alcimo- Greek αλκιµος, alkimos, strong, brave, stout, fortifying. alcockianus -a -um for Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897), consul in China. alcyon, -alcyon Greek αλκυων, alkyon, a kingfisher; a zoophyte aldabrensis -is -e, aldabricus -a -um from the Aldabra Archipelago, Indian Ocean. -ale Latin suffix pertaining to, having the nature of, quality, condition of. Alea iacta est “The die is cast” Ἀνερριφθω κύβος. Anerriphthō kybos. Said by Caesar when he crossed the Rubicon, a point at which he knew there was no going back. alec, alecis n. Latin noun, herrings; a fish sauce; pickle. Also alex, allec, allex, and halic. alector, -alector Greek αλεκτωρ, alector, a cock, fowl. alectr-, alectro- Greek αλεκτρος, alectros, unmarried, unwedded. Alectra unwedded or illicit, Greek α-λεκτρος, a-lektros, (mostly parasitic on grasses). Alectryon cock, from Greek αλεκτρυων, alektryon, for the indument of silk-reddish hairs. alefeldii alefeld'ii (ale-FELD-ee-eye) aleiph- Greek αλειφαρ, aleiphap, unguent, oil, annointing oil, fat. aleo Greek αλεος, aleos, αλεεινος, aleeivos, hot, warm. aleos /eleos Greek αλεος, aleos, ηλεος, eleos, distraught, crazed, foolishly. -aleos Greek -αλεος, -aleos, suffix meaning pertaining to. alepensis -is -e, aleppensis -is -e, aleppicus -a -um of Halab, or Aleppo (Beroea, Syria). A leading city of north Syria, on the caravan route between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean, Beroea was made a Macedonian city by Seleucus Nicator between 301 and 281 B.C. It was sacked by Chosroes in A.D. 540. See halepensis. -ales Latin suffix used to in botanical nomenclature to create the ending of plant order names. alet-, aleto- Greek αλετης, aletes, αλετος, aletos, grinder, grinding. alet-, aleto- Greek αλητης, aletes, αλητεια, aleteis, wanderer, wandering. aleth-, aletho- Greek αλεθεια, aletheia, truth, true, honest.

Aletris mealy, New Latin, from Greek αλετρον, aletron, or aletris, a female slave who ground meal, a noble Athenian maiden who prepared offering cakes, from alein, aletreuein to grind; from the floury appearance of the blossoms, or the mealy texture of the perianth. Apparently nothing to do with a bump-and grind. Aletris farinosa re-emphasizes the floury covering. aletroides like Star-grass, Aletris, resembling Aletris, from Greek αλετρον-οειδες, aletron-oeides. aleur-, aleuro-, aleurum, -aleurum Greek floury-, mealy- from αλευρον, aleuron, flour, wheat meal, barley meal, for the surface texture. (flowery- in one source.) Aleura mealy, from αλευρον, aleuron, for the pileus surface texture. aleuriatus -a -um, aleuricus -a -um mealy, floury, from αλευρον, aleuron. Aleurites floury, flour-like, from αλευρον, aleuron, for the mealy covering of the tung oil tree leaves. aleuropus -a -um with meal-covered stalks, from αλευρο-ρους, aleuro-pous. aleutaceus -a -um purse-like, softly leathery, from Latin alutus, from aluta -ae f., soft leather; a shoe, purse or patch. aleuticus -a -um, alëuticus aleu'ticus (al-YOO-ti-kus) Aleutian, of or from the Aleutian Islands chain, part of Alaska in the northern Pacific Ocean. alex-, alexi-, alexo Greek αλεξω, alexo-, to ward off, to keep away, turn away. alexandrae alexan'drae (al-ex-AN-dree) for Queen Alexandra Caroline Mary Charlotte Louisa Julia (18441925), wife of Edward VII. alexandrinus -a -um of Alexandria, Egypt, or other ancient townships named Alexandria. alexaterius protected, fit for defense. alexeter Greek αλεξητηρ, alexeter, a protector (from plague), defender. aleyr-, aleyro- Greek αλευρον, aleyron, flour, meal, wheat meal, barley meal. alfalfa the Spanish name for Medicago sativa, from Arabic al-fasfasah. alg-, alga, -alga, algo Latin seaweed, from alga -ae f., sea-weed. alg-, alge- Latin cold, coldness, from algeo, algere, alsi, to be cold. alg-, alge-, algia-, algo- Greek αλγησις, algesis, pain, sense of pain. algarvensis -is -e from Algarve, Portugal. algeriensis -is -e from Algiers, or Algeria, in North Africa algidus -a -um al'gidus (AL-ji-dus) cold, ice-loving, cold-loving; of cold habitats, of high mountains, from Latin algidus -a -um, cold; also Algidus -i m., a mountain in Latium. algoensis -is -e from Algoa Bay, Cape Province, South Africa. Alhagi from the Mauritanian vernacular name for Alhagi maurorum. ali- Latin other, another; a wing ali- Latin alibi, elsewhere. alia Greek αλια, alia, an assembly, meeting. Alias Latin also known as, originally at another time alibas Greek αλιβας, alibas, dead body, dead river, dead wine. alibilis Latin alibilis, nourishing. alica, alicae f. Latin noun, emmer (wheat), Triticum dicoccum, groats/grits; a porridge or gruel made with groats or grits. alicae for Princess Alice Maude Mary of Hesse (1843-1878. aliceara for Mrs. Alice Iwanaga of Hawaii, orchid hybridist. aliciae for Miss Alice Pegler, plant collector in Transkei, South Africa. Aliciella Aliciel'la (al-is-ee-EL-la) alien-, aliena Latin alien, foreign alienus -a -um from Latin alienus, belonging to another place, alien, foreign, strange, differing or different from, changed, not related, of others. aliferous having wings aliformis wing-shaped aliger- Latin aliger, winged. aligerus -a -um winged, bearing wings, from Latin ala, alae and gero. alikt-, alikto- Greek αλικτος, aliktos, good at leaping. alimaculatus -a -um with spotted wing petals, from Latin ala, alae, and macula, maculae. aliment- Latin alimentum, food, nourishment; nourish. Alimentary, my dear Watson. alimmato- Greek αλεµµα, alemma, fat, oil, unguent, used in anointing. -alio Greek αλιος, alios, suffix indicating of the sea.

aliquantum aliquan'tum (al-i-KAN-tum) somewhat -alis -alis -ale Latin adjectival suffix signifying pertaining to, relating to, of, in connection with, or belonging to, used with a noun base, as in seges, a cornfield, segetalis, of cornfields. If there was an l in the preceding syllable, it was changed to -aris. alisfakiá from Greek αλισφακιά, alisfakia, sage. alism-, Alisma, alisma Alis'ma (al-IS-ma) New Latin, from Latin, water plantain, from an ancient Greek name αλισµα, alisma, water plantain, Alisma triviale, also said to derive from Keltic alis, water. A name given by Linnaeus from Dioscorides; also used by Pliny. (Alismataceae) Alismaceae New Latin, plants of the Water Plantain, Alisma family, from the genus name, Alisma, from Latin, water plantain, from Greek name, αλισµα, alisma, for a water plant, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names Alismataceae Alismata'ceae (al-is-ma-TAY-see-ee), from the genus name, Alisma, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. alismellus alismel'lus (al-is-MEL-us) alismifolius -a -um alismifo'lius (al-is-mi-FO-lee-us) with leaves like Water-plantain, having leaves resembling those of Alisma, from Alisma and Latin folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. alismoides Water-plantain like aliso- Greek αλεισον, aleison, a cup, goblet. aliso- Greek αλεισος, aleisos, the hip-socket. alist- alistus Greek αλλιστος, allistos, inexorable. alit-, alitus Latin alitus, nourish. alit- Greek αλιτηµα, alitema, sin, offense. aliter otherwise aliu- Latin alius, other, different. alka- Greek αλκη, alka, bodily strength. alkali from post-classical Latin alkali, earlier sal alkali, from Arabic al-qali, al-qaly, al-kali, alkali, soda ash. alkanet the name given to the imported dye obtained from Alkanna tinctoria, from Spanish alcaneta, diminutive of Arabic al-henna. Alkanna from Arabic al-henna, for Lawsonia inermis, the source of henna, which was used to temporarily decorate the hands and feet with intricate designs. alkekengi a name, from Greek αλκικαβον, alkikabon, used by Dioscorides, from Persian al-kakunadj, or alkakendi, for a nightshade. all-, allo Greek other, another. alla-, allant-, allanto Greek αλλας, allas, αλλαντο-, allato-, αλλαντ-, allat-, sausage allact- Greek αλλακ-, allak-, change, vary. allagm-, allagma Greek αλλαγµα, allagma, an exchange, something taken or given in exchange. allago- Greek αλλαγη, allaga(η?), change, exchange, barter. allagophyllus having alternative leaves on the opposite side Allamanda for Dr. Frederick Allamand, or Jean Allamand, who sent seeds of this to Linnaeus from Brazil. Allantodia suasage-like, from Greek αλλαντ-, allant-, and -ωδης, -odes, in reference to the frond shape. (=Athyrium) allantoides resembling a sausage, from Greek αλλαντ-, allant-, and -οειδες, oeides. allantophyllus -a -um with sausage-shaped leaves, from Greek αλλαντο-, allanto-, and φυλλον, phylllon. Allardia, allardii for E.J. Allard of Cambridge Botanic Garden c. 1904. allass-, allasso Greek αλλασσω, allasso, change, alter, exchange, vary. allat-, allata Latin allatum, aided. allatus -a -um brought, not native, foriegn, from Latin adlatus, from adfero, adferre, attul, adlatum. allaxi Greek crosswise. allax-, allaxi Greek αλλαξις, allaxis, exchange, barter, interchange. alle Icelandic the dovekie, or little auk, Alle alle. alleghaniensis -is -e of or referring to the Allegheny Mountains in the eastern USA. Allegro Italian cv. cheerful, lively allel-, allelo Greek αλληλ-, allel-, one other, to one another, mutual; parallel allenii al'lenii (AL-en-ee-eye) Allenrolfea Allenrolf'ea (al-len-ROLF-ee-a) for Robert Allen Rolfe, English botanist (1855-1921). Allexis different, as distinct from Rinorea.

alli-, allium, -allium from Latin alium, allium, garlic, onion, referring to the genus Allium which contains the onion, garlic, leeks, etc. alliacëus, alliaceus -a -um, allioides of the alliums, garlic-like, Allium-like, onion-like, from Latin alium and -oides, smelling of garlic. Alliaria garlic-like, New Latin, from Latin allium, alium garlic, and New Latin -aria, garlic-smelling. alliariaefolius Alliaria-leaved alliariifolius -a -um Alliaria-leaved, from Latin Allaria and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. In one source ‘with leaves like garlic, Allium’. alligans attached, adhering Allioni, allionii Allion'ia (ah-lee-ON-ee-ee, or al-ee-OWN-ee-a,) after Carlos Allioni (1725?, 1728?, 1705?1804), Italian botanist, author of Flora pedemontana. alliodorus alliaceous, smelling like garlic Allium Al'lium (AL-ee-um) New Latin, from allium, alium, the classical Latin name for garlic, from Greek name ἄγλις, aglis, for A. sativum, garlic; perhaps akin to Sanskrit āluka edible root of an aroid plant Amorphophallus campanulatus, possibly related to the Celtic root all-, burning, pungent. allium, allii, n. Latin garlic, Allium sativum, from Pliny. allo-, alloi Greek αλλοιος, alloios, another sort or another kind, different. allo-, alloio Greek αλλος, allos, αλλο-, allo-, several, another, other, different; wrong, bad, unworthy. allo- Greek αλλως, allos, αλλο-, allo, at random, otherwise. allo- Greek ἀλλο- prefix different, foreign, strange, other, diverse Allocarya from ... Greek κάρυον, karyon, a nut, kernel. Allocasuarina different form Casuarina, botanical Latin from Greek αλλος, allos, and Casuarina. allochrous -a -um varying in complection, or changing colors, from Greek αλλος, allos, and χρως, chros. allophyllus -a -um, Allophyllum Allophyl'lum (al-oh-FIL-um) with strange, uncommon, peculiar leaves. alloplectus surrounded, twisted round, entangled Allosorus random-sori, from Greek αλλος, allos, various, and σωρος, soros, a heap, for the varying arrangement of sori in the genus as originally defined. alloteropsis Alien-looking, from αλλοτριο, allotrio, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, likeness, sight, for the irregular grouping of spikelets. alloth- Greek αλλοθι, allothi, elsewhere. allotr-, allotro-, allotrio- Greek αλλοτριος, allotrios, of or belonging to another, strange, foreign. alluv-, alluvi- Latin aluvius, wash(ed) against, overflow; a pool. alluviorus -a -um occupying alluvial habitats, living where silt is washed up, modern Latin from ad-luvio, ad-luvionis. alm- Latin almus, nourishing, refreshing. alma mater nourishing mother. The Roman term for Ceres, the goddess of Agriculture, and Cybelle, the goddess of nature. almus -a -um al'mus (AL-mus) bountiful, kindly, nourishing, from Latin almus. Almutaster for Almut G. Jones, born 1923), American Aster specialist aln-, alnor, alnus, -alnus Latin alnus, the alder. alnatus -a -um Alnus-like, alder-like, living on Alnus, in reference to gall midges. alnicolus -a -um living with alder, from Latin alnus and colo, colere, colui, cultum, as in the saprophytic Pholiota alnicola. alnifolius -a -um (al-ni-FO-lee-us) with leaves like the Alder, Alnus, alder-leaved, from Latin Alnus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. alnoides resembling Alnus (alder), from Latin Alnus and oides. Alnus, alnus, alni f. Al'nus (AL-nus) etymology not certain, from the classical Latin name from Pliny for Alder, alnus, alni, f., from Late Greek, Macedonian dialect, aliza white poplar; alternately Classical Latin from Celtic for growth along streams, or possibly from Hebrew. The Latin name also referred to things made out of alder, as a plank, bridge, boat, or ship. Alocasia distinct from Colocasia, from Greek αλλο-, allo-, and καλοκασια, kalokasia. aloco- from Greek αλοξ,, alox, αυλαξ, aulax, a furrow. -aloe Greek αλοη, a kind of plant, bitter aloes, (Aloe vera). Aloe from Greek αλοη, Aloë of Linnaeus, from Arabic (or Semetic) alloeh, a name for these or similar plants; for the medicinal properties of the dried juice. aloides alo'ides (al-OH-i-dees) resembling Aloe, aloe-like, from Aloe and oides.

aloïfolius, aloifolius -a -um with leaves like the Aloe, aloe-leaved, from Aloe and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aloinopsis -is -e loking like Aloe, from Greek αλοη, aloe, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, likeness, sight. Alonsoa for Alonsoa Zanoni, Spanish official in Bogotá, Columbia, mask flowers. alooides resembling Aloe, aloe-like, from αλοη, aloe, and -οειδης, -oeides. alope-, alopec-, alopex Greek αλοπηξ, alopex, the fox (Canis vulpis); a large bat. alopecia from Latin alōpecia, from Greek ἀλωπεκία, alopekia, fox-mange, also baldness in man, from ἀλώπηξ, alopex, a fox. alopecias fox (used in compound words) alopecurioides resembling fox’s brush, Alopecurus, alopecurus-like, from Greek αλωπηξ, alopex, and -ουρα, -oura, tail, and -οειδες, -oeides, or αλωπεκουρο, αλωπεξουρα, alopekouro, alopexoura, from Theophrastus, fox tail, fox brush (perhaps Polypogon monspeliensis), from which the genus name Alopecurus is taken, and οειδες, -oides, suffix meaning like, resembles. alopecoideus -a -um from the Greek alopex, fox, and oides, with the form of, resembling a fox’s tail. Alternately like the genus Alopecurus (foxtail), from αλωπεκουρο, αλωπεξουρα, alopekouro, alopexoura, from Theophrastus, fox tail, fox brush, perhaps referring to Polypogon monspeliensis, from which the genus name Alopecurus is taken, and -oides, οειδες, like, resemble. Alopecurus Alopecur'us (a-lo-pe-KEW-rus, or al-oh-peh-KYUR-us) from the Greek alopekouros, beard grass, (Polypogon monspeliensis), from ἀλώπηξ, alopex, fox and ούρά, oura, tail, the name for a grass with an inflorescence like a fox’s tail. Alophia from Greek α, a, not, and λοφος, lophos, crest, referring to the absence of style crests. Aloysia Aloy'sia (al-OY-zee-a) for Queen Maria Loiusa of Spain (d. 1918). alp-, alpestr-, alpin- Latin Alpes, the Alps, mountains. alpester, -tris, -tre alpes'tris (al-PES-tris) of mountains, of the lower Alps, from Latin alpes, alpium, alpinus. alpestris- nearly alpine, growing just below the alpine zone alpestris, alpigenus, alpîgalus found in the lower Alps alpha Greek αλφα, alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet. alphit-, alphito-, alphitum, -alphitum Greek αλφιτα, alphita, barley meal. alpicolus -a -um alpico'lus (al-pi-KO-lus) an inhabitant of the alpine zone, of high mountains, from Latin alpes and colo, colere, colui, cultum. alpigenus -a -um alpig'enus (al-PIJ-en-us) alpine, born of mountains, living on mountains, from Latin alpes and genus, from gigno, gignere, genui, genitum. Alpinia for Italian botanist Prosper Alpinus (1553-1617), who introduced bananas and coffee to Europe. alpiniformis alpinoarticulatus -a -um alpine form of (Juncus) articulatus. alpinus -a -um alpi'nus (al-PIE-nus) belonging to the high Alps, alpine, growing in the alpine zone, of the high mountains, of upland or mountainous regions, from Latin alpinus, adj, of Alps, of mountains, of alpine regions, or from alpes. als- cold, frosty, from Latin alsius -a -um. als-, also-, alsus a grove, from Greek αλσος, alsos, αλσο-, also-, grove, sacred grove, glade. alsaticu, -a -um from Alsace, France, in some older sources listed as in Germany. Alsace was a disputed land, sometimes German, sometimes French. Alseuosmia good fragrance of the grove lit., from Greek αλσος-ευοσµη, alsos-euosma(η?). alseuosmoides resembling Alseuosmia, from Greek αλσος-ευοσµη-οειδες, alsos-euosma-oeides. alsin-, alsina, -alsina Greek αλσινα, alsina, chickweed, or lich-wort (Parietaria lusitanica). alsinastrus -a -um resembling Alsine, chickweed-like, from Alsine and -astrum. Alsine, alsine a name, αλσινη, alsinē, used by Theophrastus for a chickweed-like plant, from Greek άλσος, alsos, a grove, in reference to a favored habitat of some species. (Caryophyllaceae) alsinifolius -a -um with Alsine-like leaves, chickweed-leaved, from Alsine and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. alsinoides chickweed-like, from Alsine and -oides. alsius -a -um of cold habitats, from Latin alsius, from algeo, algere, alsi. also- leafy glade, of groves, from Greek αλσος, alsos, αλσο-, also-. alsodes of woodland, of sacred groves, from Greek αλσος, alsos, and ωδης, odes. Alsophila, alsophilus -a -um grove-loving, from Greek αλσος, alsos, and φιλεω, phileo.

Alstonia for Professor Cjarles Alston (1685-1760) of Edinburgh, Scotland. alstonii for Captain E. Alston (fl. 1891), collector of succulents in Ceres, South Africa. Alstroemeria for Baron Claus (Clas Alstroemer) Alströmer (1736–1794), Swedish botanist and naturalist, pupil (friend) of Linnaeus, a genus of Peruvain lilies. (Alstromeriaceae) Alstromeriaceae from the genus name, Alstromeria, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. alt-, alti- Latin altus, high, tall. altaclerensis -is -e from Highclere (Alta Clara) in Hampshire, UK, or High Clere Nursery, Ireland. altaicus -a -um, altaiensis -is -e, altaïensis of the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia (or Central Asia, Siberia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China) altamahus, -a -um from the Altamaha River, Georgia, USA. alte loftily alte-, alti-, alto- tall, high, from Latin altus. alter Latin alter, the other (one of two). altern- Latin alternus, one after another. alternans alternating, by turns one after the other, from present participle of Latin alterno, alternare, alternavi, alternatum. Alternanthera alternating-stamens, from Latin alternans, alternating, and anthera, anther, referring to the alternation of pseudostaminodes and stamen, alternate ones are barren. alternatim alternately alternatim-pari-pinnatus alternately pinnate, without terminal leaflet alternatus -a -um alternate, alternating, from Latin alternus, for phyllotaxy. alterni-, alternus -a -um alternating, alternate, alternately changing or opposite sides, every other-, from alter, alternatus alterniflorus -a -um with flowers alternating on opposite sides alternifolius -a -um (al-tir-ni-FO-lee-us) with leaves alternating on opposite sides, alternating leaves, from Latin alternus, adjective, by turns, alternate, -i-, botanical Latin connective vowel, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. altescandens climbing up, ascending althae- Greek αλθαινω, althaino, to heal, cure. Althaea (Althea) New Latin, from Latin althæa, for marsh mallow, from Greek αλθαια, althaia, a name used by Theophrastus; or from Greek healer αλθαινω, althaino, or ἄλθειν, althein, to heal; ἅλθω, altho, to heal, for the highly esteemed medicinal value of the mucaliginous roots. (Malvaceae) althaeoides Althaea-like, hollyhock-like, resembling Hollyhock, Althaea, from althaea and -oides. althos Greek αλθος, althos, a healing, medicine. alti- Latin high, tall. alti- Latin altilis, fatten up. alticaulis -is -e having tall stems, from Latin altus, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. alticolus, -a -um living on hills, inhabiting high places, from Latin alti and colo. alticomus in one source as with foliage (?) high up altifrons tall-fronded, having tall leafy growth, with tall foliage, high canopied, covered with foliage to the top, from Latin altus and frondeo, fronderere. altil- Latin nourished, fattened. altilis -is -e inflated, extended; fat, large, nutritious, nourishing, from Latin alo, alere, alui, altum (alitum). altipendulus hanging high altis -is -e above, on high, from afar, tall, from Latin alte. altissimus -a -um altis'simus (al-TI-si-mus, or al-TIS-i-mus) highest, very high, very tall, tallest, the superlative of the Latin adjective altus -a -um, tall, high, or deep, with -issimus -a -um, the superlative suffix, meaning most so, to the greatest degree; most-, -est, such as largest, prettiest, whitest. Often referring to altitude, also high; deep or profound; shrill; lofty, noble; deep rooted; far-fetched; grown great; sometimes refering to the tallest known species of the genus. altior, altius from Latin altior, taller, higher, comparative of altus, high, and comparative suffix; more so, to a greater degree; more-, -er altius more loftily altr- Latin altr-, other.

altri-, altric, altrix, -altrix a nurse, nourisher, foster-mother, from Latin altric-, altrix, feminine of altor, nourisher. altus, -a -um tall, referring to height, high, also deep, from Latin altus. aluc-, aluco Latin alūcus, an owl. alucin-, alucina Latin alucinor, to wander in the mind, dream, from past participle stem of Latin (h)allūcinārī (more correctly ālūcinārī), to wander in mind, talk idly, prate. (root definition identical in 3 sources.) alucit-, alucita, -alucita Latin alucita, a gnat. alul-, alula Latin alula, a little wing. alulatus -a -um with narrow wings, diminutive of alatus. aluminosus yielding alum alumnus -a -um well nourished, flourishing, strong; also fostered, foster child, pupil, nursling alut-, aluta Latin aluta, leather. alutaceous, alutaceus, -a -um leathery, with the texture of soft leather, or the color of buff leather, from Latin alutus. alutipes having a soft stem alv-, alvi-, alvus, -alvus Latin alvus, the belly, womb, beehive, ship’s hold. alve-, alveol-, alveolus, -alveolus Latin a cavity, small pit, socket, from alveolus, -i, m. tray, bucket, gaming board. alveatus, alveolatus trough shaped, channelled, hollowed out alveatus -a -um excavated, hollowed, trough-like, from Latin alveus, alveoli. alveolatus -a -um with shallow pits, honeycombed, alveolar, from Latin alveolus, alveoli. alvernensis -is -e from the Auvergne, France, from Latin Averni, Arvernus. alversonii alverso'nii (al-ver-SEW-nee-eye) alvertus honey-colored, dull yellow alycto Greek αλκυτος, alkytos, to be shunned. Alyogyne not loosening ovary lit., indehiscent. from α-λυγ-γυνη, a-lyg-gyne. alypos Greek αλυπος, alypos, without pain, without pain or sorrow. alypum a former synonym of Globularia. alysc- Greek αλυσκω, alysko, shun, flee, avoid, escape. alysm-o Greek αλυσµος, alysmos, restlessness, disquiet, anguish. alyss-, alysso- Greek αλυσσω, alysso, uneasy, restless. alyssifolius -a -um with leaves like Alyssum, with leaves resembling those of Alyssum, from Latin Alyssum and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Alyssoides, alyssoides Alyssum-like, resembling Alyssum, from Latin Alyssum and -oides. Alyssum New Latin, from Latin alysson, Pliny, from? Dioscorides, Greek ᾄλυσσον, alysson, a plant believed to cure rabies, from neuter of ἄλυσσος, alyssos curing rabies, curing (canine) madness, from α- a- privation, and -λυσσος, -lyssos, from λνσσα, lyssa rage, rabies, canine madness; or pacifier, from Greek α-λυσσα, alyssa, from an ancient Greek name αλυσσα, alyssa, without-fury. Akin to Greek leukos. (Cruciferae) alytos Greek αλυτος, alytos, αλλυτος, allytos, continuous, unbroken. alyxis Greek αλυξις, alyxis, escape. am-, ama-, aman-, amat- Latin, amo, love; loving; loved ama-, am- Greek αµα, ama, jointly-, together-, at once, at the same time. ama- Greek αµη, ame (η?), shovel, hod, waterbucket. amabil-, amabili-, amabilis -is -e Latin amabilis, amiable, lovely, pleasing, likeable, loveable, from Latin amo, amare, amavi, amatum. amada from the Indian vernacular name for Curcuma amada. amadelphus -a -um gregarious, from Greek αµ-, am-, and αδελφος, adelphos. amaen- Latin amoenus, charming, pleasant, attractive. amagianus -a -um from Amagi mountain, Kyushu, Japan. amal-, amalo- Greek αµαλος, amalos, soft, tender. amalg- Modern Latin amalgama, a soft mass. aman-, amans, -amans, amant Latin amans, amantis, loving, fond, affectionate. Amana Japanese vernacular mane for A. edulis.

amanit-, Amanita Greek αµανιται, amanitai, or amanites, a kind of mushroom (or fungus). Alternately meaning affectionate, from Latin amans, amantis, Greek αµανιται, amanitai, for the attractive but deadly flyagaric, death-cap, and destroying angel fungi. Amanit resembling Amanita, from Greek αµανιτ-, amanit-, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, likeness, sight, -οπσις (?? in one source). Amanogawa Japanese cv. the Milky Way amanus -a -um from Amman Jordan, the Akmadagh-Amani mountains (or the mountain Amano) in Northern Syria , or Amanus mountain (the range?) in southern Turkey. amar- Latin amarus, bitter. amar-, amara, -amara Greek αµαρα, amara, a trench, conduit, channel. amarákon from Greek ἀµαράκον, amarakon, marjoram. amaraliocarpus -a -um with fruits resembling those of Amaralia, botanical Latin from Amaralia and καρπος, karpos. amaranth- unfading, from the Greek αµαριατινος, amariatinos, or amarantos for unfading, imperishable, in reference to the long-lasting flowers of the amaranth, Amaranthus sp. Amaranthaceae Amarantha'ceae (am-a-ranth-AY-see-ee) plants of the Amaranth family, from the genus name, Amaranthus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. amaranthoides amaranth-like, like or resembling Amaranthus, from Amaranthus and -oides. amaranticolor amaranth-colored Amaranthus (Amarantus) Amaran'thus (am-ar-AN-thus) everlasting, an alteration probably influenced by Greek anthos flower, of Greek Nicander’s name αναραντον, amaranton, from neuter of ἀµάραντος, amarantos immortal, unfading, nonwithering, in reference to the long-lasting flowers, from α-µαραινω, a-maraino, (from α-, privation, and µαραίνειν, marainein to waste, wither, decay, quench); in other senses, from New Latin Amaranthus, alteration, probably influenced by Greek ανθος, anthos, of Latin amarantus, a flower, probably Celosia cristata, modification of Greek amaranton. (Amaranthaceae) amaranticolor purple, Amaranthus-colored. amarantinus-a -um not fading, from Greek αµαρανθινος, amaranthinos. amaranthus blite, Amaranthus blitum, from Celsus. Amarcrinum the composite name for hybrids between Amaryllis and Crinum. amaricaulis bitter-stemmed, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. amarellus -a -um amarel'lus (am-ar-EL-us) bitter tasted, slightly bitter, diminutive of amarus. Amarelle cherries are red or yellow, with clear juice, while Morello cherries are black with colored juice (Gledhill). Amarine the composite generic name for hybrids between Amarylllis and Nerine. amarissimus -a -um very bitter, most bitter tasted, superlative of amarus. amarus-, amarus -a -um amar'um (am-AR-um) Latin adjective amarus -a -um, bitter; or sad and ill-natured, as in the amaras or bitters of the drinks industry. Quassia amara, cognate with amarella and morello. Amarygia the composite generic name for hybrids between Amaryliss and Brunsvigia. amarygrm-, amarygrma-, -amarygrma, amarygrmato Greek αµαρυγµα, amarygma, a sparkle, twinkle, flashing, radiant. Amaryllidaceae plants of the Amaryllis family, from the genus name, Amaryllis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. amaryllidifolius with leaves like Amaryllis, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Amaryllis Amaryl'lis (am-ar-IL-is) from the name of a country girl in Virgil’s writings. (Amaryllidaceae) amarylloides Amaryllis-like amat Latin amat, loved; a loved one amath-, amathi Greek αµαθης, amathes, stupid, ignorant, unmanageable. amath-, amatho-, amathus, -amathus Greek αµαθος, amathos, sand; sandy. amatolae of the Amatola mountains of South Africa. amaur-, amauro- Greek αµαυρος, amauros, dark, obscure, hardly seen. Amauriella indifferent, diminutive of αµανρος, amanros, stemless with a short inflorescence. Amauriopsis Amauriop'sis (a-mor-ee-OP-sis) from the generic name Amauria, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, likeness, sight. amauro- feeble, indifferent, gloomy, dark, from Greek αµαυρος, αµαυρο-. amaurollepidus -a -um having dark scales, dark-bracted, from Greek αµαυρο-, amauro-, and λεπιδος, lepidos.

amaurorhachis with black ribs amaurus -a -um dark, black, without luster, feeble, indifferent, from Greek αµαυρος, amauros. amax-, amaxi, amaxo Greek αµαξα, amaxa, the chassis of a wagon, a wagon, carriage. amazonicus -a -um of the Amazon River region or basin, of the Amazon, in South America. amb-, ambi- Latin around-, surrounding; both-, from ambio, ambire, ambii, ambitum, ambi-. amb-, ambi-, ambo Latin ambo -ae -o, both, two together. amb-, ambo Latin ambire, to walk, to go around. amb- Greek αµβον, ambon, raised platform. ambianensis -si -e from Ambiani (Civitas Ambianensium), now Amiens, France (Ambianum). The Ambiani were a Celtic Belgic people in the modern Somme valley, who mustered 10,000 men against Julius Caesar in 57 BC. ambi-, ambic, ambico Greek αµβιξ, ambix, a spouted cup, beaker. ambi- Latin prefix indicating on both sides, around, round about. ambig-, ambigu- Latin ambiguus, doubt; doubtful. ambigens Latin ambigen-us, of two kinds, mongrel, from amb(i)- both, and -genus -born, -natured. Absurdly referred by some to genu a knee! (OED); or doubtful, of uncertain relationship, from Latin ambi-, and genus, generis. Amberboa from the pre-Linnaean genus name Amberboi Vaillant, cited by Linnaeus in his original publication of Centaurea. (Compositae) ambiguous ambiguous, doubtful ambiguus -a --um ambig'uus (am-BIG-yoo-us) doubtful, uncertain, of uncertain relationship, from Latin ambigo, ambigere, applied to the perianth of Nymphaea. ambit- Latin ambitus, a going around, a circuit, bribery. ambl-, ambly- Greek blunt, from αµβλυς, amblys, αµβλυ-, ambly-. amblo-, amblos-, amblot- Greek αµβλωµα, ambloma, abortion. amblolepis with blunt membrane scales, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. amblyandrus -a -um in one source as having baggy, pouch-like swellings (????); having blunt anthers on the stamens, from Greek αµβλυς, amblys, and ανηρ, aner, ανδρος, andros. amblyanthus -a -um with blunt flowers, feeble flowering, from Greek αµβλυς, amblys, and ανθος, anthos. amblycalycus, amblycalyx with an irregular calyx, with a blunt calyx, from Greek αµβλυς, amblys, and καλυξ, kalyx. amblygonus -a -um blunt angled, from Greek αµβλυς, amblys, and γωνια, gonia. amblyocarpus -a -um with blunt tipped carpels, bearing obtuse, blunt fruits, from Greek αµβλυς, amblys, and καρπος, karpos. (carpels?) amblyodontus -a -um, amblyodon blunt, obtuse-toothed, blunt-toothed, from Greek αµβλυς and οδων. Amblyolepis from Greek αµβλυ-, ambly, blunt, and λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. amblyonemus with blunt threads or filaments Amblyopappus Amblyopap'pus (am-blee-oh-PAP-us) from Greek αµβλυς, amblys, blunt, and pappos, pappus. Amblyopetalum blunt petaled one, lit., from Greek αµβλυς, amblys, and πεταλον, petalon. amblyotus, amblyotis -is -e with blunt or weak ears; having blunt, obtuse ears, from Greek αµβλυς, amblys, and ωτος, otos (lobes). amblyphyllus blunt-leaved amblypterus having blunt, obtuse wings amblys Greek ἀµβλυς, amblys, blunt, dull ambo Latin both amboiensis -is -e (amboynensis), amboinicus -a -um from Amboina, (or Ambon) one of the Molucca Islands, Indonesia. ambon- Greek αµβον, ambon, ridge, crest, rim. ambovombensis -is -e from Ambovombe, Madagascar. ambro-, ambros- , ambrosia, -ambrosia, Ambrosius, Ambrosia, Ambrosiacus Ambro'sia (am-BRO-zee-a, or amBRO-see-a) elixir of the gods, Greek, Dioscorides’ name ἀµβροσία, ambrosia, food of the gods, divine, immortal, for Ambrosia maritima (divine food, food of the gods, immortality); with the fragrance of ambrosia, Latin, from Greek, literally, immortality, from ambrotos immortal, from a-, and Greek mbrotos mortal, whence Greek brotos, mortos, mortal, and -ia, the food of the Greek and Roman gods, or the ointment or perfume of the gods. How ragweed relates to the food of the gods is unclear. ambrosiacus -a -um Ambrosia-like, similar to Ambrosia.

Ambrosina diminutive of Ambrosia. ambrosioides ambrosio'ides (am-bro-zee-OH-i-dees) like the genus Ambrosia, the food of the gods, from Greek αµβροσια, ambrosia, food of the gods, food for immortality, and -οειδες, -oeides, adjective suffix for nouns: like, resemble. ambubeia see also intubus, chicory, endive. ambul-, ambulacr-, ambulat- Latin ambulare, walk. ambust- burned up, consumed, scorched, from Latin amburere, to burn round, scorch. ambusticolus -a -um ambustico'lus (am-bus-ti-KO-lus) amby-, ambyco-, ambyx, -ambyx Greek αµβυξ, ambyx, αµβιξ, ambix, a spouted cup, a cup. ameb-, ameba-, -ameba, amebo- Greek αµοιβη, amoiba (η?), change, exchange, alternation. amecaenis -is -e from Ameca, Mexico. amecamecanus -a -um from Amecameca, Mexico. amel- Old French, Middle English, enamel. Amelanchier Amelan'chier (a-me-LAN-kee-er, or am-el-ANK-ee-er) New Latin, from an old French (Provençal) common name, snowy-Mespilus, for A. ovalis, amélanchier shadbush, shadberry, of of A. vulgaris; or of Celtic origin, akin to Gaulish avallo apple, Old Irish ubull. Alternately, from the Savoyard name amelancier, for the medlar tree; note the root melan, from Latin mēlinus, of quinces, and ancient Greek µῆλον, melon, apple, quince. (Rosaceae) Amelasorbus the composite generic name for hybrids beween Amelanchier and Sorbus. amelloides Amellus-like, resembling Amellus, from Amellus and -oides. Amellus, amellus -a -um a name used by Virgil for a blue-flowered composite from the River Mella, near Manuta, Italy. ament-, amentum, -amentum Latin amentum, a thong, strap, shoe lace, catkin. amentaceus -a -um catkin-blooming, like a catkin, having catkins, of-catkins, from Latin amentum, amenti (Ciboria amentacea grows on fallen alder and willow catkins). amenteae catkin bloom bearers amenti- catkin-, from Latin amentum, amenti, a strap used to impart spin when throwing a javelin. amentiferous catkin-bearing, catkinlike amentum catkin amer- Greek αµεριστος, ameristos, undivided. amer- American. americanus -a -um america'na (a-me-ri-KAH-nus, or am-er-ik-AY-na) of the New World, from the Americas, American. Amerorchis from America plus orchis, from the American distribution of this close relative of Eurasian Orchis amesianus -a -um for Frederick Lothrop Ames (1835-1893), American orchidologist, or for Professor Oakes Ames (1874-1950), of the Harvard Botanic Garden, orchidologist. amethystea, amethystinus -a -um, amethysteus -a -um, amethysticus amethystine, the color of amethyst gems, the color of amethystine, bluish or mauve, violet colored, from Latin amethystinus, the color of amethyst, from Greek αµεθυστος, amethystos. amethystoglossus -a -um amethyst-tongued, from Greek αµεθυστος, amethystos, and γλωσσα, glossa (Cattelya). ametor Greek αµητωρ, ametor, (η?) motherless. ametos Greek αµητος, ametos, (η?) harvest. amia, -amia Greek αµια, amia, a kind of fish. amiant-, amianto- Greek αµιαντος, amiantos, unspotted, pure, undefiled. amianthinus -a -um violet on top or upwards, from Greek αµ, am, ανα, ana, and ιανθινος, ianthinos. Amianthium from Greek αµιαντος, amiantos, unsoiled, and ανθος, anthos, flower, referring to the glandless tepals. amiantinus asbestos colored, of a pale bluish-green color amiant(h)us from Greek ἀµἰαντος, amiantos, of Dioscorides. In mineralogy, a fibrous kind of chrysolite of a greenish color. amic- Latin amicus, friendly, kind, favorable to. Amicia for Jean Baptiste Amica (1786-1863), Italian physicist. amicorum from the Tonga Islands, from the Friendly Isles, Tonga, from Latin amicus, amici, friendly. amicus curiae a friend of the court

amict- Latin amicire, to clothe, wrap around, cover, conceal; wrapped up. amicto- Greek αµικτος, amiktos, unmixed, pure, immiscible. amictus -a -um clad, clothed, covered, from Latin amicio, amicire, amiculi. amiulatus -a -um cloaked, mantled, with a cloak, from Latin amiculum, amiculi. Amicule, deliciae, num is sum qui mentiar tibi? Baby, sweetheart, would I lie to you? amid-, amido-; amin-, amine-, -amine, amino- (N: ammonia), ammonia. amis Greek αµις, amis, a chamber pot. amm-, ammo-, ammus, -ammus Greek αµµος, ammos, sand, a sandy place, a race course. amma, -amma, ammato Greek αµµa, amma, a knot, noose, halter. Ammania Amman'nia (am-AN-ee-a) named for Paul Ammann (1634-1691), German botanist, alternately John Amman, of Siberia, professor of botany at St. Petersburg. (Lythraceae) Ammi sand, a Greek name αµµη, amme,(η?) used by Dioscorides for Carum copticum and reapplied by Linnaeus. ammi ammi (cultivated), Carum copticum, from Egypt (?) listed as a spice, J.I. Miller, pp.28 (112 'ammi' was a term used by the Greeks, may be what was called Royal Cumin (as called by Hippocrates) or Ethiopian Cumin which is supposedly different from the Egyptian variety, Carum copticum; what was called Royal Cumin was said to have a sweeter smell than Carum copticum or what was cultivated cumin ammifolius with leaves like bishop’s weed, Ammi, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Ámmios from Greek Ἄµµιος, Ammios, ajwain seeds. ammo- sand, from Greek αµµος, ammos, αµµη, amme, (η?), ψαµµος, psammos. Ammobium sand-dweller, from Greek αµµο, ammo, and βιο, bio. Ammocalamagrostis the compound name for hybrids between Ammophila and Calamagrostis. Ammocharis sand beauty, from Greek αµµο, ammo, and χαριεις, kharieis, for the sandy habitat. Compare Eleocharis. ammodendron tree of the sand, from Greek αµµο, ammo, and δενδρον, dendron, for the sandy habitat. ammodytes living in sandy places Ammoides, ammoides resembling Ammi, cumin, from Greek αµµη, amme(η?), and οειδες, oeides. ammon- Greek mythology African; or Αµµονις, Ammonis, Libyan. ammoni Greek αµµονιακος, ammoniakos, of Ammon. “Used for a salt and gum obtained from a region of Libya near the temple of Ammon (Jupiter). Hence gum-ammoniacum.” (Williams) ammoniace ammoniace Ferula marmarica, from Libya. ammoniacum gum ammoniac, from Greek αµµονιακος, ammoniakos, of Ammon (ammonia was first noted at the temple of Ammon, Siwa, Egypt, and its modern Latin name was given in the 18th century) an old generic name for Dorema ammoniacum. (Gledhill) ammoniacus ammonia yielding, containing ammonia. Ammophila, ammophilus -a -um sand loving, from ammophilus, sand-loving, from Greek ἅµµος, ammos, sand, -o-, connective vowel in botanical Latin, usually for Greek words, ancient Greek φίλος, philos, adjective loving, dear, from φιλοσεον, philoseon, loved; loving, friendly, fond, and –us, Latinizing suffix; also listed as from fileiu (phila), love; for the sandy habitat. Ammophila is also a genus of sand-nesting, thread-waisted wasps. ammophillus -a -um sand loving, from Greek αµµος, ammos, sand, and φιλος, philos, loving. (Gledhill) ammotrophus ammonia-loving (??) amn-, amno-, amnus, -amnus Greek αµνη, amne (η?) a lamb. amni-, amnis, -amnis Latin amis, a river. amnicolus -a -um amnico'lus (am-ni-KO-lus) growing by a river, from Latin amnis, river, and colo. amnio-, -amnion, amniot- Greek αµνιον, amnion, a lamb; a foetal membrane; a bowl in which the blood of victims was caught. amoeb-, amoeba,-amoeba, amoebo Greek αµοιβη, amoiba (η?) change, exchange, barter. Amoeba changing one, from Greek αµοιβη, amoiba (η?). amoeboides, amoebus form changing, interchanging amoen-, amoenus -a -um Latin amoenus, pleasant, charming, delightful, lovely, pleasing. amoenolens delightfully scented, from Latin amoenus, pleasant, and olens, (gen.) olentis, Latin with an odor good or bad, odorous, fragrant, stinking. amoenulus -a -um quite pleasing or pretty, diminutive of Latin amoenus. amolgaeo Greek αµαλγαιος, amalgaios, of milk. amolgos Greek αµαλγος, amalgos, the dead of night.

amomoides cardamom-like, Amomum amomos Greek αµωµος, amomos, blameless, unblemished, perfect. Amomum, amomum a-MOM-um; an aromatic shrub, from Greek purifier, α-µωµος, a-momos, a name for an eastern spice plant, cardamom, Amomum and the spice obtained from it. Probably from an Arabic name, the Indian spice plant was used to cure poisoning. This root is also in cinnamomum. Ámōmon from Greek ἄµωµον, amomon, black cardamom. amorginus -a -um from the islands of Amorgos, Greece Amorpha Amor'pha (a-MORE-fa) New Latin, deformed one, from Greek αµορφὴ, amorphè, feminine of αµορφος, amorphos, shapeless, deformed, formless, from α, a, privation, and µορφὴ, morphè,applied to the abnormal flowers; the flower of the Amorpha consist only of one petal, the standard, with the typical wing and keel petals missing. (Leguminosae) Amorphoplallus deformed phallus, from Greek αµορφος, amorphos, and φαλλος, phallos, for the enlarged spadix. amorphus -a -um, amorpho- deformed, shapeless, without a definite form, from Greek αµορφος, amorphos, αµορφη, amorphe (η?), shapeless, misshapen, without form, deformed, ugly, unsightly, and –us, Latinizing suffix. amoto- Greek αµοτος, amotos, furious, savage. ampel-, ampelo-, ampelus, -ampelus from Greek αµπελος, ampelos, any climbing plant with tendrils, especially the grape vine; referring a vine. Ampelamus Greek αµπελος, ampelos, a vine ampelas having the habit of a vine, from Greek αµπελος, ampelos. Ampelaster Greek αµπελος, ampelos, vine, and the generic name Aster Ampelidaceae from the genus name, Ampelopsis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. ampelideae vine-like plants, from Greek αµπελος, ampelos, and ampelo- wine-, vine-, grape-, from Greek αµπελος, ampelos. Ampelodesmos (Ampelodesma) wine cable, from Greek αµπελο, ampelo, and δεσµος, desmos. ampeloprasum leek of the vineyard, from Greek αµπελοπρασσον, ampeloprasson, a name used by Dioscorides. Ampelopsis like a vine, vine resembling, from Greek άµπελος, ampelos, vine, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, likeness, sight. (Ampelidaceae, formerly Vitaceae). Ampelopteris vine-fern, from Greek αµπελο, ampelo, and πτερυξ, pteryx, for the scrambling habit. Ampelos from Greek ἀµπειος, ampleios, f. climbing plant, vine amph-, amphi-, ampho- Greek αµφια-, amphia, around-, on both (all) sides, in two ways, both ways, both-; apart, asunder, double-, of both kinds; αµφις, amphis, αµφι-, amphi-, αµφοτερος, amphoteros, αµφο-, ampho-. amph-, ampho- Greek αµφο-, ampho, both, of to ways, of two sides, etc. amphi- both, two (amphibius) Amphiachyris Greek amphi-, around, on all or both sides and achyron, chaff or husks, alluding to ring of pappus elements Amphiachyris Greek amphi-, around, and achyron, chaff or husks, a reference to the ring of pappus elements amphibius -a -um amphib'ius (am-FIB-ee-us, or am-FI-bee-us) with a double life, amphibious, growing both in water or on land, equally well, from Greek αµφι, amphi, on both or all sides, βιος, bios, life, mode of life, and –us Latinizing suffix. amphiblestr-, amphiblestrum, -amphiblestrum Greek αµφιβληστρον, amphiblestron, a net, a casing net, anything thrown around; a garment. amphibol-, amphibolo- Greek αµφιβολια, amphibolia, uncertain, ambiguity; being attacked on both sides. amphibolus -a -um fired at from all sides, ambiguous, doubtful, from Latin amphibolus, ambiguous, from Greek αµφιβολος, ἀµϕίβολον, amphibolos, amphibolon, thrown or hitting on both sides, doubtful, ambiguous, from αµφι-βολια, doubt, from ἀµϕί, amphi, on both sides, and βολ- , βαλ-, bol-, bal-, stem of βάλλ-ειν, ballein, to throw, in reference to a peculiar morphology. Compare diabol- and Sporobolus. Amphicarpa, Amphicarpaea of two kinds of seeds, from Greek ἄµφι, amphi, Latin ambo, both, of both kinds and Greek καρπὸς, karpos, fruit, for the aerial and subterranean seeds. (Leguminosae) amphicarpos with curved pods, from Greek αµφι, amphi, and καρπος, karpos. (Gledhill) Vide supra. Amphicarpum from Greek ἄµφι, amphi, both or twain, καρπὸς, karpos, fruit, in reference to the aerial and subterranean fruits. (Gramineae) Amphicome haired-about, from Greek αµφι, amphi, and κοµη, kome(η?). The seeds have tufts of hair at each end. Williams uses κοµη, coma. ( = Incarvillea)

amphidason, amphidasyus, amphidasys with woolly surroundings amphidoxa of all-around glory, from Greek αµφι, amphi, and δοξα, doxa, for the seasonal flower and foliage coloring. amphigy Greek αµφιγυος, amphigyos, double-pointed. amphilogus Greek, ἀµφίλογ-ος, amphilog-os, doubtful, disputed. amphioxys lancet-like, tapering to each end, sharp all around, from Greek αµφι, amphi, and οξυς, oxys. Amphilophis in one source as uncertain, disputed, from Greek ἀµφί, amphi, on both sides, and -λογος, logos, -speaking, a literal circumlocution (more likely from λόφος, λόφιο-ν, lophos, lophion, a crest, mane, plume) Amphilophus is a genus of cichlid fish with a prominent ‘crested’ forehead, and Amphilophis is a tropical C4 grass genus with a ‘maned’ inflorescence, now included in Bothriochloa, Yellow Bluestem. Amphipappus Amphipap'pus (am-fi-PAP-us) Amphiscirpus from Greek ἀµφί-, amphi-, doubtful, ambiguous, and Latin scirpus, bulrush amphistomus with double lips amphor, amphor-, amphora, -amphora Latin amphora, a bottle, flask, referring to an urn, a pitcher; a twohandled, harrow-necked jar, from Greek ἀµϕορεύς, amphoreus, contracted from ἀµϕιϕορεύς, amphiphoreus, from ἀµϕί, amphi, on both sides, and ϕορεύς, phoreus, bearer, from ϕέρειν, phorein, to bear, in reference to the two handles. amphoratus -a -um amphora bearing, by usage amphora shaped from Greek αµφι, amphi, and φορευς, phoreus, a bearer. Amphorella small wine jar, from Greek αµφορευς, amphoreus. amphoricaulis -is -e stem shaped like a pitcher, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. amphostemus, amphistemon with double threads or filaments ample-, amplect, amplex Latin amplexus, embrace, twine around, clasp, grasp. amplectens amplec'tens (am-PLEK-tens) embracing, stem clasping leaf bases, applied to leaves above each other on the same stem(???), from Latin amplector, amplecti, amplexus, to embrace or encircle. amplectivus embracing, applied to leaves above each other on the same stem(?), from Latin, amplex-, amplexi- clasping; or loving, embracing, from Latin ampleror, amplexare, amplexatus. amplexans twisting together, surrounding, embracing, from Greek αµ-πλεκτος, am-plektos. amplexicaulis -is -e amplexicau'lis (am-plex-i-KAW-lis) Modern Latin, clasping or encircling the stem, embracing the stem, or stems clasped, when the leaf is dilated at the base and embraces the stem; from Latin amplexus, amplexus, m., an embrace, from amplector, amplecti, amplexus sum, surround, encircle, embrace, clasp; esteem; cherish; surround, include, grasp, -i-, connective vowel used by botanical Latin, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; or from Greek αµπλεκτος-καυλος, amplektos-kaulos. The usual spelling was -colis or -coles. amplexifolius -a -um leaf surrounding, leaf-clasping, with leaves that clasp or encircle the stem, from Latin amplexus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. ampli- Latin ampliare, to increase, to make wider, to enlarge; spacious; or large or double, from amplus. ampliatus -a -um widened, enlarged, from Latin amplio, ampliare, ampliavi, ampliatum. ampliceps large-headed, from Latin amplus-ceps; alternately interpreted as clasped head, from Greek αµπλι, ampli, and κεφαλη, kephale (η?). amplifolius -a -um large leaved, from Latin amplus, large, great, ample, spacious, -i- , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. amplissimus -a -um amplis'simus (am-PLIS-i-mus) most or very ample, very large, extra big, the biggest, extra broad, extra full, superlative of Latin amplus. amplus -a -um ample, spacious, large, broad, large or double, from Latin amplus. ampulla, -ampulla Latin ampulla, a flask, a bottle. ampulaceus -a -um referring to a flask-shape, from Latin ampulla -ae f, a two-handled flask. ampullaceus -a -um lantern-shaped, bottle-shaped, flask-shaped, inflated, from Latin ampulla. ampullaris -is -e bottle-shaped, flask-shaped, from Latin ampulla. ampulli- bottle-, from Latin ampulla, ampullae. ampulliformis swollen, flask-shaped, as the corolla of Heather amput-, amputa- Latin amputare, to cut away, to cut off, to remove, to diminish. ampy-, ampyc, ampyx, -ampyx Greek αµπυξ, ampyx, a head band, a band or fillet for binding the hair. Amsinckia Amsinck'ia (am-SINK-ee-a) New Latin, from Wilhelm Amsinck (1752-1831), German botanist and patron of the Hamburgh Botanic Garden, and New Latin -ia

Amsonia Amso'nia (am-SEW-nee-a) commemorating Charles Amson, fl. 1760, 18th century Virginia physician and traveller in America. amurc- Latin amerca, dirt, dregs. amurensis -is -e, amuricus -a -um from region of the Amur River region near Siberia, from the area of Heilong Jiang (the Amur River) on the Russian/ Chinese border. amyct-, amyctic- Greek αµυκιτος, amyktyos, scratching, biting, lacerating. amydr-, amydro-, amydros Greek αµυδρος, amydros, dark, dim, faint, indistinct, obscure, vague. amygdal, amygdala, -amygdala, amygdalo Greek αµυγδαλη, amygdale (η?) an almond. amygdálē, amygdaliá, amýgdalos from Greek ἀµυγδάλη, amygdale (η?), αµυγδαλιά, amygdalia, ἀµύγδαλος, amygdalos, almond. amygdaleus of an almond tree amygdalifolius -a -um almond leaved, from Greek Amygdalus, ἀµύγδαλος, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. amygdaliformis almond-shaped amygdalinus, amygalïnus, amygdaloides almond-like, Amylgdalus amygdalinus almond-like, kernel-like, resembling Amylgdalus, from greek ἀµύγδαλινος, amygdalinos. amygdaloides almond-like, like Amylgdalus, from Greek ἀµύγδαλος, amygdalos, and οειδες, oeides. amygdalopersicus Persian almond, from Greek ἀµύγδαλος, amygdalos, and περσικος, persikos. Amygdalus, amygdalus from Latin amygdala, from Greek name ἀµύγδαλος, amygdalos, for the almond-tree, ἀµυγδάλη, amygdale, an almond, from Hebrew megdh-el, sacred fruit. (Rosaceae) amyl-, amylo-, amylum, -amylum Latin amylum, from Greek αµυλον, amylon, starch; a cake of fine meal. amylaceus -a -um flour-like, starch-like, starchy, from Greek αµυλον, amylon. amyleus mealy, floury amyn- Greek αµυνω, amyno, to ward off. amyst-, amystis Greek αµυστις, amystis, a large cup, long draught, deep drinking. amysto- Greek αµυστος, amystos, profane. amyxis Greek αµυξις, amyxis, a scratching or tearing as a sign of sign. an- Greek prefix ἀν-, an-, without, not. an-, ana Greek ανα-, ana, αν-, an-, prefix indicating upon-, without-, backwards-, above-, again-, upwards-, up-. an- Latin prefix, an assimilative form of ad- used before n-, meaning at, to, towards. ana Greek ανα, ana, on, up, up to, upon, through, throughout, towards, back, backwards, again (in general singificance opposite to κατα-, cata). (Williams) ana- Latin the anus anabas-, anabasis -is -e Greek αναβασις, anabasis, αναβασεως, anabaseos, a going up, ascent, going upwards, climbing. Anabasis without-pedestal, from Greek ανα-, ana-, and βασις, basis, in referenc to the lack of a gynophore. anabioticus reviving, coming to life again anablep-, anablepo Greek αναβλεπω, anablepo, to look up, to look back. Anacampseros love-returning, from Greek ανα, ana, καµπτω, kampto, and ερος, eros, a love charm. Anacamptis bent-back, from Greek ανα, ana and καµπτω, kampto, for the long spur oof the flowers. anacamptus bending back, growing downwards, from Greek ανα, ana and καµπτω, kampto. anacanthous Anacardiaceae, anacanthus -a -um spineless, without thorns or spines, from Greek ανακανθα, an-akantha. Anacardiaceae Anacardia'ceae (an-a-kar-dee-AY-see-ee) resembling Monkey Nut, Anacardium, from the genus name, Anacardium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. anacardioides anacardium-like, from Anacardium the cashew genus, referring to the heart-shaped false-fruit. Anacardium heart-above, from Greek ανα-, ana-, and καρδια, kardia, a Linnaean name referring to the shape of the false-fruit. (Anacardiaceae) Anacharis without-charm, from Greek ανα-, ana-, and χαρις, kharis. Compare Eleocharis, Hydrocharis, and Ammocharis. anachor-, anachoret-, anachotetes Greek αναχωρηστις, anakhorestis, one who has retired, recluse, hermit. anachoreticus of hermit habitats, isolated anachoretus -a -um not in chorus, growing in seclusion, from Greek ανα-, ana-, and χορος, khoros, χορητος, khoretos. anachyma Greek αναχυµα, anakhyma, an expanse.

anact-, anacto Greek ανακτωρ, anaktor, a king, lord, master, chief. Anacylus lacking a circle, from Greek ανα-, ana- and κυκλος, kyklos, for the arrangement of the outer florets on the disc. Anadelphia without brothers or sisters, from Greek αν-, an-, and αδελφος, adelphos, for the racemes lack of homogamous pairs of spikelets. anaedo- Greek αναιδης, anaides, ruthless, shameless, reckless. anaereto- Greek αναιρετης, anairetes, destroyer, murderer. anagall-, anagallis, -anagallis Greek αναγαλλις, anagallis, the pimpernel. anagallideus -a -um like the genus Anagallis (pimpernel) resembling pimpernel, from Anagallis, αναγαλλις, a Greek name for pimpernel, and -eus, made from, -color, -like. anagallidifolius -a -um Anagallis-leaved, from Greek Anagallis, αναγαλλις, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Anagallis Anagal'lis (an-a-GAL-is) New Latin, from Latin, a plant (probably pimpernel or chickweed), from Greek αναγαλλις, anagallis, pimpernel. Derived from ανα-αγαλλω, ana-agallo, unpretentious, or αναγελαω, anagelao, delighting. anagallis-aquatica anagal'lis-aqua'tica (an-a-GAL-is -- a-KWA-ti-ka) water-Anagallis (a Veronica species), New Latin from Anagallis and aquatica. anagalloides anagallo'ides (an-a-gal-OH-i-dees) resembling Anagallis, from Anagallis and -oides. Anagyris backward-turning, from Greek ανα-, ana-, and γυρος gyros. anagyroides resembling Anagyris, from Anagyris and oides. analcido- Greek αναλκις, analkis, weak, feeble, impotent. analecto- Greek αναλεκτος, analektos, select, choice. analpticus refreshing analog-, analogia, -analogia, analogy, -analogy Greek αναλογος, analogos, proportion, proportionate, equivalent to. anamiticus from Anam in India Ananas probably from Tupi-Guarani vernacular name, nana, anana, ananas. ananassus -a -um small-lipped, pineapple-like, from ananas, for the fruiting receptacle. ananco- Greek ανακη, anaka (η?), force, necessity. anandrius -a -um unmanly, lacking stamens, from Greek ανανδρος, anandros. anant-, ananta, ananto- Greek αναντα, ananta, αναντης, anantes, not-direct, uphill, steep, endless. anantherous, anantherum without flowering, applied to filaments without anthers ananthocladus -a -um havin non-flowering shoots, from Greek αν, an, ανθο, antho, κλαδος, klados. anapetes Greek αναπετης, anapetes, wide open, expanded. Anaphalis (a-NA-fa-lis) Anaphalis New Latin from an ancient Greek name for a similar plant, an immortelle (a composite with papery texture that dries well), or possibly, derived from generic name Gnaphalium. anaphes Greek αναφης, anaphes, insipid, tasteless, impalpable. anaphysemus -a -um turned-back-bladder lit., from Greek ανα, ana, φυσα, physa, for the swollen tip of the curved spur; of meaning without a bladder. anapno- Greek αναπνεω, anapneo, take breath, breathe again, recover, rest. anapt-, anapto Greek αναπτο, anapto, fasten, hang. anarrhich- Greek αναρριχησις, anarrhichesis, climb up, clambering up, scrambling up. anarsios Greek αναρσιος, anarsios, strange, hostile, implacable. anas, -anas Latin anas, a duck. anassa, -anassa Greek ανασσα, anassa, a queen, a lady. Anastatica, anastaticus -a -um resurrection, from Greek αναστοµαω, anastomao, Anastatica hierochuntia, resurrection plant or rose of Jericho. Greek ἀνάστασις, anastasis, resurrection, cf. στατικ-ός, statik-os, causing to stand. anastater Greek αναστατηρ, anastater, destroyer. anastomans intertwining, anastomozing, from Greek αναστοµαω, anastomao, (forming ‘mouths’). anastomos- Greek ἀναστόµωσις, anastomosis, outlet, opening; coming together, as in a connection of sap vessels in a plant, from ἀναστοµό-ειν, to furnish with a mouth or outlet. anastomosans with network, entanglement of branches and twigs anastreptus -a -um twisted-backwards, curved-backwards, lit., from Greek ανα, ana, and στρεπτος, streptos. anat- Latin anatis, a duck.

anathema from Latin anathema, an excommunicated person, the curse of excommunication, from Greek αναθεµα, anathema, a curse, an accursed thing, a thing devoted to evil, originally from ἀνάθηµα, anathema, an offering, a thing sent up to the gods. anatherus earless, without ears anatiferus producing ducks or geese, from Latin anas, anati-, duck, and -ferus producing, i.e. producing barnacles, formerly supposed to grow on trees, and dropping off into the water below, to turn to ‘Tree-geese’ (OED) anatinus -a -um healthy, rewarding, from Greek ανα, ana, and τινω, tino. anato- Greek ανατο-, anato-, cut up. anatolicus -a -um, anatoliensis -is -e referring to Anatolia, that part of Turkey in Asia, Turkish, or a reference to Asia Minor. anatomicus skin, membrane-like, translucent anatomicus -a -um skeletal, cut-up, from Greek ανα, ana, up, and τεµνειν, temnien, from τευ-, teu, του-, tou, cut; a reference to leaves. anatos Greek ανατος, anatos, unharmed, harmless. anatropus bent over anax, -anax Greek αναξ, anax, a king, lord, chief. anaxios Greek αναξιος, anaxios, worthless, unworthy, despicable, royal. anc-, anceps, -anceps ancipiti- Latin ancipitis, two-headed. -ance, -ancy, -ence, -ency Latin -antia, -entia, sufffixes pertaining to, quality of, state anceps Latin anceps, ancipitis, doubtful, dangerous, two-headed, on both sides, of two natures, two-edged, flattened or compressed, used of stems flattened to form two edges; from an (= ambi), both, and capit-, head. anch-, ancho Greek άγχω, ancho, verb, strangle, throttle, squeeze, embrace. The suffix -anche is used in names of poisonous plants anch- Greek αγκος, agkos, (anch-), a hollow. anchi- Greek αγχι-, agchi, (anchi-), near. anchialos Greek αγχιαλος, agchialos, (anchialos) near the sea. anchist-, anchistos Greek αγχιstos, agchistos (anchistos) close-packed. ancho Greek άγχω, agcho (ancho), press tight, choke, throttle. Anchomanes from Greek, a name used by Dioscorides for another arum, from αγκυρα, agkyra (ankyra), and µανια, mania, the stems are prickly. anchoriferus -a -um bearing langes, anchor-like, from poor Latin anchora, and fero, from Greek αγκυρα, agkyra (ankyra) and φερο, phero. Anchusa New Latin, from Latin, alkanet, from Greek αγχω, agcho (ancho), strangler, or αγχου, agchou (anchou), close, or Aristophanes name αγχουσα, agchousa, (anchousa), εγχουσα, agchousa (anchousa), formerly for an alkanet yieiding a red dye, or Latin anchūsa plant used as a cosmetic, ox-tongue: Anchusa tinctoria anchusifolius-a -um Anchusa-leaved, with leaves like alkanet, Anchusa, from Anchusa and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. anchusoides resembling alkanet, Anchusa-like, from Greek αγχουσα, agchousa, (anchousa), and οειδες, oeides. anchyl-, anchylo Greek αγκυλος, agkylos, (anchylos) crooked, bent. anchylosis Greek ἀγκύλωσις, agkylosis, (anchylosis) stiffening of the joints, from αγκυλό-ειν, agkylo-ein, to crook. ancile shield ancill-, ancilla Latin ancilla, a maid-servant, female slave. ancipiti- Latin ancipitis, two-headed. ancistr-, ancistro-, ancistrum, -ancistrum, Ancistron Greek ἀνκιστρον, ankistron n. fish-hook, a surgical instrument. ancistracanthus hook edged(?), and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. Ancistrocactus Greek ἀνκιστρον, ankistron, fish hook, referring to hooked central spines, and Cactus, an old genus name Ancistrocarphus Greek ankistros, fishhook, and καρφος, karphos, chaff, referring to staminate paleae of type species ancistrocarpus bearing hook-shaped fruits Anchistrocheilus fish-hook-lip, from Greek ἀνκιστρο-, ankistro-, and χειλος, cheilos, for the deflexed lips.

Ancisrtorhynchus fish-hook-beak, from Greek αγκιστρο, agkistro, and -ρυγχος, -rygxos, (rhynchos) from the shape of the pollinarium. ancistroides of hook-like shape ancistrophyllus -a -um, Anchistrophyllum with hook-like leaves, or fish-hook-leaves, from αγκιστρο, agkistro, (anchistro) and φυλλον, phyllon, a leaf, for the leaf rachis terminating in hooked spines; or quick hanging leaf (or quick-changing-leaf), from the various leaflets and spines on the rachis, αγχι, agchi, (anchi), στροφο, stropho, -φυλλον, phyllon, a leaf. Ancistis barbed-one, from αγκιστριον, agkistrion (anchistrion). anco-, ancon Greek the elbow; a bend; a valley (Borror) anco- Greek αγκος, agkos (ankos), a valley, a hollow, bend. ancon Greek αγκων, agkon (ankon) elbow, any nook or bend. ancor-, ancora, -ancora Latin ancora, an anchor. anctero Greek αγκτηρ, agkter (ankter) binder, clasp. ancus Latin anncus, servant. -ancy, -ance, -ence, -ency Latin -antia, -entia, sufffixes pertaining to, quality of, state ancyl-, ancylo Greek crooked, bent, hooked-, curved-, from αγκυλος, agkylos, (ankylos), αγκυλο-, agkylos (ankylos). ancyleus hooked, bent ancylio Greek αγκυλιον, agkylion (ankylion), a link of a chain, loop of a noose. ancylotus having joints like bamboos and other canes ancyr-, ancyra, -ancyra Greek αγχυρα, agchyra (anchyra), an anchor ancyrensis -is -e from Ankara, (Ancyra) Turkey. -and Latin, suffix having the quality of. andalgalensis -is -e from Andalgal, Argentina. andaminus -a -um, andamanicus from the Andaman Islands in the southeast Bay of Bengal. Andenken an (…) German cv. remembrance of (…) andegavensis -is -e from Angers, Ajou, a town in Haute-Normandy, France (Andegava). ander-, andero-, anderum, -anderum Greek ανδηρον, anderon, a raised bank, a flower border, a flower bed. ander, andra, andro, andrum a man, the male, modern Latin -andrus, from Greek -ανδρος, -andros, adjective ending, from ἀνδρ-, andr-, stem of ἀνήρ, aner, man Andersonia for William Anderson (1750-1778), botanist on Cook’s second and third voyages. andersonii anderso'nii (an-der-SEW-nee-eye) for Thomas Anderson (1832--1870), botanist in Bengal; for J. Anderson fl. 1909), plant collector in the Gold Coast (Ghana); or Messrs. Anderson, patrons of botany. andesicolus -a -um from the South American Andes cordillera, Andes-colo. andicolus -a -um from the Columbian Andean cordillera, Andes-colo. andicolus, andinus referring to the Andes, from the Andes Mountains in South America andigitrensis from the Andigitra mountains, Madagascar. andin- New Latin of the Andes andinus Andine, of the Andes Mts., from Andes, and –inus, belonging to. andinus -a -um from the high Chilean Andes. Andira, andina from the Brazilian vernacular name. andongensis is -e from Pungo Andongo in NW Angola, tropcal Africa andr-, andro- Greek ανδρος, andros, ανδρο- andro-, a man, a male, belonging to or of a man, referring to the male part, usually the anthers Andrachne from ancient Greek name ανδραχνε, andrachne, for an evergreen shrub. andrachnoides resembling false-orpine Andrachne, from Greek ανδραχνε, andrachne, and -οειδης, -oeides. Andreaea for J. G. R. Andreae (1724-1793), apothecary of Hanover, Germany Andreaeobryum for the genus Andreaea and Greek bryon, moss, alluding to anomalous resemblance andreanus -a -um for E. F. André (1840-1911), Parisian landscape gardner. andren-, andrena, -andrena New Latin andrena, bee andren- Greek ανδρηια, andreia, manliness. andrewsianus -a -um, andrewsii andrew'sii (an-DROOZ-ee-ee, or an-DROO-see-eye) after H.C. Andrews, early 19th century botanical writer. andrieuxii for G. Andrieux, plant collector in Mexico. andro-, -andrus -a -um male-, man-, stamened-, anthered-, from Greek ανηρ, ανδρ-, ανδρος, ανδρο-, aner, andr-, andros, andro-.

androcladum from Greek ανδρος, andros, ανδρο-, andro-, a man, and κλάδος, klados, -cladus, a young branch, a young shoot, sprout, referring to a branch. Androcymbium male-cup, andro-cymbium, the petal limbs enfold the stamens. androgynos Greek ανδρογυνος, androgynos, hermaphrodite. androgynus -a -um hermaphrodite, having staminate and pistillate flowers on the same head; having male and female parts or flowers on the same plant, from Greek ανηρ-γυνη, aner-gyne (?Gledhill), androgynus, androgyni. Andromeda (an-DROM-e-da) after Andromeda of Greek mythology. Andromeda from Andromeda, the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiope, whom Perseus rescued from the sea monster. andromedea andromede'a (an-dro-meh-DEE-a) andromediflorus with flowers like Andromeda andromedifolius -a -um andromedifo'lius (an-dro-me-di-FO-lee-us) Andropogon (an-dro-PO-gon) bearded-male, or man beard from Greek ανδρος, andros, a man’s, from ανηρ, aner, ανδρ-, andr-, man, male, and from ancient Greek πώγων, pōgōn, beard, ανδρο-πωγων, andro-pogon, in reference to the many species with long white hairs in the seed head, the awned male spikelet, or properly the pubescent pedicels of the staminate spikelets. Androrchis male testicle, from Greek ανδρ-ορχις, andr-orchis, Orchis mascula, or man orchid. Androsace man shield, from Greek ανδρο-σακος, andro-sakos, for the exposed stamens of heterostyled species; or New Latin, alteration of Latin androsaces, a plant or zoophyte, from Greek androsakes, a sea plant (probably a species of Acetabularia) (Primulaceae) androsaceus -a -um androsa'ceus (an-dro-SAY-see-us) like Androsace, of the type of Rock-jasmine Androsace; like Androsace (for the pink and brown pileus of the horse hair fungus). androsacoides resembling Rock-jasmine androsaemiflorus androsaemum-flowered androsaemifolius -a -um androsaemifo'lium (an-dro-see-mi-FO-lee-um) Androsaemum leaved, Androsaemumfolium, leaves like Androsaemum (now Hypericum), from androsaemon, androsaem, from the Greek ανδροσαιµον, androsaimon, Hypericum perforatum, from Greek aner (man) aima (blood) referring to the blood red sap (or berry juice), plus -i- connective vowel used by botanical Latin, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Androsaemum, androsaemum man’s-blood, from Greek ανδρος-αιµα, andros-aima, from Dioscorides, ανδροςαιµον, androsaimon, for the blood-colored juice of the berries. Androstephium from Greek andros, male, by inference stamen, and stephanos, crown, referring to the apical appendages of the united filaments andrus -a -um -stamened from Greek ανηρ, aner, ανδρ-, andr-. Andryala entymology uncertain. -anea, -anum, -anus Latin suffix meaning belonging to, often used with place names. anebos Greek ανηβος, anebos, youth, beardless. aneca- Greek ανεκας, anekas, upwards. anecto Greek ανηκτος, anektos, bearable, tolerable. anegadensis -is -e from Anegada Island, Puerto Rico. Aneilema with-out a cover, from α(ν)-ειλυµα, a(n)- eilyma, from the absence of an involucre. aneilematophyllus -a -um having leaves resembling those of Aneilema. aneitensis from Aneitom, New Hebrides anell- Latin anellus, a little ring. anelsonii anel'sonii (ay-NEL-son-ee-eye) anem-, anemo- referring to wind, from Greek ανεµος, anemos, the wind. Anemarrhena exposed-males, from ανεµ-αρρην, anem-arrhen, for the exposed stamens. Anemia (Aneimia) naked, from Greek ανειµων, aneimon, without clothing, referring to the absence of blade protection for the sporangia, or the sori have no indusia. Anemiopsis Anemop'sis (an-em-OP-sis) naked looking, from ανειµων-οψις, aneimon-opsis, from and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, likeness, sight, for the sparsely-leaved stems. Anemoi wind gods, from Greek Ἄνεµοι, Anemoi, winds. The wind gods of the cardinal and ordinal (Ἄνεµοι Θύελλαι, Anemoi Thuellia) directions, equivalent to the Roman Venti. Anemone (a-ne-MOW-nee, anem′one, or anemo′ne) Wind flower, a name used by Theophrastus, from Latin and Greek anemōnē, from ἄνεµος, anemos, the wind, for it was thought that the flowers did not expand until beaten by the wind, or in reference to the elevated and windy habitat of many sepcies; or a corruption of the

Semitic name for Adonis, Na’man (Na’amen, Naàmān). His blood is said to have given rise to the blood red flowers of A. coronaria. Alternately from the nymph Anemone who was turned into a flower by a jealous goddess, and forever buffeted by the north wind. Colloquially mispronounced a-NEM-oh-nee. (Ranunculaceae) anemoneflorus -a -um, anemoniflorus -a -um anemone-flowered anemonefolius -a -um, anemonifolius -a -um anemone-leaved, from Anemone and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Anemonella (ann-emm-on-ELL-ah) little Anemone-resembling, -ella a diminutive suffix. (Ranunculaceae) anemones of or upon Anemone, name for an Urocystis smut fungus. anemoniflorus -a -um Anemone-flowered. anemonifolius -a -um anemone-leaved, from Anemone and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. anemonoides Anemone-like, resembling Windflowers, Anemone, from Anemone and oides. Anemopaegma wind-sportive, from Greek ανεµος-παιγνεµων, anemones-paignemon, (παιγνια, paignia, sport). anemophilous, anemophilus wind-loving, applied to wind pollinated flowers Anemopsis from Greek anemone, the windflower, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. aner Greek ανηρ, aner, a man, male. Ánēson, Ánēton, Ánētos from Greek ἄνησον, aneson, ἄνητον, aneton, άνητος, anetos, dill. Ánētos from Greek ἄνητον, aneton, anise seeds. anesum, -i, n. aniseed in hydromel anethifolius anethum-leaved, having leaves like Dill, Anethum, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. anethiodorus -a -um Anethum-scented, smelling of dill, from Anethum and odorus. Anethum, -i n. New Latin, from Latin, dill, anise from Greek anēthon, Anethum graveolens; alternately undesireable from an ancient Greek name ανεθελητος, anetheletos; or from Greek αἴθω, aitho, to burn, in reference to the seeds being very stimulating. (Umbelliferae) anetum, -i n. Latin dill, anise aneu Greek ανευ, aneu, without, away from, far from. aneurus nerveless, without nerves aneurysm- Greek ανευρυνσις, aneurynsis, dilation, a widening. -aneus -a -um Latin adjectival suffix indicating resemblance or material out of which something is made, used with noun bases. anfer- Latin anferre, to take away. anfractifolius -a -um having twisted leaves, from Latin anfractus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. anfractus -a -um, anfractuosus -a -um twisted, twining, bent, winding, wound spirally, as in the anthers of gourds anfractus, anfractus m. Latin a turning, a bend. ang-, angea-, angi-, angio-, ango- Greek αγγειον, aggeion (angeion), a vessel, box, case, pail, reservoir, coffin. angel-, angelo, angelus, -angelus Greek αγγελια, aggelia (angelia) a messenger; an angel. angelensis -is -e angelen'sis (an-jel-EN-sis) Angelica Angel'ica (an-GEL-i-ka, or an-JEL-i-ka) Angel, from the Medieval Latin name herba angelica, “angelic herb” in Matthaeus Sylvaticus, for the ‘angelic’ medicinal properties of A. archangelica (or for its excellencies). Feminine of angelicus, angelic. Angelic, for the cordial and medicinal properties of the genus. Fernald’s use of “cordial” could be interpreted as a stimulant or as a liqueur. See Archangelica. (Umbellifera) Angelonia South American vernacular name, angelon, for one species, a snapdragon. angin-, angina, -angina Latin something choked; quinzy angio- urn-, vessel-, enclosed-, from Greek ἀγγειον, aggeion (angeion), αγγος, aggos, (angos), vessel, receptacle, urn. angiocarpus -a -um enclosed-fruit, having the fruit in an envelope distinct from the calyx, from Greek ἀγγειο-καρπος, aggeio-karpos, (angeio-karpos), for the perianth segments fusing to the fruits. Angion ἀγγειον, aggeneion (angeion) n. vessel, receptacle Angiopteris winged-vessel, from Greek ἀγγειον-πταρυξ, aggeneion-pteryx (angeion-pteryx) for the aggregated sporangia. angiospermus with seeds enclosed in the ovaries fertilized through stigmas angli- English, of England anglicus -a -um, anglicorum English, of English origin, of the English, from Latin Anglia, Anglicus.

anglorum of the English people, from Latin Angles. angolanus -a -um, angolensis -is -e from Angola, on the west coast of Africa. angor, -angor Latin angor, a strangling, compression of the throat; anguish. angraecoides resembling Angraecum, from Angraecum and oides. angraecopsis Angraecum-like, from Angraecum and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. Angraecum a Malayan name, angurek, for epiphytes. angui-, anguis, -anguis Latin anguis, anguis c., a snake, in astromony the constellation Draco, or Hydra, or the Serpent. angui-, anguinus -a -um serpentine, from Latin anguis, anguis, c., a serpent; eel-like, wavy, from Latin anguilla, anguillae, an eel. anguiceps snake-headed, from Latin anguis and ceps, for the floral structure. anguicomus -a -um Latin having snaky hair. anguifer -fera -ferum Latin snake-bearing. anguifugus -a -um anti-snakebite; snake-banishing, from Latin angui and fugus. anguigena -ae m. Latin snake-born. anguill-, anguilla, -anguilla Latin anguilla, anguillae f., an eel. anguilliformis eel-shaped Anguilluina minute-eel, diminutive of Latin anguilla, an eelworm causing galls on about 330 plant species. anguineus -a -um, anguinus -a -um snake-like, snaky, eel- or snakelike in form. anguimanus -a -um Latin snake-handed. anguineus -a -um Latin of a snake, snaky. anguinus -a -um Latin snaky. anguipes -pedis Latin snake-footed Anguitenens, Anguitentis m. Latin the Snake-holder , i.e. the constellation Ophiuchus. angul- Latin angulus, an angle, corner, referring to an angle. angularis, angulatus, angulosus angular, angled, with angles, cornery, having corners, full of corners, from Latin angularis, angular, with handles or corners, angular (another badly lumped cluster). angularis -is -e angular from Latin angulus, anguli. angulatus -a -um somewhat angled, from Latin angulatus. anguliger with corners or edges, as in angular stems anguligerus -a -um hooked, having hooks, from Latin angulus and gero (Gledhill???). angulosus -a -um angulo'sus (ang-gew-LO-sus) having angles, angular, from Latin angulus, anguli. angulus, anguli m. a corner, an angle; esp. a quiet corner, retired spot; or fig. an awkward corner, a strait. Anguria a Greek name for a cucumber, αγγυρον, agguron (anguron). angust-, angusti Latin angustus, narrow, confined. angustatus -a -um Latin tapered, confined, narrowed, getting narrower, somewhat narrow. anguste Latin narrowly, sparingly angusti-, angustus -a -um narrow, from Latin angustus, angusti. angustiflorus -a -um narrow-flower, from Latin angustus, drawn together; narrow, -i-, and florus, from floreo, to bloom, to flower angustifolius -a -um angustifo'lius (an-gus-ti-FO-lee-us) narrow-leaved, from Latin angustus, adjective, drawn together; narrow, -i-, connective vowel used by botanical Latin, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. angustifrons with narrow fronds angustilobus with narrow lobes angustior Latin narrower, comparative of angustus. angustipetalus narrow-petaled angustisectus -a -um Latin narrowly divided, from angusti-, and seco, secare, secui, sectum, in reference to leaves. angustiseptatus having fruit with narrow partitions angustissimus -a -um Latin very narrow, the most narrow, superlative of angustus. angustus -a -um narrow from Latin angusto, to make narrow; straighten. anhel-, anhela-, anhelit- Latin anhelo, puff, pant; asthma. -anhinga South American, Tupi Indian, water turkey, the darter or snake bird (Anhinga spp.). anhweiensis -is -e from Anhui province, China. anhydro- Greek ανυδρος, anhydros, waterless, dry. ania Greek ανια, ania, trouble, distress, sorrow.

anicano- Greek ανικανος, anikanos, incapable, insufficient. aniceto Greek ανικητος, aniketos, unconquerable, unconquered. anicmo Greek ανικµος, anikmos, without moisture, sapless. Anigosanthus, Anogosanthus open-flower, from Greek ανοιγος-ανθος, anoigos-anthos; with tube-like flowers anil-, anili Latin anilis, of or like an old woman. anil- Greek ανιλεως, anileos, cruel, unmerciful. anim-, anima- Latin anima, life, vital breath. Animadvertistine, ubicumque stes, fumum recta in faciem ferri? Ever noticed how wherever you stand, the smoke goes right into your face? animal-, animali- Latin animal, an animal, a living being. animo- Greek ανειµο, aneimo, naked, unclad. anir Greek ανηρ, aner, a man. anis-, aniso- Greek ανισος, anisos, unequal, uneven, unlike. anis-, ani- Greek αη-ισο, an-iso, not equal-, unequal-, dissimilar-. Anisacanthus with unequal thorns, from Greek ανισος, anisos, unequal, uneven, unlike, and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. anisandrus -a -um having unequal stamens, from Greek αν-ισο-ανηρ, an-iso-aner. Anisanthus (Anisantha) unequal-flower, from Greek αν-ισο-ανθος, an-iso-anthos, the flowers vary in their sexuality. Anisocarpus from Greek ανισος, anisos, unequal or dissimilar, and καρπος, karpos, fruit, for the contrasting ray (fertile) and disc (sterile) ovaries in type species. Anisocoma Anisoco'ma (an-eye-so-KO-ma) from Greek ανισος, anisos, unequal, and coma, hair, referring to the pappus. anisanthus with irregular, unequal, one-sides flowers anisatus, anisatum, anisus anise-scented, with the smell of anise seed, anise-flavored anisatus -a -um anise-scented, from Anisum. Aniseia different, from Greek ανισος, anisos. aniso- unequally-, unequal-, uneven-, from Greek ανισος, anisos. aniso- anise-, dill-, from Greek ανισον, anisos Latin anisum. Anisochylus unequal-lipped, from Greek ανισος-χειλος, anisos-cheilos. Anisodontia, anisodontus -a -um unequally toothed, irregularly toothed, from Greek ανισος-οδοντος, anisos-odontos. anisodorus -a -um anise-fragrant, anise-odor, from Latin anisum and odoro. Anisodus unequal-toothed, from Greek ανισος, anisos, and οδους, odous. anisolobus -a -um with unequal lobes, from Greek ανισος, anisos, and λοβος, lobos. Ánison, Ánison, Ánnēson from Greek άνισον, anison, ἄνισον, anison, ἄννησον, anneson, anise seeds. Ánison asteroeidés from Greek άνισον αστεροειδές, anison asteroeides, star anise. Anisopappus unequal-pappus, from an-iso-pappus. Anisophyllea unequal-leaved, from Greek ανισο-φυλλον, aniso-phyllon, a leaf, in reference to the pairs of large, maturing , and small, transient, leaves. anisophyllus-a -um unequal-leaved, with irregular, unequal leaves, with leaves that are oblique at the base, from Greek αν-ισο-φυλλον, an-iso-phyllon, a leaf. anisopterus with unequal wings Anisopus unequal-stalked, from Greek α(ν)-ισο-πους, a(n)-iso-pous, for the nodal inflorescences (Gledhill?). Anisosorus differing-sori, from Greek ανισο-, aniso-, and σορος, soros, some are straight and others lunate. Anisostichus, anisostichus with unequal rows or lines, from Greek ανισος, anisos, and στιχος, stichos. Anisotes inequality, from Greek αν-ισοτης, an-isotes. Anisotome unequally cut, from Greek ανισο-τοµε, aniso-tome. anisotrichus irregularly, unequally haired anisum, -i, n. anis, anise (?) Pimpinella anisum, from Celsus; from ανισον, anison, aniseed, from an old generic name ανισον, for dill or anise. Dill, Anēthum graveolens, was probably the anise, or ‘anete’ of Wyclif’s Bible of 1611. Ánitho from Greek άνιθο, anitho, dill. ankyl-, ankylo Greek ανκυλος, ankylos, crooked, bent, curved, hooked.

ankyr-, ankyra, -ankyra Greek ανχυρα, anchyra, an anchor. anlag- German lie on; a foundation annae Latin for the Roman goddess Anna Perenne. annal- Latin annalis, lasting a year, annual. annamensis -is -e from Aman, Vietnam. Annawan from north eastern US Native American name; surprising like medieval Welsh Annwn, the Otherworld, an otherworldly paradise and not a hell or abode of dead souls; but the home of the Cŵn Annwn, hounds of Annwn, Christianized as the Hounds of hell (Cŵn, cognate with Greek κυων, κυον, kyon, dog). Encountering the dogs is a sign of imminent death. Annawan, Illinois is on US RT 6 in Henry County, north of Kewanee, which is Potowatomi for prairie chicken. annect- Latin annectere, to bind together, bound together annectens fastening upon, binding to; annexed, incorporated, from Latin annectens, connecting, from annectere, to link or join together, for the approximate spikes, the present participle of an-(necto, nectere, nexi, nexui, nexum). annel-, annelus, -annelus Latin anellus, a ring, a little ring. Anno Domini In the year of our Lord. Annona (Anona) native Hispaniolan anon or hanon, given to A . muricata; from the Haitian vernacular name, menona. (Annonaceae) annosus -a -um long-lived, aged, of great age, from Latin annosus -a -um, full of years, long-lived, in reference to parasitic and growing for several years. annotinus, annualis, annuus year-old, yearly, annual, lasting a year, within a year annotinus -a -um one year old, last year’s, from Latin annotinus -a -um, a year old, belonging to last year, indicating distinct annual increments. annu-, annua, annuus, -annus Latin annus, a year, year-old, yearly, annual, lasting a year, within a year annuen Latin nodding Annuit coeptis “He has favored our undertakings.” from Virgil’s Aeneid and the one dollar bill. annul- Latin, anulus, a ring, a signet ring. Anulos qui animum ostendunt omnes gestemus! Let's all wear mood rings! annularis -is -e, annulatus -a -um ringed, ring-shaped, having rings, annular, used of organs disposed in a circle, from Latin annulus, annuli, ring, used for markings. annulatus annula'tus (an-yoo-LAY-tus) annular, ringed, ring-like, with rings. annulariformis annular, ringed, ring-like, with rings annuus -a -um an'nuus (AN-ew-us, AN-yew-us, or AN-yoo-us) annual, one year’s, from Latin annuus, adjective, that lasts for a year; returns, or recurs every year. ano- Greek ανω-, ano- up, upward, above, towards the top-. ano- Latin upwards-, up-. anocarpus bearing irregular, unequal fruits Anoda without-joint, from Latin a-nodus, pedicel feature distinguishes from Sida. Anodia impervious, from Greek ανοδος, anodos. anodontus -a -um with outwards-pointing teeth, from Greek ανω, ano, and οδους, odous, οδοντος, odontos. anoecto- Greek ανοικτος, anoiktos, opened, pitiless, ruthless. Anogeissus towards-the-top-tiled, from Greek ανω-γεισσον, ano-geisson, for the scale-like fruiting heads. Aogramma towards-the-top-lined, from Greek ανω-γραµµη, ano-gramma, in reference to the sori maturing towards the top of the pinnae. anolbos Greek ανολβος, anolbos, wretched, luckless. anom-, anomo-, anomos Greek ανοµος, anomos, without law, lawless; impious. anomal-, anomalo- Greek ανωµαλος, anomalos, uneven, irregular, unequal, strange. anomalus -a -um unlike its allies, anomalous, unusual, abnormal, out of the ordinary, irregular, deviating from the rule, unusual in relation to related plant species, from Greek αν-οµαλος, an-omalos. Anomatheca unequal boxes, from Greek ανωµα, anoma, and θηκη, theka, for the anther structure. (= Lapeyrousia) anomocarpus -a -um having variable fruit shapes, from Greek ανωµοιος, anomoios, and καρπος, karpos. Anomochloa lawless grass, from Greek ανοµος, anomos, and χλοη, khloe. anomophyllus with irregular, unequal leaves Anonidium like-Annona. anopetalus -a -um erect-petaled, with upright petals, from Greek ανω, ano, and πεταλον, petalon.

anophel-, anapholes, -anopheles Greek ανωφελης, anopheles, troublesome, hurtful; useless, unprofitable. anopl-, anoplo- Greek ανοπλος, anoplos, unarmed, thornless. anoplanthus naked blooming, leafless Anoplobatus unarmed-thornbush, from Greek ανοπλος, anoplos, and βατος, batos. Anoplophytum unarmed-plant, from Greek ανοπλος, anoplos, and φυτον, phyton. ( = Tillandsia) anopt-, anopto- Greek ανοπτος, anaptos, unseen. anopterus with unequal wings Anopyxis upright-capsule, from Greek ανω, ano, and πυξις, pyxis, the fruit is held upright until it dehisces. anorecto- Greek ανορεκτος, anorectos, lacking appetite, undesired. anosmus -a -um without fragrance, without smell, scentless, from Greek αν-οσµη, an-osma. Anredera for Anreder, about whom nothing else is known, the Madeira vine. The name may be derived from a person's name, or from the Spanish word, enredadera, meaning creeping or climbing plant, a liana (Wagner et al. 1999). ans-, ansa, -ansa Latin ansa, ansae, a handle, haft. ans-, anser, -anser Latin anser, a goose. -ans, -antia, -antis Latin suffix indicating belonging to, having the quality of. ansatus -a -um having a handle, from Latin ansa, ansae. Ansellia for Mr. Ansell, collector for RHS Chiswick on the ill-fated Niger Expedition of 1841. anser -eris m. Latin goose. anserinifolius -a -um with leaves similar to those of Potentilla anserina, which Linnaeus called goose-weed, Gåsört, from Latin anserina and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. anserinoides anserina-like, from Latin anserina and oides. anserinus -a -um anseri'nus (an-ser-EYE-nus) meadow-loving, loved by geese, pertaining to, relating to, or belonging to geese, or growing on land grazed by geese, from Latin anser, anseris, a goose, and -inus, adjective suffix for nouns: belonging to or resembling; of or pertaining to geese, goose-grease, goose down; goose greens, of the goose; from Greek (?) anser, a goose sacred to Juno. ansiferus -a um bearing a handle, from Latin ansa and fero, meaning petiolate or petiolulate; some interpret as sword-bearing (as in Latin ēnsis, ēnsis m. sword and fero, I bear). antalyensis -is -e from Antalya, southwest Turkey. antanambensis -is -e from Antanamba, Madagascar. antarcticus -a -um southern, from Antarctica, or of the Antarctic region or continent, from Greek ανταρκτικος, ant-arktikos, opposite to the north. ant-, ante Latin before, in front, from ante, antea. ant-, anti- Greek αντι-, anti-, opposite, in opposition to, before, over, against. ante Latin adverb before, formerly. ante meridiem before noon antecedens preceding antea Latin before this, formerly antenna, -antenna Latin, antenna. antennae, a sail-yard. Antennaria, antennaria Antennar'ia (an-ten-NAY-ree-e, or an-ten-AH-ree-a, an-ten-AIR-ee-a) feeler, New Latin from Medieval Latin antenna, antennae, and New Latin -aria, connection to or possession of, for the resemblance of the clavate pappus hairs of the staminate plants to insect antennae, literally projecting like a boat’s yard-arm the hairs of the pappus. (Compositae) antennatus, antenninus with antennae, with feeler-like threads antenniferus -a -um bearing antennae, having feelers, antennae-like threads, with ‘feeler-like’ stamens, from Latin antenna and fero, ferre, tuli, latum. Antenoron anter-, anteres Greek αντηρης, anteres, opposite. anter-, antero New Latin from Latin anterius, former; before, in front of. anterior before, in front anth-, anthe-, antheo-, anthus, -anthus Greek ανθος, anthos, a flower; brilliancy. anth- referring to a male part (the anther) of a flower anthelatus anthelminticus -a -um vermifuge, destroying or expelling intestinal worms, from Greek αντι, anti, and ἑλµινς, ἑλµινθος, helmins, helminthos.

anthem-, anthemis, -anthemis, Anthemis- chamomile, from Greek ανθεµις, ανθεµοεις, anthemis, anthemoeis, a flower. anthemifolus -a -um having leaves resembling those of Anthemis. Anthemis An'themis (AN-the-mis) New Latin, from Latin, chamomile, from Greek, ανθος, ἀνθεµον, anthos, anthemon, a flower, from (?) Anthemis nobilis (L.); alternately flowery, from Greek ανθος, anthos, from ανθεµις, anthemis, used by Dioscorides for a plant also called χαµαιµηλον, khamaimelon, and λευκανθεµον, leukanthemon. (Compositae) anthemoides resembling wild camomile, Anthemis, anthemis-like, from Greek ανθεµις, anthemis and οειδες, oeides. Anthemon Greek ἀνθεµον, n. anthemon, flower -anthemus -a -um, -anthes -flowered, from Greek ανθεµις, anthemis. Anthera Greek άνθερα f. anthera, in botany an anther, the pollen-bearing part of a flower’s stamen anthericoides resembling St. Bernard’s, St. Bruno’s lily, Anthericum Anthericum, anthericum from Theophrastus’ name ανθερικος, antherikos, used by Linnaeus for an asphodel (St. Bernard’s lily), originally an ear of corn (grain) or a stalk. antheros Greek ἀνθηρος, antheros, flowering antherotes brilliant-looking, from Greek ανθεω, antheo, and ωτης, otes. -antherus -a -um -flowering, in the botanical sense -stamens, or -anthered, from Greek ανθηρος, ανθηρα, antheros, anthera. -anthes, -anthus -a -um -flowered, from Greek ανθος, anthos. anthi- Greek ανθικος, anthikos, flowering. anthiodorus -a -um fragrant-flowered, from Latin anthus and odorus. -antia, -antis Latin suffix indicating belonging to, having the quality of. antho- flower-, from Greek ανθος, ανθο-, anthos, antho-. Anthocercis rayed-flowered, from Greek ανθος-κερκις, anthos-kerkis. Anthoceros, anthocerus -a -um flower-horn, with horn-like flowers, from Greek ανθο-κερας, antho-keras, for the conspicuously elongate, dark-brown, bivalved capsules. Anthocleista closed flower, from Greek ανθο-κλειστος, antho-kleistos, for the flower shape. anthocrene a fountain of flowers, flower-fountain, from Greek ανθο-κρηνη, antho-krene. anthodeus, anthodes flower-like, as in the male inflorescence of hair-moss, Polytrichum antholco Greek ανθολκος, antholkos, counterpoising, balancing, equal. Antholyza rage-flower, from Greek ανθο-λυσσα, antho-lyssa, for the flowers resemblance to an animal’s maw. anthomaniacus -a -um frenzied-flowering, from Greek ανθος, anthos, and µανιακος, maniakos. Anthophorus flower-bearing, from Greek ανθο-, antho-, and φορα, phora, for the clustered spikelets fall together. anthophyllus having petal-like leaves anthopogon flower beard, bearded flowered, (or hairs or bristles), from ancient Greek ανθο-, antho- and πώγων, pōgōn, beard, Rhododendron anthropogon’s unusual flowers. anthora resembling Ranunculus thora in poisonous properties, from Latin an, to, towards, and thora, Late Latin a bed. Anthospermum flower-seed, from Greek ανθο-, antho-, and σπερµα, sperma, dioecious. anthosphaerus -a -um globe-flowered, from Greek ἄνθο-, antho-, and σφαιρα, sphaira. Anthostema floral-crown, from Greek ανθο-, antho and στεµµα, stemma, for the heads of flowers. anthoxanthoides resembling spring-grass, Anthoxanthum Anthoxanthum New Latin, yellow-flower, from Greek ἄνθος-, anthos-, flower, and ξανθός, xanthos, from Greek χανθος, khanthos, yellow, for the spikelets at anthesis. (Gramineae) anthra-, anthrac-, anthrax, -anthrax Greek ανθραξ, anthrax, coal, charcoal; a carbuncle, anthracinus -a -um coal-black, black as coal, bluish-black, or like the black of a raven, from Greek ανθραξ, ανθρακος, anthrax, anthrakos. anthracophilus -a -um growing on burnt wood, like living coal, from Greek ανθραξ, ανθρακος, anthrax, anthrakos, and φιλεω, phileo. anthraxacolepis with bright red membrane scales????, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. anthren-, anthrena, -anthrena Greek ανθρηνη, anthrena, a bee, hornet, wasp. anthriscifolius with leaves like beaked parsley, Anthriscus, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf.

Anthriscus Anthris'cus (an-THRIS-kus) New Latin, from Latin, chervil, from Greek ανθρυσον, anthriskon, a name for chervil; probably akin to Greek athēr beard of grain. Anthrískion, Ánthriskon, Anthrískos, Anthrískos from Greek ἀνθρίσκιον, ἄνθρισκον, ανθρίσκος, ἀνθρίσκος, chervil. anthrop-, anthropo-, anthropus, -anthropus Greek ανθρωπος, anthropos, a man. anthropophagorus -a -um of the man-eaters, from Greek ανθρωπο-, anthropo-, and φαγεω, phageo, the Cannibal tomato. anthropophorus -a -um man-bearing, with flowers resembling little men, from Greek ανθρωπο-, anthropo-, φορα, phora, for the flowers of the man orchid. Anthurium flower tail, from Greek ανθ-, anth-, and ουρα, oura, for the tail-like spadix. athurus tall flower, as a cluster of flowers on a long stalk anthus, -anthus Greek ανθος, anthos, a flower, -flowered. anthus, -anthus Latin a bunting, titlark. anthyllidifolius -a -um with Anthyllis-leaves, anthyllis-leaved, from Anthyllis and Latin folium; having leaves tuberculed above, from Greek αν-, an, τυλη, tyle, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Anthyllis New Latin, downy-flower, from Latin, a plant, from Greek an ancient name used by Dioscorides, ανθ-υλλις, anth-yllis. anthylloides resembling Anthyllis, Common Kidney-vetch anti, anti- Latin anti-, Greek αντι-, anti-, against-, opposite-, opposite to-, for, like-, false-, contrary (used in compound words) antia-, antiado, antias, -antias Greek αντιας, antias, a tonsil(s). Antiacantha against the spine a bromeliad antiacanthus barbed, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. antiades gland-like, almond-shaped antiae, -antiae Latin the forelock. Antiaris “Against-association, (the Javan vernacular name, antja, for the upas tree, Antiaris toxicaria (George Stevens (1736-1800) fabricated the upas tree’s reputed ability to cause the death of anyone who sleeps beneath it. Malayan, upas, poison)” (Gledhill); Javanese antjar, antschar. anticarius -a -um from the area around Caria, a region of southwest Turkey from Latin anti- and Caria, from Greek Καρία, Luwian Karuwa; from Antequera, Andulusia, in southern Spain (Latin Antikaria). antice anteriorly, in the front Anticharis lacking charm, from Greek αντι-χαριεις, anti-charieis, formerly Doranthera, leathery flowered. antichorus -a -um distinctive, standing apart from the throng, from Greek αντι-χορος, anti-choros. anticus -a -um turned inward towards the axis, in front, the foremost, from Latin anticus -a -um, forward, infront, antonym posticus. Antidesma against a band, from Greek αντι-, anti-, and δεσµος, desmos. anti-dotalis antidote, anti-poison antidysentericus -a -um, anti-dysentericus anti-dysentery, against-dysentery, curing diarrhoea, from Greek αντι-, anti-, δυσ-, dys-, and εντερια, enteria, for its use in medical treatment. Antigonon opposite angled, from Greek αντι-, anti-, opposite, and γονον, gonon, an angle, for the zig-zag stems of coral vine; or etymology uncertain; perhaps Greek αντι-, anti-, against, and gony, knee, alluding to angled stems, or Greek anti-, in place of, and genus Polygonum, alluding to affinity antill- referring to the Antilles antillaris, antillarus -a -um from the Greater or Lesser Antilles in the West Indies antillar, antillaris New Latin, of the West Indies or Antilles. antilogus stubborn, contrary antiochius from the district of Antiochia antioquensis -is -e from Antioquia in Columbia. antipodus -a -um referring to or from the Antipodes, or the otherside of the world, or the polar regions, backformation from antipodes, plural, from Middle English, from Latin, from Greek αντιποδης, the plural of antipous, antipodes, with the feet opposite, from anti- anti-, and πους, ποδος, pous, podos. Meaning from the opposite side of the world, Australasian (?) antipolitanus -a -um from the Antibes, on the Côte d'Azur of France, from Greek colony name Antipolis, opposite city.

anti-pyreticus -a -um against fire, fire quenching, from Latin anti-, and pyra, pyrae, a funeral pyre,, as in the moss Fontinalis antipyretica was packed around chimneys to prevent thatch from igniting; others interpret as against fevers. antiqu- Latin antiquus, old, ancient; coming before, earlier. Antiquis temporibus, nati tibi similes in rupibus ventosissimis exponebantur ad necem. In the good old days, children like you were left to perish on windswept crags. antiquorum of the ancients, of antiquity, of the former, old-world, of ancient writers, from Latin antiquus, anticus(?). (Gledhill) antiquus -a -um traditional, ancient, old, former, from Latin antiquus. antirrhiniflorus -a -um antirrhiniflor'us (an-tee-ri-ni-FLOR-us) Antirrhinum-flowered, with flowers like snapdragon, Antirrhinum, from Antirrhinum and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. antirrhinoides antirrhino'ides (an-tee-ry-NO-i-dees) New Latin resembling Antirrhinum, like an antirrhina or snapdragon, from Greek αντι-, anti-, similar to, like, ρινος, rhinos, nose, snout, and οειδης, oeides, resembling. Antirrhinum, antirrhina Antirrhi'num (an-tee-RI-num) New Latin, nose-like, from Latin, snapdragon, from a Greek name used by Dioscorides αντιρρινον, antirrhinon, from αντι-, anti-, similar to, like (from αντι-, anti-, against, instead of, equivalent to) and -rrhinon (from ρις, ρινος, rhis, rhinos, nose, snout); from the resemblance of the flower to a calf's snout. anti-scorbuticus anti-scurvy, curing scurvy anti-tropus deflecting from each other antlia, -antlia Latin antlia, antliae f. a pump. antr-, antro, antrum, -antrum Latin antrum, Greek αντρον, antron, a cave, cavity. Antrophyum upwards brooding, from Greek αν-, an-, and τρωφη, trophe, for the creeping rhizomes. antrorsus -a -um forward or upward facing, deflected upwards, opposed to retrorse, from Latin anteroversus, or Latin ante, before, and vertere, to turn; alternately modern Latin antrorsus, from Latin *antero- stem of assumed Latin *anterus, positive of anterior, fore, former, and versus, turned, in imitation of extrorsus , etc antyx Greek αντυξ, antyx, edge, rim, frame, rail, orbit of a planet. anu-, anus, -anus Latin anus, the anus. anu-, anula Latin, anulus, a ring. Anubias for Anubis, son of Nephthytis and Typhonis, a genus of African aquatic and semi-aquatic plants often used in aquariums, after the preference for shade. Anubis, Anubis or Anubidis m. Latin an Egyptian god of the afterlife. anularis in ring form anulatus -a -um Latin ringed, with rings on, curled, from anulatus, from anulus, anuli, ring. Anulocaulis Anulocau'lis (an-oo-lo-KAW-lis) Latin anulus, ring, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, in reference to the sticky internodal rings. -anus -ana -anum Latin -anus, adjectival suffix indicating position, connection, or possession by, belonging to, pertaining to, used with noun bases, or often with a place name. anus, -anus Latin anus, the anus; a ring. anvegadensis -is -e see andegavensis. anvilensis -is -e from the Anvil Creek area on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA. aochletos Greek αοχλητος, aochletos, undisturbed, calm. aocno- Greek αοκνος, aokonos, without hesitation, resolute, brave. Aongstroemia for Johan Ångström (1813-1879), Swedish bryologist aoracanthus heavily thorned, thickly beset with thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. aorato- Greek αορατος, aoratos, invisible, unseen. aoristo- Greek αοριστος, aoristos, indefinite, indeterminate, without boundaries. aoro- Greek αορος, aoros, pendulous. aort-, aorta, -aorta Greek αορτη, aorta (η?), the great artery. ap-, apex-, -apex, apic- Latin apex, the tip, extremity ap- Latin prefix to, toward, at, an assimilative form of ad- used before p-, meaning at, to, towards. ap- Greek without-, up-. before-, from απο. ap-, apo- Greek απο, apo, -from, off, away from, down from, far from, after. ap-, aph- Greek απ-, ap-, αφ-, aph-, away from, from, apart. apamensis from Apamea in Syria apanast- Greek απαναστασις, apanastsis, migration, departure

Apargia of neglect, from Greek απο-αργια, apo-argia, an old meadowland provenance, (=Leontodon). aparine apari'ne (ap-ar-EYE-nee) bedstraw, from Greek απαριη, aparia (η?), or απαρινη, aparine(η?), a name used by Theophrastus for the plant Cleavers (Goosegrass), meaning seizing, clinging, holding on, scratching. aparinoides resembling bedstraw, Galium aparine apata Greek απατη, apata, (η?), cheating, fraud, guile, deceit, craft, trickery. apate-, apatil- Greek trick, fallacious (Borror) apaust-, apaustus Greek απαυστος, apaustos, unceasing, insatiable. apecto- Greek απεκτος, apektos, unkempt, uncombed, unshorn. Apḗganos from Greek απήγανος, apeganos, rue. apenninus -a -um (appenina) pertaining to or from the Apennine mountains of Italy. apeoros Greek απηορος, soaring, hanging on high. aper-, -aper Latin aper, a wild boar, a pig. aper-, aperi-, apert- Latin apertus, open, uncovered. aper, apri m. Latin a wild boar. aper-, apero- Greek απηρος, aperos, not mutilated, unmaimed. Apera a meaningless name used by Adanson. aperantus -a -um open flowered, from Latin apertus, open, unconcealed, and anthus. aperti-, apertus -a -um Latin open, uncovered, bare, exposed, naked, past participle of aperio aperire aperui apertum, to uncover, to lay bare. apestys Greek απεστιυς, apestiys, absence. apetalus -a -um apet'alus (a-PET-a-lus) without petals, bearing flowers without petals, wanting a corolla (as in Clematis), from Greek α-πεταλον, a-petalon. apeucto- Greek απευκτος, apeuctos, to be deprecated, abominable. apeutho- Greek απευθης, apeuthes, unknown, ignorant. apex, -apex Latin the tip, extremity. apex, apicis m. Latin the top, especially the top of the conical cap of the Roman 'flamines', or priest or the cap itself, hence any crown, tiara, helmet; figuratively the highest honor, crown; grammatically, the long mark over a vowel in early Latin. Apfelblüte German cv. apple blossom aphaca a Greek name αφακη, aphaka, used by Pliny for a lentil-like plant, from φακος, phakos. aphad-, aphados Greek αφαδος, aphados, displeasing, odious. aphan-, aphanes, -aphanes, aphano- Greek αφανης, aphanes, unseen, invisible, unnoticeable, obscure, secret. aphan- Greek αφαντος, aphantos, α-φαυερος, a-phaneros, αφαν-, aphan-, unseen, inconspicuous, not-seen, invisible. aphanactis aphanac'tis (af-an-AK-tis) resembling the Andean genus Aphanactis (Erigeron aphanactis). Aphananthe inconspicuous flower, from Greek αφαν-ανθος, aphan-anthos. Aphanes Aph'anes (AF-an-ees) inconspicuous, unnoticed, from Greek αφανης, aphanes. aphanisis suppression of parts Aphanisma Greek αφανης, aphanes, obscure or inconspicuous Aphanorrhegma from Greek, αφανης, aphanes, invisible, and rhegma, fracture, referring to inconspicuous line of capsule dehiscence Aphanostephus Greek αφανης, aphanes, obscure, and stephanos, crown, apparently referring to low coronal pappus of some species aphas- Greek αφατος, aphatos, speechless. aphe Greek αφη, aphe, touch, grip. aphel-, aphelo- Greek αφελης, apheles, smooth, even. Aphelandra simple-male, from Greek αφελης, apheles, smooth, even, and ανηρ, aner. aphelandraeflorus -a -um with flowers similar to those of Aphelandra. aphelanroides resembling Aphelandra, from Greek αφελης, apheles, ανηρ, aner, and οειδης, oeides, and Aphelandra-oides. apheliotropism turning away from the light aphet-, apheto- Greek αφετος, aphetos, let loose, freely ranging. aphis Greek αφις, aphis, a bug. aphlebius devoid of nerves or veins aphod-, aphodo, aphodus, -aphodus Greek αφοδος, aphodos, departure, a going back.

aphotistes growing in the dark, as a Truffle aphr-, aphro-, aphrus, -aphrus Greek αφρος, aphros, foam, slaver, froth. aphrodisi Greek mythology sexual desire. aphrodit- Greek mythology Αφροδιτη, Aphrodite, Venus, goddess of love and beauty, born from sea foam. aphron-, aphrono- Greek αφρονεω, aphroneo, to be foolish, silly, foolish. aphtha, -aphtha Greek αφθα, aphtha, an eruption, ulcer, an infantile disease. aphthit-, aphthito Greek αφθαρτος, aphthartos, imperishable, uncorrupted, undecaying. aphthon-, aphthono- Greek αφθανια, aphthania, plentiful, plenty, abundance. aphthosus -a -um with an ulcerated or tubercled throat, from Greek αφθαι, aphthai, suggesting thrush. aphy-, aphyo- Greek αφθυσµος, aphthysos, suck, drawing off of liquids. Aphyllanthes, aphyllanthes leafless flower, from Greek α-, a-, φυλλον, phyllon, a leaf, and ανθος, anthos, for the flowers on a rush-like stem; with apetalous flowers. aphyllus -a -um aphyl'lus (a-FIL-us) without leaves, leafless, devoid of leaves, from Greek α-, a-, and φυλλον, phyllon, a reference to leaflessness during flowering. api-, apis, -apis Latin apis, a bee. Apiaceae Apia'ceae (ap-ee-AY-see-ee), from the genus name, Apium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. apiaceus -a -um celery-like, Apium apiacus, -a, -um Latin adjective, like parsley, from Cato, Cassell apianus -a -um apia'nus (ap-ee-AY-nus) of bees, liked by bees, from Latin apis, apis. Apiastrum Apias'trum (ap-ee-AS-trum) apiatus -a -um bee-like, liked spotted, from Latin api-atus. apic Latin the apex, summit, tip apic- Greek απιος, apios, the pear tree, Pyrus communis. apicatus -a -um New Latin with a pointed tip, capped, from Latin apex, apicis. apicatus -a -um Classical Latin wearing the priest's cap. apicalis -is -e having an apex, a pointed tuft apiciflorus -a -um with pointed flowers apiculus -a -um the sharp, short, not stiff point of a leaf apiculatus apiculate, tipped with a point, with pointed ends, with short pointed ends, of leaves. apiculatus -a -um apicula'tus (ap-ik-yoo-LAY-tus) Latin with a small broad point at the tip, apiculate, diminutive of apex, from apicula, a small bee (Gledhill). Note: Latin apex, the top, and apis, a bee, have little in common. apifer -era -erum, aperiferus bee-shaped, bee-like, bee-bearing, or bearing bee-shaped flowers, from Latin apis and fero, for the flowers of the bee orchid. apii- parsley-, Apium-. apiifolius -a -um Apium-leaved, with celery-like leaves, Apium, with leaves like parsley, from Latin Apium and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. apilo- Greek απειλη, apeila(η?), boast, threat. apiocarpus -a -um bearing pear-like fruits apiodorus -a -um smelling like celery apiomorphus -a -um bee-shaped, from Latin apis, bee, and morphe, form, shape, figure, appearance, beauty, grace Apios New Latin, pear (-rooted), from Greek, Ἀπιος, Apios pear tree, απιον, apion pear; American Groundnut, Apios tuberosa, from the shape of the tubers. (Leguminosae) apiphorus a -um bearing pears apiro- Greek απειρος, apeiros, ignorant, inexperienced, boundless, infinite. apis, -apis Latin apis or apes -is f. a bee apis or apes, apis f. Latin a bee. Apis, Apiis m. Apis, the ox-god of the Egyptians. apisto- Greek απιστος, apistos, faithless, untrustworthy, shifty. apium, -apium Latin apium, celery, parsley. apium, apii, n. parsley, celery, celery (cultivated), Petrosolinum sativum and Apium graveolens, from Horace, Cassell Apium Ap'ium (AP-ee-um) a Latin name, apium, used in Pliny for celery-like plants, Greek απιον, apion, in Dioscoides; or Celtic apon, water, for its preferred watery habitat. (Apiaceae = Umbellifera)

apl-, aplo- Greek απλοος (απλους), aploos, aplous, simple, single, onefold. aplat-, aplato- Greek απλατος, aplatos, terrible, monstrous, unapproachable. Aplectrum from Greek a for privative, without, and plectron for a spur; meaning lack of spur. (Orchidaceae) aplys, aplysia, -aplysia, aplysio Greek απλυσια, aplasia, filth, filthiness; a kind of sponge, so named because it is difficult to clean. apo Greek απο, apo, from, off, away from, down from, far from, after; up-, without-, free-, from-. . apo- down apobletos Greek αποβλετος, apobletos, worthless. apocarpus bearing not united carpels apoceno- Greek αποκενοω, apokenoo, drain, exhaust. apocryphus Greek αποκρυφος, apokryphos, concealed, obscure, spurious. apocyn- Greek αποκυνον, apokynon, dogbane, dog’s-bane, (Marsdenia erecta, Apocynum spp.). Apocynaceae Apocyna'ceae (classically ap-oh-ky-NAY-see-ee, or ap-oh-sy-NAY-see-ee) plants of the Periwinkle family, from the genus name, Apocynum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. apocynoides plants resembling Periwinkle, Apocynum Apocynum Apoc'ynum (ap-O-kin-um, or ap-OS-in-um) New Latin, from Latin (?) for against-dogs, dogbane, from a Greek name used by Dioscorides for Cionura oreophila, αποκυνον, apokynon, from απο, apo, far from, against, and κυων, kyon, or κυον, kyon, κυνος, kynos, a dog, a bitch. Redefined by Linnaeus, related to Latin canis and Sanskrit sva. Apocynum venetum is supposed to be poisonous to dogs. (Apocynaceae) apodectus -a -um acceptable, welcome, from Greek απο-δεκτος, apo-dektos. apodes, apodus -a -um without a foot or stalk, footless, sessile, or with short feet, from Greek α-, a-, and πους, ποδος, pous, podos. apoeo- Greek αποιος, apoios, without quality, inert. Apogon from Greek α, a, privation, and πώγων, pogon, beard, in reference to the lacking pappus. (Compositae) apolecto- Greek απολεκτος, apolektos, chosen. Apologia pro vita sua “a defense of his own life” Apologia is Latin from Greek ἀπολογία, apologia, defense, a speech in defense, from ἀπὀ-, apo-, away, off, and -λογἰα, -logia, speaking apolos Greek απολος, apolos, immovable. aponinus inactive, sluggish apono- Greek απονος, aponos, without toil or trouble, easy, painless. Aponogeton without-trouble-neighbor, from Greek απονος, aponos, and γειτων, geiton, from aquatic habitat and an anology with Potamogeton. Possibly from Celtic apon. Water hawthorn. Aponogetonaceae Aponogetona'ceae (a-pon-o-gee-ton-AY-see-ee) plants resembling Cape Asparagus, Cape pondweed, or Hawthorn-scented Pond-weed, from the genus name, Aponogeton, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. apophys-, apophysis, -apophysis Greek αποφυσις, apophysis, an offshoot, side-shoot, out growth, prominence. apopetalus having free petals apophysatus with hump-like inflation aporeticus doubtful aporo- without means of achieving-, without thoroughfare, from α-πορος, a-poros. aporrhegma Greek απορρηγµα, apporrhegma, fragment. apositos Greek αποσιτος, apositos, hungry, having nothing to eat. aposphax Greek αποσφαξ, aposphax, broken off, abrupt. apotheca, -apotheca Greek αποθηκη, apotheca, a storehouse, magazine, refuge. apometos Greek αποτµητος, apotmetos, cut off. apotmos Greek αποτµος, apotmos, unlucky, ill-starred. apotomos Greek αποτοµος, apotomos, cut off abruptly, sheer. apoxyros Greek αποξυρος, apoxyros, sharp, sheer. apoxys Greek αποξυς, apoxys, tapering. appalachia of the Appalachian Mountains apparat- Latin appare, to prepare, to provide; prepared; a preparation. append-, appendic Latin appendix, hang to; an appendage, an addition, with small appendages. appendicatus having an appendage

appendiculatus -a -um lengthened, elongated, or having an appendage, appendaged, from Latin appendicula, appendiculae. appet-, appetit Latin appetitio, desire, longing for. applanat- New Latin applanatus, flattened. applanatus -a -um flattened out or horizontally expanded, from Latin ap-planus. applanatuus flattened applegatei applegat'ei (ap-el-GATE-ee-eye) applicatus -a -um joined, attached, enfolded, placed close together, from Latin ap- and plico, plicare, plicavi (plicui), plicatum (plicitum). applicatus, applicativus bent face to face without folding appressifolius lying flat, covered with leaves, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. appressus -a -um lying flat, touching at the sides, pressed together, or lying close together (of organs), adpressed, from Latin ad- and presso, pressare. appropinquatus -a -um near, approaching, from Latin appropinquo, appropinquare, appropinquavi, appropinquatum, for a resemblance to another species. approximans approaching, near to; drawn close together but not united, to the nearest, from Latin adproximus. approximatus -a -um drawn close together but not united; near together, from Latin ad-proximus. The confusing tanslations with this and the above are prime examples of the data entry errors common in botanical etymology. appt-, appto Greek unapproachable, invincible Après moi French cv. after me apri Latin aper, a wild boar. apric- Latin apricus, exposed to the sun. apricatio, apricationis f. Latin sun-bathing. apricor, apricorari dep. Latin to sun oneself apricus -a -um uncovered, sun-loving, of exposed places, from Latin apricus, cognate with praecox. aprilis -is-e of April, from Latin Aprilis, in reference to the flowering season. apsénti, apsithiá, apsínthion, ápsinthos from Greek αψέντι, apsenti, αψιθιά, apsithia, ἀψίνθιον, apsinthion, ἄψινθος, apsinthos, mugwort. apsi-, apsis, -apsis, apsid Greek αψις, apsis, a juncture, loop, arch, vault. apsinth-, apsinthus, -apsinthus Greek wormwood apsinthium wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L.) apsinthium Romanum Roman vermouth apt-, apto- Latin aptare, fasten, adjust, fix, to fit to, to adjust. Aptenia Apten'ia (ap-TEEN-ee-a) wingless, from Greek α-πτην, α-πτηνος, a-pten, a-ptenos, from a-, not, and ptenos, winged, in reference to the lack of wings on the capsules. apteno Greek απτην, apten, unfledged, unable to fly. Apteria Greek α, a, without, and πτερον, pteron, wing apterus -a -um without wings, wingless, from Latin apteros, apter, without wings, from Greek απτερο, απτερον, aptero, a-pteron, and –us, Latinizing suffix, wingless, used of petioles, seeds, etc. apto- Greek απτως, aptos, tangible. Aptosimum not falling, from from Greek α-πτωµα, a-ptoma, α-πτωσις, a-ptosis, α-πτωσιµος, a-ptosimos, for the persistent capsules. aptus, aptatus Latin aptus, appropriate, fit, suitable. apud Latin apud, at, near, in, with, among. Apudne te vel me? Your place or mine? apulicus -a -um, apulus -a -um from Apula in Southern Italy apulus -a -um from Apula in Southern Italy apuro- Greek απουρος, apouros, far away, distant. apus footless, lacking a stalk, from Greek α-πους, a-pous. apyrenus without kernel aqua, aquari-, aquatic Latin aqua, water; of water. aqu- referring to a water habitat

aquaticus -a -um aqua'ticus (a-KWA-ti-kus) aquatic, of water, living in or growing by water; living in water, from Latin aquaticus, living in water, or full of water, watery, as opposed to aquatilis, living under water. aquatilis -is -e aqua'tilis (a-KWA-ti-lis) Latin aquatilis, aquatic, of water, swimming in-, living in- or growing by water, floating in water; living under water, from aquatilis -e living in water. Our Carex aquatilis might be better named C. aquaticus. aquëus, aqueus aqueous, watery; clear as water, colorless Aquifoliaceae Aquifolia'ceae (ak-wi-fo-lee-AY-see-ee) plants of the holly family (same as Ilicineae), from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Aquifolium aquifo'lium (ak-wi-FO-lee-um) thorny-leaved, from Latin acus-folium, a former generic name for Ilex (Aquifoliaceae), from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. aquifolius -a -um with pointed leaves; Holly-leaved, spiny-leaved, from Latin acus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aquil-, aquila Latin aquila, an eagle. aquil- eagle-like Aquilegia Aquile'gia (ak-wi-LEE-jee-a, ah-quill-EE-gee-ah) The name is from either Latin aquila, eagle, for the curved spurs of some European species resembling eagle claws (the claw-like nectaries), or Latin aqua, water and legere, to collect or draw, for the nectar at the base of the spurs, or possibly the wet habitat of some species. Some say from medieval German Acheleia, Akelei (Aquilegia vulgaris). From the Indo-European root -ak, acute or sharp. (Αχέλεια, Akheleia, seems to be Greek, a village on Cyprus.) (Ranunculaceae) aquilegifolius -a -um, aquilegiifolius aquilegia-leaved, with leaves like Columbine, or Aquilegia, from Latin Aquilegia and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aquilegioides Columbine, or Aquilegia-like aquilinus -a -um aquili'nus (ak-wi-LIE-nus) aquiline, of eagles, eagle-like, from aquila, an eagle and –inus, ium, belonging to or resembling, characteristic of. “Linnaeus noted that in the obliquely cut rhizome of Pteridium the appearance of the vasculature ‘refert aliquatenus aquilam imperalis’, suggest to some extent the imperial eagle” (Gledhill 1985) aquilus -a -um blackish-brown, swarthy, from Latin aquilus -a -um dark-colored, blackish. -aquilo, aquilo-, aquiloni Latin the north wind; northern, from Latin aquilo -onis m., the north wind; the north. aquilo, aquilonis m. Latin the north wind; the north aquilonius -a -um Latin northern aquosus -a -um watery, containing much moisture; rainy humid, damp, from Latin aquosus -a -um, full of water, watery. ar- Latin prefix to, toward, at, an assimilative form of ad- used before r-, meaning at, to, towards. ara-, araeo, arai Greek αραιος, araios, thin, narrow, weak, slight. arab, arabo, arabus, -arabus Greek αραβος, arabos, a rattling, gnashing of teeth. arabi Latin Arabia, Arabia, Arabian. arabicus -a -um, arabius, arabus -a -um Arabian, of Arabian origin, from Arabius, Arabicus -a -um, Arabian; Arabs -abis and Arabus -a -um, Arabian, an Arabian, Arabia, Arabiae, Arabia. Arabidopsis Arabidop'sis (air-a-bi-DOP-sis) New Latin, Arabis-resembling, from Arabid-, Arabis and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. Arabis Ar'abis (AIR-a-bis, or AR-a-bis) derivation obscure, possibly from Greek name for arabid-, arabis, a brassicaceous plant, probably from Arab-, Araps Arab; or from Latin arabia, arabiae, in reference to its ability to grow in rocky or sandy soil, or in reference to the native country of some species. (Cruciferae) Araceae Ara'ceae (a-RAY-see-ee) plants of the Cuckoo-plant, Arum family, from the genus name, Arum, and aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. arachn-, arachna, -arachna, arachni, arachno Greek a spider; a spider web, from Latin Arachne -es f., a Lydian maiden turned into a spider by Minerva. arach-, arachis, -arachis Greek αραχιδνα, arachidna, a leguminous plant, the ground pea, Lathyrus amphicarpos. arach-, arachos Greek αραχος, arachos, wild vetch, Vicia sibthorpii. Arachis Greek α-ραχις, a-rhachis, without a branch, without a rachis, the peanut genus. An ancient Greek name for a leguminous plant, αρακος, arakos, Latin arachus, in Galen, a groundnut. Alternately New Latin, perhaps modification of Greek arakis chickling vetch, diminutive of arakos chickling vetch; perhaps akin to

Latin arinca, a cereal grain. Alternately from Latin aracos, a name used by pliny to designate an underground plant. (Leguminosae) arachn-, aran- referring to spiders arachn-, arachna-, -arachna, arachni-, arachno- Greek αραχης, araches, a spider, a spider’s web. arachnifera resembling a spider’s web (maintained as a bad entry, vide infra). arachniferus -a -um cobwebbed, bearing a weft of cobweb-like hairs, from Greek αραχνη-φερω, arachnephero. Arachniodes spider-like, from Greek αραχνη, arachne, or arachnion, a spider's web, and -ωδης, -odes, adjectival suffix indicating resemblance, having the form or nature of; it has been suggested that Blume saw fungal hyphae or spider webs on his original material. arachnites spider-like, from Greek αραχνη, arachne, and -ωδης, -odes. arachoites spider-like arachnoides like a spider or its web, cob-webby, from Greek αραχνη, arachne, and ωδες, odes, covered in a weft of hairs. arachnoideus -a -um covered with spider webs, like a spider or its web, cob-webbed, from Greek αραχνη, arachne, and ωδες, odes, covered in a weft of hairs. arad-, arado, aradus, -aradus Greek αραδος, arados, a rumbling, rattling; a disturbance, palpitation. aragmo- Greek αραγµος, aragmos, rattling, clashing, clattering. aragonensis -is -e from Aragon, in ne Spain, from Latin Aragonia. arai-, araio- Greek αραιος, araios, thin, weak. araiophyllus -a -um slender-leaved, from Greek αραιο, araio, and φυλλον, phyllon, a leaf. Araiostegia thin cover, from Greek αραιος, araios, and στεγη, stege, in reference to the idusium. aralensis -is -e from the banks of the Aral sea in Asiatic Russia Aralia Ara'lia (a-RAY-lee-a, or a-RAH-lee-a) New Latin derivation uncertain, from French-Canadian name aralie, probably originating from Iroquoian. Many early references to this name are to a Jamaican plant (OED). Araliaceae Aralia'ceae (a-ray-lee-AY-see-ee) plants of the Ivy family, from Aralia, the genus name, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. araliaefolius -a -um Aralia-leaved, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aralioides resembling Aralia, from Aralia and oides. aram- Latin aramus, unbranched. arane-, aranea, -aranea, aranei Latin a spider; a spider web (araneosa), from Latin aranea -ae f., a spider; a spider web. araneola -ae f., araneolus -i m. Latin a little spider. araneolarius, araneolus spider web-like araneosus -a -um spider-like, like a cobweb; full of spider webs, full of cobwebs, from Latin areaneosus -a um, full of cobwebs. araneus (1) -a -um of a spider; n. a cobweb. araneus (2) -i m. a spider. araniferous, aranifer -era -erum in the shape of a spider (bad translation!), bearing spiders, spider-bearing, from Latin aranea and fero. araraticus -a -um from Agri Dagi, (Ararat mountains), Turkey. araroba The Brazilian name for the powdery excretion produced by Andira araroba. arasso Greek αρασσω, arasso, strike hard, dash to pieces. arat-, arati-, arator, aratr- Latin plow, plough, from aratrum, aratri n. plow, and arator, aratoris m., plowman, ploughman, husbandman. aratio, aratonis f. Latin plowing, agriculture; meton., a plowed field. aratophyllus -a -um with plow-like leaves, from Latin aratrum, aratri, a plow, or plough. araucanus -a -um from Arauko, a province in Chile, from the name of a tribal area of Chilean Indians in southern Chile. Araucaria from the Chilean name, araucaros, for the tree. Araucariaceae plants resembling Bunya-Bunya Pine, Araucaria from the genus name, Araucaria, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. araucarioides resembling Araucaria, from Araucaria and oides. Araujia from the Brazilian name for the cruel plant. arbor-, -arbor Latin a tree, referring to trees, from Latin arbor (arbos) arboris f., a tree. arborea-grandiflora tree-like and large-flowered. from Latin arbor, grandis, and floris.

arborescens arbores'cens (ar-bore-ES-ens, or ar-bo-RES-enz) becoming or tending to be of tree-like dimensions, becoming tree-like, growing into a tree, woody or tree-like, from Latin arbor and essentia. arboreus -a -um arbor'eus (ar-BORE-ee-us) tree-like, branched, woody, from Latin arboreus -a -um, relating to trees; treelike, from arbor; arbos, arboris. arboricolus -a -um inhabiting or living on trees, from Latin arbor, tree, and cola, from incola, dweller, inhabitant, from -cola/-colus suffix, in reference to symbionts, parasites, and saprophytes; akin to Latin tumēre to swell arbortristis -is -e melancholy-tree, from Latin arbor, a tree, and tristis, sad, gloomy, dismal, Oxydendron arbortristis, the sorrowful tree. arbor-vitae tree of life, from Latin arbor, a tree, and vita, vitae, life. The North American equivalence of Thuja occidentalis with the Mediterranean Cupressus as durable and fragrant, and planted in graveyards. Many cultures have a tree-of-life in their religious symbolism. (King James Version) Genesis 3:22 22 And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever: arbuscularis -is -e small tree, shrubby, diminutive of Latin arbor. arbusculus -a -um pertaining to a small tree, like a small tree, as some heather; small tree, shrubby, diminutive of Latin arbor. arbustivus -a -um coppiced, growing with trees, of plantations, from Latin arbustum, arbusti. arbut-, arbutus Latin the strawberry tree, from arbutus -i f., the wild strawberry tree or arbutus tree, Arbutus spp. arbuteus -a -um of the arbutus. arbustum -i ,n a plantation, vineyard planted with trees. arbustus -a -um arbust'us (ar-BUST-us) bushy, thickly covered with twigs and foliage, from Latin arbustus -a um, planted with trees. arbutifolius -a -m arbutifo'lius (ar-bew-ti-FO-lee-us, or ar-bewt-i-FO-lee-us) arbutus-leaved, with leaves like the Strawberry tree, Arbutus, from Latin arbutus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. arbutoides Arbutus, Strawberry-tree like Arbutus Arbu'tus (ar-BEW-tus) from Pliny, the ancient Latin name arbutus, for the Strawberry-tree, or Celtic arboise for a rough fruit. arc-, arci-, arco-, -arcus, -arcus Latin arca, arcae f. a little chest, a box (money box), a coffin; a cell. arc-, arci-, arco-, -arcus, -arcus Latin arcus, arci m. an archer’s bow, an arch, an arc, a rainbow; arced as a vaulted ceiling. arc- Greek αρκυς, arkus, a hunter’s net. arc- Latin arcuatus, curved. Arc-en-ciel French cv. rainbow arcadensis -is -e from Arcady, Arcadian, from paradise. arcadi-, arcadia, arcadian Latin arcadia, ideally rustic; a mountainous egion of the Peloponesus. Arcadia -ae f. part of the Peloponnesus. Adj. Arcadius and Arcadicus -a -um. arcadiensis -is -e Arcadian, from Peloponnese, southern Greece. arcan- Latin arcanus, shut, closed, silent, secret, hidden. arcanus -a -um closed, shut; hence secret; as a noun substantive, a secret. Also of coffins, of boxes, of cages, from Latin arcanus (used in basketry). arceto Greek αρχετος, archetos, sufficient, satisfactory. Arceuthobium Arceutho'bium (ar-see-yoo-THO-bee-um) juniper-life, from Greek αρκευθος-βιος, arkeuthos-bios. Dwarf mistletoe, a European species is a parasite on Juniperus. arch-, archae-, archaeo-, archeo- Greek αρχαιος, archaios, ancient, antiquated. arch-, archa-, archae-, arche-, archeg-, archi- Greek αρχη, archa(η?). first, beginning arch-, archi-, archo-, archus, archy, -archy from Greek αρχος, archos, chief, principal; a ruler; superior. arch-, archo, archus, archus Greek αρχος, archos, the rectum, anus. arch-, archo-, archus, archy Greek αρχος, archos, chief, leader; the rectum, anus. arch-, archae-, archaeo-, archy Greek αρχαιος, archaios, ancient, primitive. archae-, archaeo- Greek ancient, αρχιος, archaios. Archaefructus ancient fruit, from Latin archi- and fructus, Chinese fossilized fruit.

Archangelicus supposedly revealed to Mattaeus Sylvaticus, physician of Mantua, Lombardy, Italy (d. 1342), by the archangel as a medicinal plant; or in reference to its size and virtues. (Umbelliferae) archangelicus of an archangel arche-, archi- beginning-, original-, primitive-, from Greek αρχη-, arche-. archeg- Greek αρχεγονος, archegonos, original, primal, first, beginning. Archemora a mythological character, Archemorus, who died from swallowing a bee. (Umbelliferae) archeo- Greek ancient, αρχιος, archaios archeri for S. Archer, who sent plants from Bardados to Kew. archi- Greek αρχι-, archi-, first, beginning; principal; superior; chief, chieftan, master; ruler. Archidium from Greek arche, primitive form or nature, referring to small, simple plants and cleistocarpous capsule. archispermus bearing naked seeds or fruit archo Greek αρχω, archo, begin. archo- Greek αρχων, archon, ruler, commander. archo- Greek chief, principal; a ruler; the rectum, anus. archont-, archonto- majestic-, noble-, ruler-, from Greek αρχωη, archon, αρχοντος, archontos. Archontophoenix majestic, a date palm genus; or majestic-fig, from Greek αρχοντος-φοινιξ, archontosphoinix. (Queen Alexandra’s fig or King Alexander’s palm) archus, -archus Greek chief, principal; a ruler; superior; the rectum, anus -archy Greek αρχω, archo, rule, govern. arci-, arco Latin a bow, an arc; a box arcio- Greek αρκιος, arkios, sure, certain, enough, sufficient. arct-, arcto, arctus, -arctus, arcta a bear, from Latin Arctos, Greek Ἄρκτος, the consetllations the Great Bear, Ursa Major,and the Lesser Bear, Ursa Minor; the pole star; north; the brown bear, Ursus arctos. arct-, arcto- Latin bear-, Greek αρκτος, arktos, northern. arcta Arctanthemum northern flower, from Greek αρκτ-, arkt-, northern, and ανθεµιον, anthemion, flower, for the plant’s arctic range, arctic Chrysanthemum arctium. arctatus -a -um Latin arctatus, concise, compressed, confined. In Carex arctata for the tightly invested achene which fills the perigynia giving its shape. arcte, arte closely, firmly arctic Greek mythology αρκτικος, arktikos, northern, arctic. arcticus -a -um Arctic, from the northern polar or Arctic regions, from Greek αρκτικος, arktikos, Latin arcticus, from Arctos, the Great Bear constellation in the northern sky, and -icus Greek adjectival suffix idicating ‘belonging to’. arctium, -arctium Latin burdock Arctium (ARK-tee-um) New Latin, bear-like, from Greek arktion, a plant, probably from Greek αρκτος, arktos, bear; because it is a real bear to eradicate from natural areas. Possibly from the rough involucre; a name used by Pliny for the shaggy hair. Arctoa Greek arktos, bear, referring to an arctic or northern distribution Arctomecon Greek arktos, bear, alluding to the long-pilose pubescence, and mekon, poppy arctophilis cold-loving arctopoides bear’s-foot-like, resembling Arctopus, from Greek αρκτο-, arkto-, ροδος-, podos-, and -οειδης, -oeides. Arctostaphylos Arctostaph'ylos (ark-toe-STAF-i-los, or ark-to-STA-fil-os) bear grapes, from Greek αρκτοςarctos, bear; Latin: the bear constellations, the north, -o-, and σταφυλη, staphyle, a bunch of grapes, and –us, Latinizing suffix. It is said that bears love to eat the fruit. The Greek version of Latin uva-ursi. Arctotheca from Greek arktos, brown bear, and theke, case, capsule, container, alluding to dense, woolly tomentum of cypselae of some species Arctotis bear's ear, New Latin, irregular from Greek αρκτ-, arct-, brown bear, and Greek ωτος, otos, ear, from the earlike pappus scales. Arctuous, arctous boreal-one, arctic, from the northern polar regions, from Greek αρκτος; or that-of -thebear, from αρκτωος, arktoos, for the black bear-berry. arcturus -a -um bears-tail-like, from Greek αρκτ-ουρα, arkt-oura, cognate with arctium and arctous. arcuatim in the form of a bow, arched arcuatus -a -um arcua'tus (ar-kew-AY-tus) arched, bent, or curved like a bow, bowed, from Latin arcus.

arcus, -arcus Latin a bow; an arch; a box arcy, arcyus, -arcyus Greek αρκυς, arkys, a net, a hunter’s net. ard-, arde, ardo Greek αρδω, ardo, water, irrigate. ard-, ardi-, ardis, -ardis Greek αρδις, ardis, a point, arrowhead, an arrow, sting. -ard, -art French suffix indicating highest quality, excessiveness; one who, that which. ard-, arde, -arde Latin ardea, a heron, Ardea spp. arden- Latin ardere, to burn, to be on fire, burning, to glow. ardens fiery, fiery red, incandescent red, glowing, from Latin ardens, ardentis. ardesiacus -a -um slate-grey, slate-colored, modern Latin from French ardoise. ardeus -a -um shining, burning, from Latin ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsum; or from Tivoli (Ardea), Lazio, Italy, a city state in the loose federation of pre-Roman Latium. Ardea is also the name of a genus of herons. Some references are to Ardea, Tibur, which may be two different places. ardi-, ardis, -ardis Greek αρδις, ardis, a point, arrowhead, sting Ardisea pointed from Greek αρδις, ardis, for the anthers shaped like spear-heads. Ardisiandra Ardisia-anthers, from Greek αρδις-ανδρος, ardis-andros. ardm-, ardmo-, ardmus, -ardmus Greek αρδοµς, ardoms, a watering place. (Williams) ardo Greek αρδω, ardo, water, irrigate. ardoinoi for H. Ardoino (1726-1805), botanist at Padua. ardonensis -is -e fron the river Ardon area in Caucasus, southwest Russia. ardosiacus -a -um slate-grey, modern Latin from French ardoise, slate. ardu- Latin arduus steep, difficult. arduennensis -is -e from the forest of the Ardennes, from the Ardennes, France/Belgium (Arduenna). arduinoi for Pietro Arduino (1726-1805), botanist at Padua. arduinus fiery red are-, area, -area Latin area, a level or open space, a space, ground -are, -aris Latin pertaining to. area Latin arere, to be dry with thirst or drought. Areca from the Malabar vernacular name, areek, the betel nut palm. (Arecaceae = Palmae) Arecaceae Areca'ceae (ar-eh-KAY-see-ee) from the genus name, Areca, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. arecinus, arecina areca-like, Areca, a genus of palms including the Betel Nut. arecoides Areca-like, referring to the genus Areca (palms) which comes from a Malaysian word for a cluster of nuts, another word for the Chicago ACOE, an IDNR staff meeting, a SWCD board, or an IDOT summer meeting. Aregelia for E.A. von Regel (1815-1892), of the St. Petersburg Botanic Garden. (= Neoregelia) Aremonia derived from a Greek plant name, αρεµον, aremon, for Agrimonia. aren-, arena, -areni, areni Latin sand-, of sandy habitats, from harena, harenae, arena, arenae. aren-, arena Latin harena, harenosus, sand. a sandy place. arēna- referring to sand arēna -ae properly harēna -ae f. Latin sand, hence the sea-shore, the arena. Arenaria Arenar'ia (ar-en-AR-ee-a) New Latin, sand-dweller, from Late Latin (h)arenaria, feminine of (h)arenarius of sand, from (h)arēna, (h)arēnae, sand, a common habitat for most species. (Caryophyllaceae) arenarius -a -um relating to sand, of sand or sandy places, sand loving, growing in sandy places, from Latin harenarius -a -um, relating to sand, sandy, from arena, sand; slime, mud, and -arius, adjectival suffix indicating connection to or possession. Also from (h)arenosus. arenastrus -a -um arenas'trum (ar-en-AS-trum) resembling Arenaria, from Latin Arenaria and -aster. arendsii for Georg Adalbert Arends (1863-1952) German nurseryman of Wuppertal-Ronsdorf. Arenga from the Malaysan vernacular name for Arenga caudata. arenicolus -a -um arenic'olus (ar-en-IK-o-lus) sand-dwelling, growing on sandhills, living in sand, from Latin (h)arena, sand; slime, mud, -i-, and cola, (or colo) from incola, dweller, inhabitant. arenivagus -a -um straggling across the sand, from Latin arena and vagor, vagare, vagatus. arenosus -a -um sandy, gritty; growing on sand, of sandy places, from Latin (h)arenosus -a -um, sandy. arent- Latin arentis, dry, thirsty. areo Latin dry, thirsty; Greek: war like, martial areo- Greek αρειος, areios, war-like, martial, bold. areol, areola, -areola Latin areola, a little open space.

areol- with an aereole, pitted areolate Latin areolatus, with small open spaces. areolatus -a -um with angular spaces or scars, meshed with network, checkered pitted; with small open places, marked out into small areas, from Latin areolatus, from areola, areolae, a small open place, and -atus, possessive of or likeness of something, the dimnutive of area, piece of level ground (in reference to stems and laeves). areolosus with small network, small checked arequipensis -is -e from Arequipa region of southern Peru. arequitae from Arequit, Peru. aresc- Latin arescere, to become dry; dry, thirsty. aresto- Greek αρεστος, arestos, acceptable, pleasing. arete Greek αρητε, arete, excellence, goodness, virtue. arethusa, -arethusa Latin Arethusa, a water fountain, a nymph. Arethusa Latin, from Greek Arethousa, a wood nymph (or river nymph) who was changed into a spring while fleeing the advances of the river-god Alpheus. Date: 1513. Also one of the Hesperides, or the daughters of Hesperus, of mythology, who helped guard the golden apples in the Isles of the Blest, beyond the Pillars of Hercules. “Their names are, Æglé,Brightness; Erytheia, Blushing; Hestia, the (spirit of the) Hearth; Arethusa, the Ministering.” aretioides resembling Aretia, from Aretia and -oides (Androsace). arfacanus from the Arfac Mountains in New Guinea arfakianus -a -um from the Arfak mountains in western New Guinea or Irian Jaya. arg-, argo Greek αργος, argos, shining, bright, referring to silver; pure white. argaeus from Kaisarieh in ancient Cappadocia, Asia Minor argel-, argeleo- Greek αργαλεος, argaleos, troublesome, vexatious, painful. argem-, argema-, argemat- Greek αργεµον, argemon, an ulcer in the eye, a white spot in the eye; alternately αργεµα, argema, a disease of the eye that the plant was supposed to cure. argemon- Greek αργεµωνη, argemone, an herb, the wind-rose, Papaver agremone. Argemone Argem'one (ar-GEM-on-ee, or ar-JEM-on-ee) a poppy-like herb listed by Pliny, and a name used by Dioscorides for a poppy-like plant used medicinally as a remedy for cataracts, from Greek αργεµα, αργεµωνη, argema, argemōnē. Date: 14th century. (Papaveraceae) argemonoides resembling Chicalote, Argemone argensis -is -s argen'sis (ar-JEN-sis, ar-JEN-see) argent-, argentat, argente, argentea Latin argentum silver; silvery. argent-, argente-, argenti- Latin argentum, argenti, silver-, silvery-, shining-. argentatus -a -um silvery, silvered, silver-plated, from Latin argentatus. argentauratus -a -um silvery-gilded, from Latin argentum and aureum. argenteo-, argenteus -a -um, agentus -a -um silvery, of silver, from Latin argenteus. argenteo-guttatus, argenteoguttatus -a -um guttating silvery drops, silver-spotted, with silvery spots or dots, from Latin argentum and guttata, guttatae. argenteomarginatus silver-edged argenteovariegatus silver-variegated argenteus -a -um, argentëus argen'teus (ar-JEN-tee-us) silvery, lustrous, of silvery tint and lustre argentatus -a -um argenta'tus (ar-jen-TAY-tus) silvered argentiflorus bearing silvery flowers argentifolius -a -um silvery-leaved, from Latin argentum and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. argentina from Latin in reference to Argentinus, son of Aesculanus, the god of silver money, for the silvery white pubescence on the underside of the leaf argentinus of Argentine origin, from Argentina argentissimus -a -um Latin most silvery, purest, superlative of argentus. argentoracensis, argentoratensis from Strassburg (Strassbourg), known to the Romans as Argentoratum, silver fort. It became Argentina in medieval Latin. argest- Greek αργεστης, argestes, clearing, brightening, the north-west wind. argi-, argia, -argia Greek αργια, argia, idleness, leisure, laziness, rest. argi- Greek αργια, argia, leisure. argi- whitened-, clay-, from Greek αργης, arges, αργι-, argi, Latin argilla, argillae, argi-. argill-, argillo-, argillus, -argillus Greek αργιλλος, argillos, white clay, potter’s earth.

argillaceus -a -um growing in clay; whitish, of the color of clay; of clay, clay-like; (loam, growing in loam?), from Latin argilla, argillae. argillicolus -a -um living on clay soils, from Latin argilla and colo. argillosus rich in clay, full of clay argipeplus -a -um white-robed, from Latin argi- and peplum, pepli, a robe of state. argo- Greek αργος, argos, shining, bright, pure white-, silvery. argocoffopsis looking-like-silvery-Coffea, from Greek αργο-, argo-, and Latin Coffea, and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. argolicus -a -um from the area of the Argolis peninsula, northeast Peloponnese, southern Greece. argopholius -a -um having shining bark, from Greek αργος-φλοιος, argos-phloios. argophyllus -a -um argophyl'lus (ar-go-FIL-lus) silver-leaved, with shining or silvery-whitish leaves, from Greek αργος, argos, bright, glistening; swift footed (flashing feet) or light footed, -o-, and φυλλον, phyllon, a leaf, and -us, Latinizing suffix. Argostemma bright-crown, from Greek αργος, argos, and οτεµµα, stemma. arguens boat shaped argun, argunensis -is -e from the northern Manchurian republic of Argun. argute Latin acutely, sharply arguti- clear, graceful; sharply saw-toothed, sharp, from Latin argutus, arguti-. argutifolius -a -um with sharply-toothed leaves, from Latin argutus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. argutulus somewhat pointed argutus -a -um argu'tus (ar-GOO-tus) Latin for sharp, fine pointed, notched, sharply toothed, serrated;clear, graceful, from Latin argutus, that which becomes acute to the senses: sharp, fiery, shrill, clear, pungent, pointed. Argylia for Archbald Campbell, of Whitton, Middlesex, third Duke of Argyll and plant introducer (Lycium barbarum was wrongly labeled as tea, Duke of Argyll’s tea-plant). argyllaceous grey-white argyr-, argyro-, argyrus, -argyrus silver, silvery, Greek αργυρεος, argyreos, αργυρος, argyros, αργυρο-, argyro-, αργυρ-, argyr-. argyraceus, argyraeus silvery white (good example of bad lumping) argyraceus -a -um resembling silver, from Greek αργυρος, argyros. argyraeus -a -um argyrae'us (ar-jy-REE-us) silvery white, from Greek αργυρειος, argyreios. Argyranthemum Greek αργυρ- argyr-, silver, and ανθεµιον, anthemion, flower; allusion unclear, formerly included in Chrysanthemum. argyranthus -a -um bearing silvery flowers, from Greek αργυρ- argyr-, silver and ανθος, anthos, flower, for the silvery spikelets. agyratus, argyreus slivery Argyreia, argyreus -a -um silvery-one, from Greek αργυρειος, argyreios, αργυρεος, argyreos, with a silvery appearance of the leaves. argyrellus -a -um silverish, pale silver, diminutive of Greek αργυρος, argyros. argyrites with silvery specks or spots argyrisma argyro- silvery argyrocalyx silver-calyxed, from Greek αργυρο-καλυξ, argyro-kalyx. argyrocarpus -a -um silver-fruited, from Greek αργυρο-, argyro-, and καρπος, karpos. argyrocoleon sheathed in silver, from Greek αργυρο-, argyro-, and κολεος, koleos. argyrocomus -a -um argyroco'mus (ar-jy-ro-KO-mus) silver-haired, from Greek αργυρο-, argyro-, and κοµη, kome(η?). (Gledhill as silver-leaved.) Argyrochosma Argyrochos'ma (ar-jy-ro-KOS-ma) Greek argyros, silver, and chosma, powder, referring to whitish farina covering the abaxial surface of leaf blades in most species. argyroderma silver-skin, from Greek αργυρο-, argyro-, and δερµα, derma. argyryglochin silver-tipped, silver-pointed, from Greek αργυρο-, argypo-, γλωχις, glochis. argyrolepis with silver veins (?), from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. Argyrolobium silver-podded-one, from Greek αργυρο-, argypo-, and λοβος, lobos. (Gledhill) argyroneurus silver-nerved argyrophanes, argyrophanis silver-like, silvery argyrophyllus -a -um silver-leaved, with silvery leaves, from Greek αργυρο-, argypo-, and φυλλον, phyllon, a leaf.

argyropsis with silvery eyes, from and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. argyrospilus with silvery spots argyrostogmus having silvery scars argyrotrichon, argyrotrichus -a -um silver-haired, from Greek αργυρο-, argypo-, and τριχος, trichos. argyrotrochus with silvery hairs? typo for -trichus? Argyroxiphium silver-sword-like, from Greek αργυρο-, argypo-, and ξιφος, xiphos, and -ειδος, -eidos. arhizus -a -um lacking roots, rootless, not-rooted, from Greek α-ριζα, a-rhiza, from , and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. ari- Greek much; very; warlike ari- Greek αρι-, ari-, much, very. ari- ArumAria, aria Greek a name αρια, aria, used by Theophrastus for a whitebeam (a Sorbus). arianus -a -um from Afganistan, Afghan; after the Alexandrian preist Arius (c. 250-336) founder of the creed of Arianism. arid-, aridi- Latin aridus dry, arid, withered meager. But ardô, impf. means water, hmm Arida ar'ida (AIR-i-da) from Latin aridus, dry, for to xeric habitat typical of members arida iris dried orris root aridicaulis -is -e having dry or withered-looking stems, from Latin aridi-, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. aridus -a -um of dry habitats, arid, dry, brittle, withered, desert, from Latin aridus. arie-, aries, -aries, ariet Latin aries, a ram. arietinus -a -um like a ram’s head, rams-horn like, horned, from Latin aries, arietis, arietinus. arifolius -a -um with leaves like Arum, with Cuckoo-pint or Wake-robin, Arum, leaves, from Latin Arum and folium. ariifolius -a -um, ariaefolius -a -um with leaves like the white Beam-tree, Sorbus (Pyrus) aria. arill-, arillus New Latin a wrapper, from modern French arille, from medieval Latin arilli, Spanish arillos, raisins. arillatus -a -um with seeds having a partially enveloping funicular expansion or aril, with cloak-like covering, aril, as the mace is the aril of the Nutmeg, from modern Latin arillatus. arilliformis -is -e bag-shaped, from modern Latin arillus and forma. Ariocarpus from the genus Aria and Greek καρπος, karpos, fruit, referring to the Aria-like fruit ariono Greek αρειων, areion, better, stouter, braver. -arion Greek -αριον, -arion, diminutive suffix. aripensis -is -e from the environs of Mount Aripo, Trinidad. -aris -aris -are Latin pertaining to. -aris -aris -are Latin adjectival suffix, a variant of -alis used after stems ending in l, pertaining to. aris, aridis f. Latin noun, a plant resembling arum; dragon-root, green dragon. Arisaema (a-ri-SAY-ma, or a-ris-IE-ma) from Latin aris, aridis f., an arum, green dragon, from Greek aris, a plant name used by Pliny for a kind of arum and haima, blood for the spotted leaves of some species; or from Greek αρον, aron, arum and αιµα, haema, blood, meaning blood-Arum, for the color of the spathe, or related to Arum. Arisarum a name used by Dioscorides. arisemo- Greek αρισηµος, arisemos, notable, plain, visible. arist-, arista,-arista, aristi, aristo Latin arista, an awn, bristle. arist-, aristo Greek best, noblest. arist- referring to a beard (hairy, bristly) -aristus -a -um the awn or beard of an ear corn, from Latin arista, aristae, used for awns or awn-like appendages. aristatus -a -um aristate, awned (like heads of wheat), bearded, a long bristlellike tip, with bearded awns like the ear of Barley, from Latin arista, noun, the beard of an ear of grain, corn silk; ear of grain or corn, and -atus, adjective, possessive of or likeness of something. As maize was probably unknown in Europe during Roman times, corn refers wheat or other small cereals. Aristea point, from Latin arista, aristae, for the acute leaf tips. arister-, aristera-, aristeros Greek αριστερος, aristeros, left, on the left. Aristida Aris'tida (ar-IS-ti-da) New Latin awned, from the Latin arista, awn, or a beard of grain, for conspicuous awns creating a barley-like appearance. (Gramineae)

aristideus -a -um bristled, like an ear of corn (wheat), from Latin arista, aristae. aristidoides aristido'ides (ar-is-to-DO-i-dees) aristo- Greek αριστος, aristos, best. Aristocapsa Latin arista, awn, and capsa, box, alluding to awned involucres Aristolochia New Latin, from Latin, birthwort, from Greek, Theophrastus’ name αριστολοχια, aristolochia, from αριστος-, aristos-, best, and λοχος, lochos, locheia childbirth, delivery; akin to lechos bed; in reference to the plant’s ancient use as a childbirth aid by helping to expell the placenta, but listed as for the abortifacient properties of one species in Gledhill. aristolochia, aristolochiae f., aristolocia, aristolociae f. Latin noun, a genus of medicinal plants useful in childbirth; aristolchia, birthwort. Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia'ceae (a-ris-tuh-loe-kee-AY-see-ee) plants of the Aristolochia family, from the genus name, Aristolochia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. aristolochiodes birthwort-like, resembling Aristolichia, from Greek αιστος-, aristos-, λοχος-, lochos-, and οειδες, -oeides. aristosus -a -um with a strong beard, heavily furnished with awns, with bearded awns like the ear of Barley, from Latin aristosus, with many beards, comparative of arista, similar to those on the seed heads of some grasses. Also seen as New Latin, irregular from Latin arista beard of grain. Aristotelia for Aristotle of Stagira (384-322 BC), Greek philosopher. aristulatus -a -um aristula'tus (ar-is-tew-LAY-tus) bearing a small awn aristuliferus -a -um bearing small awns, of noble bearing, from Latin arista- and fero. arithm-, arithmo- Greek αριθµος, arithmos, a number, amount, sum. arithm-, arithmet-, arithmeto- Greek αριθµητος, arithmetos, that can be counted, easily numbered, few in number, of no account. -arium, -arius from -arium n., Latin a place where something is done or a container; one source has Greek a place where something is kept. -arius -aria -arium Latin -arius -aria -arium, adjectival suffix indicating -belonging to, -having, connection to or possession, pertaining to, having the nature of, used with noun or numeral bases. ariza from the vernacular name for Browneia in Bogotá, Colombia. arizelus -a -um notable, eye-catching, conspicuous, from Greek αρι-, ari-, and ζηλοω, ζηλωτος, zeloo, zelotos. arizoicus (?) of Arizona, typo from arizonicus? arizonicus -a -um arizon'icus (air-i-ZONE-i-kus) from Arizona, USA. arkansanus -a -um of Arkansas, USA. Árkeuthos from Greek άρκευθος, ἄρθς, juniper. arktion, arktos bear, brown bear; northern arma-, armat- Latin armatus, arms; armed, heavily armed. Arma virumque cano “I sing of arms and the man” The first line of the Aeneid. armala, harmala a kind of wild rue, from Dioscorides, cf. harmala. armandii named for Abbé Jean Pierre Armand David (Père Armand David) (1826-1900), French Jesuit missionary and plant collector in China, see davidii armatissimus -a -um most protected or armed, superlative of Latin armatus. armatu ablative singular masculine Latin with armor. armatus -a -um arma'tus (ar-MAY-tus) armed, equipped or armed with thorns or any other kind of defense, from Latin armatus. armeniaceous apricot-colored armeniacus, armenius of Armenian origin armeniacus -a -um Armenian (mistakenly for China); the dull orange color of Prunus armeniaca fruits. armentalis -is -e of the herd, from Latin armentum, armentalis. armentalis -e Latin belonging to a herd. armentarius -i m. Latin herdsman. armentum -i n. Latin cattle for plowing, collectively a herd. armenus -a -um, armeniacus -a -um from Armenia, Armenian. armerioides resembling Thrift, Armeria Armeria, armeria Armer'ia (ar-MARE-ee-a) from Celtic ar mor, at seaside, referring to habitat; ancient Latin name for a Dianthus; French armoires. armiferus -a -um bearing arms, armoured, warlike, from Latin armifer, armiferi, from arma, armorum, and fero.

armerigerus -a -um arms-bearer, armed with thorne, etc., from Latin armiger, armigeri, bearing arms, an armor-bearer. armill-, armilla, -armilla Latin armilla, a bracelet. Armillaria braceleted one, from Latin armilla, a bracelet, for the collar round the stripe of honey fungus (Armillaria mellea). armillaris -is -e, armillatus -a -um resembling a bracelet, bracelet-like, having a collar; with a bracelet, armring, or collar; encircled, from Latin armilla, armillae, bracelet. armipotens strongly armed armoricensis -is -e from Brittany peninsula in nw France (Armorica). armoraceus -a -um hores-radish-like, resembling Armoracia. Armoracia of uncertain meaning, αρµορακια, armorakia, a name used by Columella and Pliny, formerly for a cruciferous plant, possibly the widespread Raphanus raphanustrum, rather than Armoracia rustica (horse radish); Pliny said that the name in the Pontic language was armon, Pliny also used Aremorica as a name for the region of Aquitania; alternately from a Celtic name referring to saline, a favorite habitat of a plant of this genus. Possibly related to Gaulish *are-mor-ika, place by the sea, a name for part of nw France, including Brittany, also Breton war vor, on the sea. Armorica, now Brittany, France is said to be its native country. (Cruciferae) armoracifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Armoracia, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. armoracioides resembling Horseradish, Armoracia armoricus -a -um from Armorika, the Celtic name of NW Gaul (Normandy and Brittany) Armorakía from Greek αρµορακία, horseradish. armstrongii for the land agent who discovered Freesia armstrongii in Humansdorp, South Africa. arn-, arno, arnus, -arnus Greek αρνος, arnos, probably a lamb. arnacanthus woolly and thorny, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. arnacis Greek αρνακις, arnakis, a sheepskin coat. Arnebia from an Arabic vernacular name. Arnica Ar'nica (AR-ni-ka) an ancient Latin or Greek plant name; lamb’s skin, from Greek αρνακις, arnakis, from the leaf texture. (Compositae) arnicoides resembling Leopard’s Bane, Arnica, from Greek αρνακις, arnakis, and οειδς, oeides. arnion; arnoglossa, -ae; arnoglossos, -us plantain; hare's-foot plantain arnoldianus -a -um of the Arnold Arboretum, Massachusetts, USA. arnoldii for Nicholas Joseph Arnold, Belgian Colonial Administer. Arnoglossum from Greek for αρνος, arnos, a lamb, and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue, an ancient name for some species of Plantago, hare's-foot plantain. Arnoseris lamb-succor, Latin arnos, sheep, and seris, Greek αρνος, arnos, and σερις, sepis, Lambs’ succory, a fragrant aromatic potherb, a kind of endive; reference uncertain in one source. arnon lamb arnotianus -a -um, arnotii either George A. Walker Arnott (1799-1868), Scottish botanist, or for Hon. David Arnot, Commisioner for Griqualand, c. 1867. arneuter Greek αρνευτηρ, arneuter, tumbler, acrobat, diver. aro-, arot- Greek αροτος, arotos, plow, cultivate, arable. aroanius -a -um from Aronia, Arcadia, southern Greece; or of poughed fields, or farmland, from Latin aro, arare, aravi, aratum. arocarpus bearing fruit like Arum or Cuckoo-pint aroclite kind of myrrh; an error for TROGLITAE, Visigothic? arog- Greek αρωγος, arogos, helper. aroideus resembling Arum aroli-, arolium, -arolium New Latin arolium, a roll of cloth. arom- referring to odor aroma, -aroma, aromat Greek αρωµα, aroma, spice, seasoning. aromaphloius -a -um having aromatic or spicy bark, from Greek αρωµα, aroma, and φλοιος, phloios. aromaticus -a -um aromat'icus (air-oh-MAT-i-kus) fragrant, spicy, aromatic, from Greek αροµατικος, aromatikos. arōmatopéperi from Greek αρωµατοπέπερι, aromatopeperi, allspice. aron, ari n., aros, ari f. Latin noun, plants of genus Arum.

Aronia (a-RO-nee-a) from the Greek aria, the name for Sorbus aria, or New Latin, from Greek arōnia medlar tree, or modified from Aria, beam-tree of Europe. Aronioides resembling Aronia, from Aronia and -oides. arot-, aroto-, arotr-, arotro- Greek plowing; a crop. aroto- Greek αρωτος, arotos, arable. arpact-, arpactes, -arpactes Greek αρπακτης, arpaktes, a robber. arpadianus -a -um sickle-shaped, from Latin harpe, Greek αρπη, arpe (guessing ἁρπη, thus harpe), for the leaves. arpagon a kind of plaster, from Oribasius. arpopria climbing ivy, Dacian. arqua-, arquat Latin arquatus, a bow, rainbow; rainbow colors; curved. arquatus arched, bow-shaped arquatus -a -um Latin relating to jaundice; m. as subst., a sufferer from jaundice. Arrabidaea, arrabidae for Bishop Antonio de Arrabida, editor of Flora Fluminiensis, c. 1827. arranensis -is -e from the island of Arran, west Scotland. arrect- Latin arrectus, steep, upright, pointing upwards, from rectus -a -um, ruled, participle of rego, regere, rexum, rectum, to direct to govern; as adjective straight; upright. arrectus -a -um upright, straight, stiff, erect, raised up, from Latin adrectus, arrectus, steep. arrhecto- Greek αρρηκτος, arrhektos, unbroken, invulnerable, unploughed. arrhemo Greek αρρηµων, arrhemon, silent, without speech. arrhen-, arrhena-, arrheno male-, strong-, stamen-, from Greek αρρην, arrhen, αρρενος, arrhenos, αρσην, arsen, αρσηνος, arsenos, αρσεν, arsen, male, manly, vigorous. Arrhenatherum New Latin, male-awn, from Greek αρρην-, arrhen-, arrhēn male, and αθερος, atheros, athēros, awn; from the long-awned, male lower spikelek (staminate lemma); akin to Sanskrit arsati it flows, sabha bull, Latin ros dew arrhenes Greek αρρηνης, arrhenes, fierce, savage. arrhenobasis, arrhenobaseus with smooth surfaces arrheto- Greek αρρητος, arrhetos, inexpressible, unutterable, unspoken. arrhicho Greek αρριχος, ahhrichos, a wicker basket. arrhizus -a -um, arhizus without roots, rootless, wanting true roots from Greek α-ριζα, a-rhiza, as in the minute, floating, rootless Wolffia, from , and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. arrhogo Greek αρροξ, arrhoz, without cleft, unbreached, unbroken. arrhost- Greek αρρωστια, arrhostia, ill health. arrhynchus -a -um not beaked, from Greek αρ-ρυγχος, ar-rhygchos (ar-rhynchos). arrigens spreading stiffly outwards; or freezing, stiffening up, becoming erect, from Latin ar- and rigeo, rigere. arrog- Latin arrogare, to assume, to appropriate, to claim for oneself, ars, arsis, -arsis Greek αρσις, arsis, a raising, lifting. Ars est celare artem. Art is to hide art. Ars longa, vita brevis Art is long, but life is short, from Hippocrates, meaning life is short, mastering the art of life is long. arsen Greek male, from αρσην, arsên, male, masculine; metaphorically mighty, tough; of plants robust, coarse; Latin: arsenic. Arsenococcos male-berry, from Greek αρσενο-, arseno-, and κοκκος, kokkos, a berry. arsio- Greek αρσιος, arsios, fighting, right. -art, -ard French suffix indicating highest quality, excessiveness, one who, that which. artaba, -ae an Egyptian measure of varying capacity, from Greek(?) Artabotrys hanging-fruit, from Greek αρταω-, artao, and βοτρυς, botrys, for the tendrillar structure. artacarpifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Artocarpus, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. artam-, artamo-, artamus, -artamus Greek αρταµος, artamos, a butcher, a cook; metaphorically a murderer. artane Greek αρτανη, artane, rope, noose, halter. Artanema thread-bearer, from Greek αρταο-, artao-, and νηµα, nema. artatus compact, short artem-, artemia, -artemia Greek something suspended; safety. (Borror) artem-, artemia, -artemia Greek αρτηµια, artemia, soundness, health.

artema Greek αρτηµα, artema, a pendant, an earring. artemis, -artemis, Artemis Greek mythology Αρτεµις, Artemis, Diana, goddess of the hunt. artemis- Greek αρτεµισια, artemisia, wormwood, Artemisia arborescens. Artemisia Artemi'sia (ar-tem-EE-see-a, ar-te-MIS-ee-a, ar-te-MIZ-ee-uh, or ar-tay-MIS-ee-a) New Latin Artemisia, from Latin artemisia, mugwort, from Greek, Artemisía, αρτεµισία, ἀρτεµισία, mugwort, probably irregular from Artemis, Artemid-, and -ia after the Greek Moon goddess and goddess of the hunt, Artemisia, often portrayed as a vigin huntress. Artemisia was one of the names of the goddess Diana. Alternately, Artemisia, queen of Anatolia. Gledhill cites this as Dioscorides name for Artemis, (Diana) wife of Mausolus, of Caria, Asia Minor. Artemisia dranunculus is tarragon, Arabic tarkhun. Vermouth is a wine flavored with Artemisia. In fact, Vermouth is a corruption of wormwood, or Vorm Vood, vith a Bela LaGosi accent. artemisiifolius -a -um artemisiifo'lius (ar-tem-ee-see-i-FO-lee-us, or ar-tem-is-i-FO-lee-us) with leaves like Wormwood, Southernwood, Artemisia, Latin artemisia, mugwort, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. artemisioides, atremesioides (sic) Artemisia-like, resembling Artemisia, from Artemisia and oides. probable typo for artemesoides. artemonion a herb used as an eye salve, from Dioscorides. arteri-, arteria, -arteria, arterio Greek αρτηρια, arteria, the windpipe (trachea); an artery. arteria, arteriae f. Latin the wind-pipe; an artery. arthmo- Greek αρθµος, arthmos, a bond, friendship, union. arthr-, arthro, arthrum, -arthrum Greek αρθρον, arthron, a joint, jointed; speech (Borror). arthr-, arthro joint-, jointed, from Greek αρθηρον, artheron, αρθηρο, arthero, αρθρον, arthron, αρθρο-, arthro-, αρθρ-, arthr-. Arthraxon jointed-stem, from Greek αρθρ-, arthr-, and αξων, axon, axle. arthro- Greek αρθροω, arthroo, fastened by a joint. Arthrocnemum jointed-thread, from Greek αρθρο- arthro-, jointed, and κνηµη, kneme, limb. arthrod-, arthrodes Greek αρθρωδες, arthrodes, well jointed. Arthrolobium jointed-pod, from Greek αρθρο-, arthro-, and λοβος, lobos. Arthropodium, arthropodius -a -um jointed foot, from Greek αρθρο-, arthro-, and ποδιον, podion, a small foot, a base or pedestal, for the jointed pedicels. Arthropteris jointed-fern, from Greek αρθρο-, arthro-, and πτερυξ, pteryx (the rachis of the frond is jointed towards the base). arthrostachya with a jointed spike, from Greek arthro-, jointed, and and stakhys, noun, σταχυς, spike; ear of grain (corn). arthrotrichus -a -um, arthrotrix with jointed hairs, from Greek αρθρο-, arthro-, and τριχος, trichos. arthrus articulated, jointed (used in compound words) arti-, artios Greek αρτιος, artios, even, complete, perfect. artic-, articul- Latin a joint; speech. (Borror) artic-, articul- Latin articulus, a small joint. articularis -e Latin of the joints; 'articularis morbus', gout. articulatim Latin piecemeal, joint by joint, distinctly. articulo, articulare Latin to articulate, to speak distinctly. articulus, articuli m. Latin; a part, division, point; in the body, a small joint; in plants, a knob, knot. articulatus -a -um, arto- joint-, jointed, kunckled, articulated, separating freely as in leaf fall, from Latin articulus, articuli; distinct. articulo -are Latin to articulate, speak distinctly. articulus, articuli m. Latin in the body, a small joint; in plants, a knob, knot; of time, a moment, crisis; in general, a part, division, point. artitectus -a -um completely fabricated, from Greek αρτιος, artios, and τεκτοω, tektoo; or fully roofed, from Latin arti- and tectum. artio- Greek even in number. arto-, artus, -artus Greek αρτος, artos, a cake or a loaf of wheat bread. Artocarpus, artocarpus bread-fruit, from Greek αρτος-, artos, and καρπος, karpos, for the large edible composite fruit. artomeli plaster or poultice of bread and honey artophacion a bread & lentil plaster, from Soran.

artosquamatus a -um covered with crumb-like scales, botanical Latin from Greek αρτος, artos, and Latin squamatus. artus -a -um Latin artus, joint, limb; or close, tight, narrow. artus, artus m. Latin normally plural, the joints; 'dolor artuum', gout; poetically a reference to the limbs. artus (arctus) -a -um Latin narrow, tight, close. aruanus -a -um, aruensis from the Island of Aru Kep, off western New Guinea, Indonesia. Arum from Greek αρον, aron, a name used by Theophrastus. (Araceae) -arum Latin suffix meaning belonging to. arunc-, aruncus, -aruncus Latin the goat's-beard. Aruncus (a-RUN-kus) New Latin, froma name used in Pliny, Latin and Greek, beard of a goat, from (assumed) Doric Greek aryngos; akin to Attic Greek eryngos. From the Indo-European root *ue(s)r, spring. (Rosaceae) arund- referring to a reed (Arundinaria, the giant native reed arundarus -a -um of pens, caned, rods, flutes, combs, from Latin (h)arundo, (h)arundinis f. a reed, or things made from reeds. arundi-, arundin- Latin harundo, harundinis f., a reed. arundinaceus -a -um arundina'ceus (classically a-run-di-NAH-kee-us, or ar-un-din-AY-see-us) reed-like, (rushlike?); having a culm like tall grasses, from the Latin, (h)arundo, (h)arundinis f. a reed, cane, and -aceus, resembles, like. ensis, adjective suffix for nouns denoting country or place of origin or habitat. Arundinaria, arundinarius -a -um cane- or reed-like, derived from Arundo. (Gramineae) Arundinnella little Arundo (only grows to 3.5 meters). Arundo Arun'do (ar-UN-doe) the old Latin name harundo for a reed or cane, from (h)arundo, (h)arundinis f. a reed. arv-, arval, arvens, arvum, -arvum Latin arvus, a field, land, region, country. arvalis -is -e growing in fields, of arable or cultivated land, from Latin arvus, arvae. arvaticus -is -e from Arvas, N. Spain. arven- referring to cultivation arvensis -is -e arven'sis (ar-VEN-sis, ar-VEN-see) Latin growing in fields, of cultivated or plowed fields or planted fields, of farmland, from Latin arvus, arvum, noun, field, cultivated land, plowed land, and -ensis, adjectival suffix for nouns denoting country or place of origin or habitat. arvernensis -is -e, arvernus from Auvergne in France, a region once occupied by the Arverni Gauls under Vercingetorix. arvina Latin arvina, arvinae f., fat, suet, lard. arvonicus, arvoniensis -is -e from Caernarvon (Caernarfon), in northwest Wales, from Celtic arfon. arvorus -a -um of plowed fields, from Latin arvus, arvum. arvus -a -um Latin adjective plowed, noun as subst. arvum -i , plowed land, a field; in general a region. arx Latin arx, arcis f., stronghold, bulwark, fortress, citadel, castle, height, peak. ary, -ary Latin -arium, suffix meaning a place where something is kept. aryten, arytena, -arytena Greek a ladle; a pitcher. as- Latin prefix to, toward, at, an assimilative form of ad- used before s-, meaning at, to, towards. asaer plantain, from Egyptian. asafoetida stinking-laser, from laserpicium, laser-foetidus, the gum-resin of Ferula foetida, botanical Latin from Persian aza, mastic, with feotidus. Asanthus from Asa, honoring American botanist Asa Gray (1810–1888), and Greek anthos, flower asarabacca medieval Latin compounded from Greek ασαρον, asaron, asarum, and βακχαρις, bakcharis, baccaris. asarifolius -a -um asarifo'lius (as-air-i-FO-lee-us) Asarum-leaved, with leaves like Hazel-wort, Asarum, from Asarum and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Asarina, asarina from the Spanish vernacular for Antirrhinum, having leaves similar to those of Asarum. asaroides Hazel-wort, Asarum, like Asarum (a-SAH-rum) From the Latin and Greek names, or New Latin, from Latin, hazelwort, from Greek, ασαρον, asaron, a name used by Dioscorides, for asarabacca, a kind of nard, see 'bacchar' and wild nard; alternately from Dioscorides a, not, and sairo, I adorn, for the plant was rejected from the garlands used by the ancients. asbestinus asbestos colored, greeny-white

asbol-, asbolo, asbolus, -asbolus Greek ασβολος, asbolos, soot. ascalonicus -a -um of Ascalon, Syria, an ancient Philistine city on the Mediterranean; alternately from Ashqelon, sw Israel, from Ascalon. ascidium from Greek ascos, sack and -idium Greek diminutive suffix. asc-, asci-, asco, ascus, -ascus Greek ασκος, askos, a leather, a hide bag (Williams), a bag, bladder. ascalaph-, ascalaphus, -ascalaphus Greek ασκαλαφος, askalaphos, perhaps an owl. ascalo- Greek ασκαλος, askalos, ασκαλευτος, askaleutos, unhoed, unweeded. ascar-, ascari-, ascaris, -ascaris Greek ασκαρις, askaris, an intestinal worm. ascaulo- Greek ασκαυλης, askaules, a bagpiper. asce-, ascet Greek practice; curiously wrought. (Borror) asce-, asceo-, ascet Greek ασκησις, askesis, exercise, practice, training, mode of life. ascello Greek ασκελης, askeles, dried up, withered, worn out. ascend- Latin ascendere, to climb, to mount up, ascend, go up. ascendens ascen'dens (as-SEN-dens, properly as-KEN-dens) ascending, obliquely upward, rising upwards as a stem, from Latin ascendo, ascendere, acendi, ascensum. ascendiflorus -a -um flowering up the stem, from Latin ascendo, and florum. -ascens Latin adjectival suffix, -becoming, -turning, -tending-towards, -being, indicating a process of becoming or developing a characteristic, indicating an incomplete manifestation, such as albescens, becoming white, from Greek ονσια, onsia, Latin essentia. ascensinis from the Isle of Ascension by St. Helena ascetico- Greek ασκητικος, asketikos, laborious, rigorous practice, austere. asceto- Greek ασκητος, asketos, ornamented. ascheno- Greek ασχηµων, aschemon, misshapen, ugly, unseemly, shameful. Aschermittwoch German cv. Ash Wednesday ascheto- Greek ασχετος, aschetos, ungovernable, unmanageable. ascholo- Greek ασχολος, ascholos, busy, engaged. asci Greek ασκος, askos, a bag, bladder. asci-, ascia, -ascia Latin a hatchet, a carpenter’s axe, from ascia, asciae f., a carpenter's axe; a mason's trowel. ascid-, ascidi, ascidium, -ascidium Greek ασκιδιον, askidion, a little bag. ascidiiformis pitcher-shaped (doubtful translation) ascio Greek ασκιος, askios, without shade, unshaded, shadowless. ascio, ascire Latin to take to oneself, adopt as one's own. asciocalyx with a tube, pitcher-like calyx ascisco asciscere ascivi ascitum Latin to receive, admit; of persons, to adopt; of things, to take up, approve; participle ascitus -a -um, foreign, acquired. ascit-, ascitus Latin acitus, alien, foriegn, acquired. asclepi-, asclepius, -asclepius Greek mythology Ασκληπιος, Asklepios, Aesculapius, mythological god of physicians or medicine. Asclepiadaceae Asclepiada'ceae (as-klep-ee-a-DAY-see-ee) from the genus name, Asclepias, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. asclepiadeus -a -um Asclepias-like, resembling a milkweed, Swallow-wort, etc, from Asclepias Asclepias Asclep'ias (commonly as-KLEP-ee-as, as-KLEEP-ee-as, ass-KLEP-ee-ass, better as a-SKLAY-pee-ass) New Latin, from Latin name for swallowwort (Cynanchum vincetoxicum), from Greek asklepias, from the name for Asklepios, Aesculapius, mythic physician-hero, sometimes worshiped as a god of medicine, referring to the plant’s medicinal properties, and -ias, Greek suffix indicating a close connection used with a noun base. Asklepios was the student of Chiron the Centaur and perfected the knowledge of medicinal plants. asco-, ascus wine-skin, bag-like, bag-, from Greek ασκος, askos, a bag, bladder. Ascocoryne bag-like-club, from Greek ασκο-κορυνη, asko-koryne, for the saprophytes concave-topped fruiting body. Ascolepis bag-scale, from Greek ασκο-λεπις, asco-lepis, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale.for the hypogynous scale enclosing the achene in some species. Ascyrum, ascyron not hard, soft, from Greek α-σκυρος, a-skyros. (Hypericaceae) -ase suffix taken from diastase, Greek διαστασις, diastasis, separation, and used in naming enzymes e.g. lactase maltase, etc. aselgo- Greek ασελγης, aselges, lewd, licentious, wanton.

asella, asellae f. Latin a she-ass. asell-, asellus, -asellus Latin asellus, a little ass. asem-, asemi-, asemo- Greek ασηµος, asemos, obscure, without mark, indistinct, meaningless, unnoticed. asemus without distinguishing remarks asepalus without sepals asero- Greek ασηρος, aseros, irksome, causing discomfort, causing disgust. Ashe William Willard Ashe (1872-1932) asianus, asiaticus -a -um, asius Asian, of Asiatic origin. asifolium dog's tooth grass (?), from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. asil-, asilus, -asilus Latin asilus, a gadfly, horse fly. asilla Greek ασιλλα, asilla, a yoke for carrying pails. Asimina (Assimina), Asiminum (a-SI-mi-na or asim’ina) The name for Asimina triloba, New Latin, from the North American Indian name assimin, or from the French-Indian name assiminier, from American French assimine papaw, modification of Illinois rassimina, from rassi divided lengthwise into equal parts and mina seeds. One source gives American Indian assimin through French asiminier, or a French-Canadian name asiminier, used by Adanson. (Annonaceae) asin-, asininus -a -um, -asinus, asinus -a -um, ass-like (eared) loved by donkeys, from Latin asinus, an ass, a simpleton, a blockhead. asinarius, asininus -a -um sought after by donkeys. asine Greek ασινης, asines, harmless, unharmed, unhurt, undamaged, innocent. asintrophon bramble asio, -asio Latin asio, a horned owl, Asio spp. asios Greek ασιος, asios, muddy. askalṓnio from Greek ασκαλώνιο, askalonio, onion and shallots. asmeno- Greek ασµενος, asmenos, pleased, glad. asodes Greek ασοδης, asodes, muddy, slimy, suffering from nausea. asoto- Greek ασωτος, asotos, abandoned, profligate. asp-, aspis Greek ασπις, aspis, a round shield. aspala- Greek ασπαλαξ, aspalax, the blind rat, Spalax typhlus; a mole. aspalath-, aspalathus, -aspalathus Greek ασπαλαθος, aspalathos, a sweet-scented shrub; a spinous shrub, Alhagi maurorum, yielding a fragrant oil. aspalathoides like a thorny shrub, from Greek ασπαλαθος-οειδης, aspalathos-oeides. aspalathus aspalathus, Camel's thorn, Alhaji camelorum (Fisch.) aspalieus Greek ασπαλιευτης, aspalieutes, an angler. asparag-, asparagus, -asparagus Greek asparagus asparagifolius with asparagus-like leaves, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. asparaginus -a -um somewhat similar to Asparagus. asparagoides asparago'ides (as-pare-a-GO-i-dees) Asparagus-like, from Asparagus and oides. asparagus, -i, m. asparagus, Asparagus acutifolius, from Celsus (de medicina), Spencer; Suet., Cassell. Asparagus Asparagus (as-PARE-a-gus) from New Latin, from Latin, asparagus (plant), from Greek ασπαραγος, asparagos, (aspharagos), for the plants sprouting edible turions from the rootstock; or from Latin, asparagus (plant); akin to Greek spargan, to swell, from the phallic appearance of the new shoots; alternately Greek asparasso, to rip, alluding to the spiny leaves of some species. (Asparagaceae) aspect- Latin aspectus, look, appearance. asper- Latin aspera, rough. asper -era -erum, asperi- as'per (AS-per, AS-pir) as'pera (AS-per-a, AS-pir-a, AS-pir-um) rough, sharp to the touch, from Latin asper, asperi, adjective, rough, in reference to the surface texture. asper- asperg-, aspers Latin aspergo, sprinkling, spraying, scatter. asperatus roughened; rough with hairs or points, from Latin asper. asperens becoming rough or sharp, present participle of Latin aspero, asperare, asperavi, asperatum. aspergilliformis -is -e shaped like a brush, with several fine erect branches, from Latin aspergillium and formis. Aspergillus, aspergillus brush, botanical Latin from aspergillum, resembling a holy water brush (like the stigmas of grasses). Also a name of a mold, for the closely erect branches in the sporulating stage. Asperifoliaceae Boraginaceae, plants of the Borage family(?), from , from the genus name, , from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names.

aspericaulis -is -e rough-stemmed, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. asperifolius -a -um with rough leaves, rough-leaved, from Latin asper and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aspermus -a -um seedless or spore-less, from Greek α-σπερµα, a-sperma. aspernatus -a -um rejected, disdained, despised, from Latin aspenor, aspernare, aspernatus. asperocarpus -a -um having rough-walled fruit, from Latin asperus and carpus. asperrimus -a -um with a very rough epidermis, from Latin superlative of asper, very rough. aspers Latin scattered, sprinkled. aspericulus -a -um finely roughened, from Latin diminutive of aspersus. aspersus, adspersus sprinkled, spread on aspersus -a -um with spattered markings, sprinkled, from Latin aspergo, aspergere, aspersi, aspersum. asperugineus -a -um somewhat Asperugo-like, slightly roughened or uneven, from Latin asper. Asperugo roughened-one, a prickly plant from Latin asper, rough, and -ugo, suffix indicating a substance or property possessed; or -ugo, feminine suffix. Asperula little rough one, Latin feminine diminutive of asper (woodruff). asperulatus -a -um somewhat resembling Asperula. asperuloides Asperula-like, resembling Wood-ruff, from Asperula and -oides. asperulus -a -um finely roughened, from Latin asper. asperus -a -um rough, from Latin asper. asphal- Greek ασφαλης, asphales, steadfast, firm, immovable. Asphodeline Asphodelus-like. asphodeloides Asphodelus-like, resembling Kings-spear or Silver-rod, from Asphodelus and -oides. Asphodelaceae from the genus name, Asphodelus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Asphodelus Asphodel'us (as-fo-DEL-us) the Latin name asphodilus, in Homer, Greek ασφοδελος, asphodelos, flower of Hades and the dead, for Asphodelus ramosus, silver rod. (Asphodelaceae) asphodelus astragalus, Asphodelus ramosus (L.) aspi-, aspid, aspis, -aspis Greek aspis, a shield; Latin an adder, viper. aspi-, aspis Latin aspis, an adder, Vipera berus, snake. aspid-, aspida Greek ασπις, aspis, shield, Egyptian cobra - asp, Naja haje. aspidioides resembling Shield-Fern, Aspidium Aspidistra small-shield, from Greek ασπιδισεον, aspidiseon, for the stigmatic head, from analogy with Tupistra. Aspidiaceae from the genus name, Aspidium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Aspidium a little shield, from Greek ασπιδιον, aspidion, from ασπις, ασπιδος, aspis, aspidos, shield and -ium Greek diminutive suffix, small, from the shape of the shield fern’s indusium. (Aspidiaceae) Aspidoglossum shield tongue, from Greek ασπιδος-γλοσσα, aspidos-glossa, for the dorsally flattened corolla lobes. Aspidotis Aspido'tis (as-pi-DOE-tis) Greek aspidotes, shield-bearer, for the shieldlike false indusia, alternately shield-like-eared, from Greek ασπιδος-ωτος, aspidos-otos. Aspilia without belmish, from Greek α-σπιλος, a-spilos. asplein-, Asplenium- spleen-wort-. asplenifolius -a -um, aspleniifolius aspleniifo'lius (as-pleen-ee-i-FO-lee-us) asplenium-leaved, with leaves (fronds) resembling Spleen-wort, Asplenium, from Asplenium and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. asplenioides resembling Spleen-wort, Asplenium Aspleniophyllitis the compound name for hybrids between Asplenium and Phyllitis. Aspleniaceae Asplenia'ceae (as-plen-ee-AY-see-ee) from the genus name, Asplenium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Asplenium (a-SPLAY-nee-um) without-spleen, from Greek α-, a, not, and σπλην splen, spleen, referring to supposed medicinal powers, or New Latin, alteration of Latin asplenum spleenwort, from Greek ασπληνον, asplēnon, Dioscorides name for spleenwort, irregular from splēn, spleen, akin to Latin lien, spleen, thought by Dioscoroides to aid spleen disorders. (Aspleniaceae) aspr- Latin rough aspre-, aspred, aspret Latin aspreta, roughness, uneven; a rough place. asprellus -a -um asprel'lus (as-PREL-lus) and ellum, Latin diminutive suffix meaning small asprellus with rough scales

assa-foetida fetid-mastic, botanical Latin from Persian azu, and Latin feotida. assamensis -is -e, assamicus -a -um from Assam in India. asseliformis resembling Wood-louse assicul-, assiculus Latin assiculus, little axis. assimilis -is -e resembling, like unto, similar, related (to another species), from Latin adsimulo, adsimulare, adsimulavu, adsimulatum. assiniboinensis -is -e from the region of Assinboine mountain, Alberta, Canada; or Assinboia, Saskatchewan, Canada. assoanus -a -um from Aswan, Egypt. assul-, assula, -assula Latin assula, a splinter, a wood shaving, a chip. assurgens, asurgenti- ascending, standing up, rising upwards, sprawling, clambering, present participle of adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectum. assurgentiflorus -a -um assurgentiflor'us (as-er-jen-ti-FLOR-us) with flowers ascending, or presenting upwards, from Latin adsurgens and florum. assyriacus -a -um, assyricus -a -um of Assyrian origin, from Assyria (northern Iraq). ast- Greek αστηρ, aster, a star, meteor. astac-, astaco, astacus, -astacus Greek αστακος, astakos, a lobster. Astartea for Astarte, the Syrian equivalent of Venus (Ishtar). Astelia stemless, from Greek α-στηλη, astele (some of the genus are epiphytes). astelifolius -a -um Astelia-leaved, from Astelia and Latin folium. aster, -aster, astero Greek αστηρ, astēr, astron, a star, from P.I.E. root *ǝster, ster-2), star. -aster, -astra, -astrum, -istrum Latin diminutive suffix attached to nouns and adjectives with derogatory or pejorative implications, indicating an inferiority or an incomplete resemblance, or wildness, often applied to a wild relative of a cultivated plant, often used as suffix with a generic name, as Veronicastrum, Cotoneaster, or Oleaster, a bastard olive. Possibly from P.I.E. root ster-4), barren, sterile, and possibly related to Latin sterilis, unfruitful. Also translated as star-, sellate-, from Greek αστηρ, αστηρος, aster, asteros, Latin astrum, astri. Aster As'ter (AS-ter, AS-tir, or A-ster) New Latin, from Latin, aster, from Greek αστηρ, αστερος, aster, asteros, a star, a meteor, an aster, for the radiated flower heads resembling little stars when viewed from above. (Asteraceae) Asteraceae Astera'ceae (as-ter-AY-see-ee) from the genus name, Aster, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Asteranthera star-flowered, from Greek στηρ-ανθος, aster-anthos, for the star-like disposition of the anthers. asterias star-like, from Greek αστηρ, αστερος, aster, asteros, badly translated in one source as Star-fish, (Aster = a star) asterictos unsupported, weak, from Greek ασηρικος, asterikos. astericus resembling the aster, or a small star, from αστηρ, aster, a star and -iscus, Greek diminutive suffix. asterocarpus having star-like fruit asterioides, asterodes, asteroides astero'ides (as-tir-ee-OY-deez, or as-ter-OH-i-dees) Aster-like, from Latin aster, from Greek αστηρ, aster, a star; an aster type plant, taken by Linnaeus to be Aster amellus, and -oides, οειδες, adjective suffix for nouns: like, resemble. Asteriscus small-star, from ασερισκος, asteriskos. Asteromoea resembling Aster, from Greek αστηρ-οµοιος, aster-omoios. Asterophora star-bearing, from Greek αστηρ-φορα, aster-phora. asterophorus in a popular etymology, badly translated as shining, star-like, properly star bearing. asterosporus -a -um with star shaped spore, from Greek αστερος-σπορος, asteros-sporos, from Greek and σπορος, sporos, seed, the act of sowing in reference to the blunt spines on the spore. asterothrichus, asterothrix with stellate hairs astes, -astes Greek αστης, astes, a singer; one who (does something). asthen- Greek ασθενια, asthenia, weakness, feebleness, sickness. Asthenotherum poor-harvest, from Greek ασθενης-θερος, asthenes-theros. asthenostachyus, asthenostachys sparsely or weakly eared or spiked asthenus weak, frail asthma, -asthma, asthmat- Greek ασθµα, asthma, short drawn breath, panting, gasping. asthmaticus -a -um of asthma, preventing asthma, from Greek ασθµα, asthma, for its medicinal use for shortage of breath. astichus not arranged in rows

astico- Greek αστικς, astikos, αστυκος, astykos, a city or town; urbane. astictus -a -um without spots, immaculate, without blemishes, from Greek α-στκος, a-stiktos. Astilbe without brilliance, from Greek α-στιλβη, α-στιλβος, a-stilbe, a-stilbos, α, noting privation, and στίλβη, stilbe, feminine of στίλβος, stilbos, glittering, bright, from στιλβειν, asilbein, to glitter, in reference to the flowers, alternately to the leaves which are not shiny. (Saxifragaceae) Astilboides, astilboides Goats-beard like, Astilbe-like, from α-στιλβω-οειδης, a-stilbo-oeides. -asto Greek -αστυς, -astus, augmentative suffix, (-huge, etc.) astr-, astro, astrum, -astrum Greek αστηρ, astēr, astron, a star, a meteor, referring to a star; Latin diminutive suffix with derogatory implications, indicating inferiority or an incomplete resemblance, or wildness, often applied to a wild relative of a cultivated plant. -astr(...) like unto astrabe Greek αστραβη, astrabe, a mule’s saddle. astrachanicus -a -um from Astrachan, or Astrakhan, from the city, province, or region of Astrakhan, in the Volga delta of the Caspian Sea, in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. astrachinus -a -um having a dark, curly, indument, or from Astrakhan, Russia, for the similarity with the fleece of karakul lambs, noted for their glossy curled coat valued as fir. Astraeus star shaped, from Latin astrum, for the outer wall of the spore producing body of the earth-star fungus. Astraeus was the father of the winds (Gledhill); the spores are wind dispersed. Astraeus Astraeos, Greek Ἀστραῖος, Astraios, dawn-of-the-stars astragal-, astragalo-, astragalus, -astragalus Greek αστραγαλος, astragalos, one of the vertebrae of the neck; the ball of ankle joint; dice; prism of wood, the milk vetch Orobus niger; ear ring. Early dice were made from squarish ankle bones of sheep. astragalinus resembling Milk-vetch, Astragalus astragalus Greek αστραγαλος, astragalos, vertebrae, the anklebone (hucklebone), wrist, knuckle bones used as dice. In Latin talus. Astragalus Astrag'alus (as-TRAG-a-lus) Old Greek ankle-bone, αστραγαλος, astragalos, a Greek name in Pliny for a plant with vertebra-like knotted-roots; name for another legume, possibly Orobus niger, a milk vetch, one of the vertebrae, as also of talus bone of the ankle. Also New Latin, from Latin, from Greek astragalos neck vertebra, ankle joint, or milk vetch, from the vertebra-like, spinal-columnal appearance of the flower clusters. Also said to be a name applied to some plants in this genus because of the shape of the seed is reminiscent of an ankle bone. Or, according to he authors of Intermountain Flora it may be a reference to the Greeks use of rattling bones for dice and the sound made is similar to the rattling of dry Astragalus seeds in the pod. The name literally means star milk. Date: 1541 (Leguminosae) Astranthium Greek αστηρ, aster, star, and ανθος, anthos, flower, alluding to the flower head as seen from above. astrap-, astrapa, -astrapa, astrape Greek αστραπη, astrape(η?) lightning. astrape Greek αστραπη, astrape(η?), a flash of lightning. astreans star-like astrepto- Greek αστρεπτος, astreptos, inflexible, rigid. astring Greek bind together, fasten astringens contracting, drawing together, astringent to the taste astro Greek a star Astrocarpus star-fruit, from Greek αστρο-καρπος, astro-karpos. Astrocaryum star-nut, from Greek αστρο-καρυον, astro-karyon, referring to the markings on the seeds of this palm genus. Astrolepis Astrolep'is (as-tro-LEP-is) Greek αστρο-, astro-, star, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale, in reference to the starlike scales on the adaxial blade surface Astronium star-like, from Greek αστρον, astron, for the resemblance of the flowers. astrophoros star-bearing, from Greek αστερ-φορος, aster-phoros. Astrophytum star-plant, from Greek αστερος, asteros, star, and φυτον, phyton, plant or αστρο-φυτον, astrophyton, in reference to the star-shaped stem cross section of the type species. -astrum somewhat like, wild, inferior, as good as, from Latin ad-instar. astrum, astri n. Latin noun star, heavenly body, planet/sun/moon; the stars, constellation; sky, heaven. astur, asturis m. Latin noun, a species of hawk; inhabitant of Asturia in Hispania Tarraconensis; astur, -astur Latin a hawk asturicus -a -um, asturiensis -is -e from Asturia, in northwestern Spain.

astroites star-shaped astrotrichus -a -um having star ahaped hairs, stellate-hairy, from Greek αστρο-τριχος, astro-trichos. astylus styleless, without style astut- Latin astutus, skilled, cunning, adroit, clever, crafty. astutus -a -um cunning, deceptive, from Latin astutus. asty- Greek αστειος, asteios, town, city, town-bred, polite, charming astylus lacking a distinctive style, from Greek α-στυλος, a-stylos. asymmetricus -a -um irregular, lacking symmetry, from Greek α-συµ-µετριος, a-sym-metrios. asyneto- Greek ασυνετος, asynetos, stupid, witless. Asyneuma derivation uncertain, possibly from Greek α-συν-ευ-µα, a-syn-eu-ma, a relationship to Phyteuma. asynteles Greek ασυντελης, asynteles, useless. asyphelo- Greek ασυφηλος, asyphelos, headstrong, foolish. Asystasia derivation unknown, from Greek α-συστασις, a-systasis, lacking association. at- Latin prefix to, toward, at, an assimilative form of ad- used before t-, meaning at, to, towards. -ata Latin suffix used to form the names of animal divisions. -ata, -atum, -atus Latin suffix provided with, having the nature of, pertaining to. atacamicus -a -um from the Atacama desert or province Atacama in Chile. atacto- Greek ατακτος, ataktos, disordered. atactosorus having uneven rows or lines (of sori?). Ataenidia without a small band, from Greek α-ταινια, a-tainia, for the lack of a spur on the staminode. atalant-, atalanto- Greek αταλαντος, atalantos, equal to, equivalent to. Atalantia for Atalanta, Αταλάντη, the swift-footed huntress of Greek mythology, Greek for balanced. Atalanta’s father wanted a son, and abandoned her on a mountain where she was found and suckled by a she bear. atalantoides resembling Atalantia, from Atalantia and oides. atalo- Greek αταλος, atalos, tender, delicate. atamasco an American Indian vernacular name for Zephyranthes atamasco, a single-flowered lily of the southern U.S. atav- Latin atavus, in general an ancestor. atavis of old type atavus -a -um great-great-great-grandfather, of great age, ancient, from Latin atavus, atavi. atavus, atavi m. Latin a great-great-great-grandfather; in general an ancestor. ataxacanthus -a -um having irregularly arranged prickles, irregularly thorned, from Greek ατακτος-ακανθος, ataktos-akanthos. atecmarto- Greek ατεκµαρτος, atekmartos, baffling, obscure, uncertain, inconsistent. atel-, atele-, atelo- Greek ατελης, ateles, incomplete, indeterminate, ineffectual, inperfect. ateleut- Greek ατελευτος, ateleutos, endless, eternal. atemel- Greek ατηµελης, atemeles, neglected, neglectful, careless. atenuat- Latin attenuatus, weakened, megre, unadorned. ater, -ater dark, black, coal black, dead black; gloomy, sad; from Latin ater, from Greek, via Etruscan, matt black, as opposed to niger, shiny black. ater, atra, atrum, atro- Latin matt-black, from ater, atris; pure black, pitch-black. atero- Greek ατερος, ateros, baneful, mischievous, ruinous. aterpes Greek ατεπης, aterpes, joyless. aterrimus -a -um Latin very black, deep black, superlative of ater. Athamantus Athamas-one, athamanticus -a -um (athemanticus) of Mount Athamas, Sicily, or in mythology, for King Athamas of the Minyans; resembling Bald-money or Spignel, Meum Athanasia immortal, from Greek α-θανασιµος, a-thanasimos, with out death, for the funery use of Tanacetum. athanat-, athanatos Greek αθανατος, athanatos, undying, immortal. atheniensis -is -e from Athens, from Latin Athenae. ather, -ather, athero- Greek αθηρ, αθερος, ather, atheros, a barb, bristle, the beard of an ear of corn; chaff (?) athera a beard of corn, an awn, or a stiff bristle

atherodes from Greek αθηρ, ather, chaff, a barb, the beard of an ear of grain, and –odes, likeness; alternately bristle-eared, from Greek αθηρ, αθερος, ather, atheros, and -ωδης, -odes, for the pistillate spikelets resembling a spike of wheat. Atheropogon from ancient Greek αθηρ, ather, chaff, a barb, the beard of an ear of grain, and πώγων, pōgōn, beard. Atherosperma bearded-seed, from Greek αθηρο-σπερµα, athero-sperma. athesmo- Greek αθεσµως, athesmos, unlawful, lawless. athet-, atheto- Greek αθετος, athetos, useless, wasted, set aside, incompetent. athicto- Greek αθικτος, athiktos, untouched, chaste. athl-, athlo-, athlum, -athlum Greek αθλον, athlon, a prize; a contest for a prize, conflict, struggle. athlet- Greek αθλερτης, athlertes, a combatant, a champion, a prize fighter. athois -is -e, athous -a -um from Mount Athos in Macedonia (ne Greece). athranthus bearing star-flowers athro- crowded, from Greek αθροος, αθρο-, athroos, athro-, collective, crowded. athrostachyus -a -um with crowded spikes, from Greek αθρο-σταχυς, athro-stakhys. Athrotaxis crowded-order, from Greek αθροος-ταζις, athroos-taxis. athymo- Greek αθυµος, athymos, fainthearted, spiritless. Athyrium Athyr'ium (a-THEER-ee-um, a-THI-ree-um) possibly from Greek athyros, doorless, or from a-, without, and thyrium, shield, refering to the enclosed sori, the sporangia only tardily push back the outer edge of the indusium, or the late-opening indusium of A. filix-femina. Alternately from Greek αθυρω, athyro, sporty, in the sense of variability, for the varying structure of the ladyfern sori. (Athyriaceae) Athysanus Athys'anus (ath-IS-an-us) -aticus, -atica, -aticum from, Latin suffix for a place of growth, collection of, state. -aticus -a -um Latin suffix indicating a place of growth (or habitat), used with noun bases. -aticum Latin suffix indicating collection of, condition, state of being. -atilis, -atilis, -atile from (a place), Latin suffix indicating found in. atimo- Greek ατιµος, atimos, without honor, dishonored. atkinsonianus -a -um probably nothing to do with the small town between Annawan and Geneseo, Illinois. atla-, atlant-, atlanto, atlas, -atlas Greek mythology a giant bearing up the pillars of heaven; the atlas bone atlanticus -a -um from the Atlas Mountains in North Africa (Atlas, Atlantis); of Atlantic areas, of the Atlantic coast (for the western limit of the classical world). atlantis -is -e from the Atlas Mountains in North Africa (Atlas, Atlantis), Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, in North Africa; for the giant Atlas in mythology. atlas Greek Ατλας, Atlas, Atlas the Titan holding up the pillars of heaven. atloid-, atloido Greek mythology a giant bearing up the pillars of heaven; the atlas bone atm-, atmi-, atmido, atmo-, atmus, -atmus Greek ατµιζω, atmizo, smoke, vapor. atmen Greek ατµην, atmen, slave, servant. atmenia Greek ατµενια, atmenia, slavery. atmet Greek ατµητος, atmetos, uncut, undivided, not carved. atom Latin atomus, uncut, indivisible, a small particle. atomarius -a -um speckled, finely dotted; alternately small, pigmy, unmoved, indivisible, from Greek ατοµος, atomos, Latin atomus, atomi. atomatus speckled, finely dotted atomerius -a -um speckled (atomate), having very small parts, from Greek ατοµ-µερις, atom-meris. atomochlaenus finely covered atonos Greek ατονος, atonos, relaxed, not taut, languid. atop-, atopo- Greek ατοπος, atopos, strange, marvellous, odd, out of place. atr-, atri- Latin atritas, black, blackness, extreme, dark. atracto- Greek ατρακτος, atraktos, spindle, arrow. Atractogyne spindle-fruited one, from Greek ατρακτος-γυνη, atractos-gyne, (spindle-woman) for the fusiform fruits of some species. Atractylis spindles, from Greek ατρακτος, atraktos, spindle, arrow, for the long spines of the outer bracts. atractyloides atractylo'ides (a-trak-til-OH-i-dees) resembling Actractylis, from Actractylis from Greek ατρακτος, atraktos, spindle, arrow and -oides, with the form of. atrament-, atramentum, -atramentum Latin atramentum, any black fluid, ink; inky, from *ātrā-re to blacken, from āter black.

atramentarius -a -um with black eruptions, from Latin atra, black and mentagra, an erruptive disease of the chin, from Pliny, from mentum, chin (sycosis, an ulcer or morbid growth of skin, resembling a fig, from Greek σύκωσις, sykosis, from σῦκον, sykon). atramentiferus -a -um carrying a black secretion, from Latin atra-, mentagra, see above and fero, I bear. atrandrous -a -um with dark stamens, from Latin ater and andrus. atraphaxis ancient Greek name, ατραφαξυς, atraphyxis, for Atriplex. atrapos Greek ατραπος, atrapos, short cut, path. atrat- Latin atratus, dark, clothed in black, dressed in mourning atratus -a -um clothed in black for mourning, blackened, darkened, as in the apex of glumes, from Latin ātrātus, ppl. adjective from āter black. atratiformis with the form of being clothed in black for mourning, blackened, darkened, from Latin ātrātus, ppl. adjective from āter black. atrebatus -a -um swarthy, blackened, from the Celtic tribe, the Atrebates, of Roman Gaul and England south of the Thames, famous for ironworking. atreco- Greek ατεκης(?), atekes, strict, precise, exact. atresto- Greek ατρεστος, atrestos, fearless, not trembling. atri-, atrium, -atrium Latin atrium, an entrance hall, a vestibule. atri-, atro- better-(?Gledhill), dark-, black- (colored), from Latin ater, black, from Greek ατηρ-, ater-; ater, atra, atrum, atro-. Atrichoseris Atricho'seris (a-tri-KO-ser-is) lacking hair chickory, from Greek α-, a-, without, τριχος, trichos, hair, and seris, chicory, for the lack of pappus Atrichum, atrichus -a -um from Greek α-, a-, without, and τριχος, trichos, hair, referring to calyptra. atrichus, atrichos hairless, without hairs or bristles Atriplex At'riplex (AT-ri-plex) New Latin, from ancient Latin, orache, modification of Latin atriplic-, atriplex, from Greek atraphaxys; alternately the name used by Pliny ater-plexus, black and inter-twined, from an ancient Greek name ατραφαξυς, atraphaxys. atriplicifolius –a -um (locally a-tri-pli-si-FO-lee-a) with leaves of Atriplex, orache, from Latin Atriplex and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. atriplicis -ai -e of Atriplex (aphis) atrispinus -a -um having black spines or black thorns, from Latin atra and spina. atro-, atroc, atrox, -atrox Latin atrox, hideous, horrible, terrible, fearful, cruel. atro- Latin ater, dark, black. atro-caerulëus dark blue-black, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and . atrocarpus -a -um dark-fruited, from botanical Latin atro-carpus, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and . atrocaulis -is -e with dark stems, from botanical Latin atro-caulis, from Latin ater, dark, black, and caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. atrocinereus -a -um dark-gray, dark-ash colored, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and cineris. atrocinctus -a -um girdled with black, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and cinctus girded or girdled, from cingo, cingere, cinxi, cintum. atrococcus -a -um black-berried, from Greek ατηρ-κοκκος, ater-kokkos. atrocyanus -a -um dark blue, from Greek ατηρ-κυανος, ater-cyanos. atro-fuscus -a -um dark-swarthy, dark-brown colored, dark red-brown, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and fuscus -a -um, dark-colored, from fusco, fuscare, to darken, to blacken. atroides somewhat darkened, from Greek ατηρ-οειδες, ater-oeides. atropoides resembling Deadly Night Shade, Atropa Atropa inflexible, from Greek ατροπος, atropos, from Atropa, one of the three Fates, or Μοιραι, Moirai. Atropanthe Atropa-flowered one, from Ατροπος-ανθερος, Atropos-antheros. atropatanus -a -um from Azarbaijan, north Iran, the area of north Media that was given by Alexander to Atropates and became the kingdom of Artopatane. Atropis, atropis -is -e keel-less one, with out a keel, from Greek α-τροπις, a-tropis. Atropos Greek mythology one of the three Parcae or Fates, she who cut the thread of life, from Ἄτροπος, without turn atropurpureus –a -um, atro-purpureus atropurpur'eus (aht-ro-pur-PEWR-ree-us, or a-tro-pure-PURE-ee-us) deep or dark purple as Sweet Scaboius, blackish purple, from Latin ex atro purpureus, purple tinged with black.

atrorubens, atro-rubens atroru'bens (a-tro-ROO-bens) dark red colored, extremely red, from Latin atro-rubens, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and atrosanguineus -a -um, atro-sanguineus dark blood-red, the color of congealed blood, black-blooded, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and sanguis, sanguinis. atrosquamosus -a -um with dark scales, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and squama, squamae f. a scale, scale armor. atro-striatus -a -um with dark stripes or ribs atrotomentosus -a -um with a dark-hairy tomentum, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and tomentum, tomenti n., the stuffing of a pillow or mattress. atrotos Greek ατρωτος, atrotos, invulnerable atrovaginatus -a -um having a black sheath, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and vagina, vaginae, f., a scabbard, sheath, case; the husk of a grain. atroviolaceus -a -um, atro-violaceous very dark violet colored, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and viola, violae f., a violet or stock; the color violet. atrovirens, atro-virens atrovi'rens (a-tro-VIE-rens) very dark green, from Latin atro-, from ater, dark, black, and viresco, virescere, to grow green. atro-viridis -is -e very dark green, from Latin atro- and viridis -is -e, green. atrox hideous, dreadful, savage, from Latin atrox, atrocis, terrible, cruel, horrible. atrum black, from Latin ater, atri. attac-, attacus, -attacus Greek αττακης, attakes, a kind of locust. attavirius -a -um from Mount Atáviros, Rhodes, Greece. attagen-, attagenis, -attagenis Latin attagen, a snipe; a grouse; the black partridge or francolin, Tetrao orientalis. attelab-, attelabus Greek a wingless locust. attamen and that although attenuat- Latin thin, weak attenuatus -a -um attenua'tus (a-ten-yoo-AY-tus) attenuated, tapering, drawn-out or tapering to a point, flimsy, weak, thinned, shortened, from Latin attenuatus, participle of attenuo, attenuare, to make thin, reduce, weaken. attic- Greek atticus -a -um, Attica from Attica, an ancient state in eastern Greece, of which Athens was the capital; from the area of Athens. attractus -a -um drawn towards, attractive, from Latin past participle of attraho, attrahere, attraxi, attractum, to draw, to drag, to attract. -atus -ata -atum -atus, Latin suffix indicating possession, likeness of, or ‘provided with’, used with noun bases; also the perfect participle ending of First Conjugation verbs, indicating an action made or done, or some abservable attribute; often translated as -rendered, -having, -being. atyphos Greek ατυφος, atyphos, modest, not puffed up. atyzel- Greek ατυζηλος, atyzelos, frightful. au Greek αυ, au, again, once more, on the contrary, besides, backward. auant- Greek αυαντη, auante(η?) wasting, wasted, atrophied. aubade French cv. dawn music aubertii for Père George Aubert, French missionary in China c. 1899. Aubretia, Aubrietia for Claude Aubriet (1668-1743 (or 1665 and/or 1742), French botanical artist attached to the Royal French Garden, a friend of Tournefort (listed in one source as Aubreta). aubretioides Aubretia-like, resembling Aubretia, from Aubretia and oides. auburne auchem-, auchma Greek αυχηµα, auchma, boasting, pride. auchen-, aucheno, auchenus, -auchenus Greek αυχην, auchen, the neck, throat; an isthmus, a mountain pass. auchm-, auchmo- Greek αυχµος, auchmos, drought, thirst, meagerness. auct. of authors, used by a writer to indicate a name used in an alternative sense by other authors. See hort. and sensu. auct-, aucti-, auctior Latin auctor, increase, produce, cause; an originator, a founder, a producer, author, an ancestor, supporter; abundant. auctus -a -um enlarged, augmented, great, from Latin past participle of augeo, augere, auxi, auctum, to enlarge, to increase.

auctor, auctoris Latin one who gives increase, founder, architect, author aucubifolius with Aucuba-like leaves, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Aucuba (Aukuba) botanical Latin from the Japanese name aokiba. auctumn, auctumni, auctumnus, -auctumnus Latin auctumnus, autumnus, autumn, autumnal, see autumnus. aucup-, aucupal-, aucupi n. Latin aucupatio, bird-catching, fowling; in general hunting, watching, eavesdropping. aucuparius -a -um bird catching, of bird catchers, the MOUNTAIN ASH, a decoy for birds; from Latin aucupor, aucupari (aucupare), go fowling, from auceps, aucupis (aucipis) m., a bird catcher, a fowler, or aviceps, a bird-catcher, from avis, a bird, and capio, capĕre, to catch (using fruit as a bait). Also as from Latin aucupor, aucupare, aucupatus, go fowling, lay in wait, or lay a trap. aud-, audac, auden- Latin audacia daring, courage, audacity, impudence. audax bold, proud, audacious, from Latin audax, audacis, bold (in a good or bad sense). audi-, audien, audit Latin audire to hear. aug- Greek bright augescens increasing, multiplying, Latin, past participle of augesco, augescere, to increase, to begin to grow. augm-, augmen, augmin- Latin augmen, augminis n., increase, growth. augur, auguris c. Latin augur, an augur, a soothsayer, seer, prophet, prophetess. augurius -a -um of the augur or soothsayer, predicting, from Latin augur, auguris, augurius. augustanus from the neighborhood of Augsburg, Germany augusti-, augustus -a -um stately, venerable, august, noble, notable, exalted, majestic, from Latin augustus a -um, consecrated, holy; majestic, dignified. augustifolius -a -um having impressive foilage, majestic leaved, from Latin augusti- notable, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. augustinii for Dr. Augustine Henry (1857-1930), plant collector in China and Formosa, Professor of Forestry, Dublin. augustissimus -a -um most majestic, very notable, Latin superlative of augustus -a -um, majestic. auiola houseleek aul-, aula, -aula, auli Greek αυλη, aula, a courtyard, hall; Latin aula, aulae f., forecourt, courtyard; an atrium. aul-, aulo-, aulus, -aulus Greek αυλος, aulos, a pipe or tube; any wind instrument. aula-, aulac, aulaco, aulax, -aulax Greek αυλαξ, aulax, a furrow. aulacanthus -a -um with grooved spines, from Greek αυλακος-ακαθος, aulakos-akanthos. aulaco- furrowed, grooved, from Greek αυλαξ, aulax, a furrow; αυλακος, αυλακο-, aulakos, aulako-. aulacocarpus -a -um having furrows in the fruit wall, bearing furrowed fruit, from Greek αυλακο-καρπος, aulako-karpos. aulacogonus -a -um with furrowed edges, from Greek αυλακο-, aulako-, aulacolobus -a -um having furrowed lobes, from Greek αυλακο aulacophyllus -a -um having furrowed leaves, from Greek αυλακο aulacospermus -a -um having riged seed coats, bearing furrowed seeds, from Greek αυλακο-σπερµα, aulako-sperma. aulacothelis bearing furrowed warts, from Greek αυλακο Aulax furrow, from Greek αυλαξ, aulax, αυλακος, aulakos, a furrow. aulicus -a -um of the court, courtly; princely, noble, from Latin aulicus -a -um, of the court, princely, from Greek αὐλικός, aulikos, from αὐλή, aule, court. auliscus small pipe, catheter aulo- tube, from Greek αυλος, αυλο-, aulos, aulo-. Greek αὐλος, aulos, flute. Aulocalyx tubular calyx, from Greek αυλος-καλυξ, aluos-kalyx. aulon-, -aulon Greek αυλων, aulon, a pipe, a hollow between hills of banks, a channel, trench, furrow; a meadow aulos flute, tube, from Greek αὐλος, aulos, flute. aur-, aura, auro Latin aura, air. aur-, aurar, aurat, aure, auri Latin aurum, aurarius, gold, golden. aur-, auri-, auricul-, auris, -auris, aurit Latin auris, an ear. aura feverfew Aura popularis fleeting fame, literally popular breeze

aurant-, auranti- New Latin orange colored, referring to the color orange Aurantiaceae from the genus name, Aurantia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names, an old family name for Citrus. aurantiacus-a -um auranti'acus (locally aw-ran-tye-AK-us, aw-ran-TIE-a-kus) colored orange, orange-red or orange-yellow. auraniticus -a -um from Hawran (Hauran, Houran), sw Syria, formerly the Roman province of Auranitis. aurantifolius -a -um golden-leaved or orange-leaved Citrus aurantifolia, the lime; with Citrus-like leaves, from Latin auranti- , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aurantium, aurantii n., an orange tree. aurantius -a -um orange-red, tawny, as opposed to aurantiacus, orange-yellow; orange-colored, the color of an orange, from Latin aurantium (aurantia?). aurarius -a -um, aureus -a -um golden, ornamented with gold, from Latin aurum, auri, n., gold, things made of gold. auratus -a -um metallic yellow, golden, gilt, gold-shining, decorated with gold, from Latin auratus -a -um, golden or adorned with gold. aure- golden or gilded, splendid, beautiful aureafolius -a -um with golden leaves, from Latin aureus and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. aureatus -a -um like gold, golden; decorated with gold, from Latin aureus -a -um, golden, made of gold. aurelianus -a -um, aureliensis -is -e from Orleans, France, on the Loire, from Latin Aurelianum. Orleans was the westward limit of the advance of Atilla the Hun. aurellus -a -um yellowish, Latin diminutive of aureus. aureo-, aureus -a -um golden-yellow, from Latin aureus -a -um, of gold, golden; gilded. Aureoboletus golden mushroom, from Latin aureus -a -um, golden, and boletus, boleti n. a mushroom. aureola, aureolae f., halo; nimbus, aura; aureole. Aureolaria golden from aureolus, golden-yellow. aureo-lineatus with yellow lines aureolus -a -um golden-yellow, golden, gilded, from Latin aureus -a -um, of gold, golden; gilded. aureolus, aureola, aureolum golden, made of gold, gold colored; beautiful, brilliant, excellent, splendid; aureolus, aureoli n., gold coin, gold piece. aureomaculatus -a -um gold-spotted, from Latin aureo-, and macula, maculae f., a spot, mark, or stain. aureomarginatus, aureo-marginatus gold-edged, with yellow borders aureonitens, aureo-nitens shining gold, with golden lustre, from Latin aureo-, and niteo, nitere, to shine, to glitter. aureopictus lit. gold-painted aureoreticulatus, aureo-reticulatus gold-veined, yellow netted or veined aureosulcatus -a -um having golden grooves, from Latin aureo-, and sulcus, sulci m., a furrow, a plowing, for the lines on the stem. aureovariegatus gold-variegatus aurescens turning gold, from Latin aureo-, and fio, fiere, factus sum, the passive of facio, to be made, to come into existence. aurespina golden-spined aureus –a -um, aurëus au'rea (AW-ree-a) gold, golden, of golden color, golden-yellow, from Latin aureus, of gold, golden, a gold coin of ancient Rome varying in weight from 1/30 libra to 1/70 libra. auri- referring to an ear-like shape auricolor having a golden lustre, from Latin aureo-, and color (colos), coloris color, tint. auricomus -a -um with golden hair, from Latin aurum and coma, comae, f., hair of the head, golden-hairyleaved; golden-haired, golden-tufted. auricul-, auriculo Latin auricula, the lobe of the ear; the auricle of the ear or heart. Auricula, auricula -a -um ear, an ear-shaped appendage, (having small ears??), from Latin auricula, for the leaf shape of Primula auricula or the ‘Jew’s-ear” fruiting body of Auricularia auricula-judae. Auricularia Latin auricularia, earlike, from auricula, auriculae, diminutive for auris, ear, a genus of mushrooms. auriculatissimus -a -um most-lobed, Latin superlative of auriculatus, for the huge petiole lobes of Senecio auriculatissimus. auriculatus -a -um auricula'tus (aw-rik-yoo-LAY-tus) eared, of ear shape; lobed like an ear, with lobes, from Latin auris, auricula.

auricularis -is -e lobed like an ear, with lobes, from Latin auris, auricula. auricula-ursofolius, auriculae-ursifolius from Latin auricula ursi, bear’s ear, Clusius’ name, for the leaves of Primula auricula, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. auriferus having ears (?), compare Latin aurifer, aurifera, auriferum, gold-bearing, producing/yielding gold (mine/country); bearing golden fruit auriga Latin auriga, aurigae m., charioteer, driver, groom, ostler, helmsman; the constellation Waggooner. aurigeranus -a -um from Ariège, France, from Latin place name Aurigera. One source has this as from the Latin verb regare' meaning to irrigate. More likely, it means gold-bearing, as gold and silver placer deposits were near Aurigera. Aurina of the breeze, from Greek αυρα, αυρη, aura, aure, Latin aura, aurae, a term for plants of montane crags. Auriscalpum ear-pick, from Latin auriscalpium, auriscalpii, ear pick, a medical instrument, for the tapered stipe being inserted laterally on the somewhat ear-shaped cap. aurisetus with golden bristles aurit-, auritud- Latin auritus -a -um, long-eared, eared; with large ears; hearing well. auritextus -a -um cloth of gold, woven from gold, from Latin aureus and texo, texere, texui, textum, to weave, to twine together. auritus -a -um auri'tus (aur-I-tus) with ears, long-eared, with long ears, from Latin auris, auris n., ear; hearing; a discriminating sense of hearing. auro Latin air (?) auror-, aurora, -aurora Latin aurora, dawn. aurorius -a -um of dawn, daybreak, morning; orange, like the rising sun, from Latin aurora, aurorae, f., dawn, daybreak, sunrise. aurosus, -a -um golden, like gold; of day-break, of sunrise, from Latin aurora, aurorae, f., dawn, daybreak, sunrise. aurugino; also auruginosus suffer from jaundice aurum Latin aurum, gold. auscult-, ausculta Latin auscultare, to hear attentively, listen to. auster-, austerus Latin austerus, harsh, rough, stern, gloomy; harsh, tart, sour (as in the taste of a sloe). auster Latin auster, the south wind. austinii au'stinii (AWE-stin-ee-eye) austr-, australi- Latin australis, southern. austr- southern, Australian australasiae botanical Latin, of southern Asia. australasicus -a -um botanical Latin, Australian, south Asiatic. australiensis -is -e of or from Australia, of Australian origin australis -is -e austra'lis (ow-STRAH-lis, aw-STRAY-lis) southern, of or from the southern hemishpere, from the Latin australis southern. austeralis, austeralis f., Latin a plant usually called sisymbrium. austeralis bergamot mint austriacus -a -um Austrian, of Austrian origin, derived from German Oesterreich, eastern kingdom. austrinus -a -um southern, of the south, from Latin australis -is -e, southern. austro- southern, from Latin australis, austro-. North America). austroafricanus -a -um botanical Latin, from southern Africa. austroalpinus -a -um from the southern Alps, from Latin austro- and alpinus. austrocedrus southern cedar, from Latin australis and Cedrus. austro-caledonicus from New Caledonia austromontanus -a -um austromonta'nus (aw-stro-mon-TAY-nus) from southern mountains, from Latin austromontanus (referring to the mountains of austro-occidentalis south-western aut-, auto- Greek αυτος, αυτο-, autos, auto-, self-, alone-, the same-. autochthonus -a -um not introduced, indigenous, from Greek αυτοχθων, autochthon. autogenes narcissus autumn, autumnali-, autumnale Latin autumnus, autumn, autumnal.

autumnalis -is -e (ow-tum-NAH-lis, or locally aw-tum-NAY-lis) autumnal, of the autumn, autumn flowering from Latin auctumnalis, autumnal, of or pertaining to autumn, from autumnus, autumni, autumn, for its flowering or growing period, and -alis adjectival suffix pertaining to or belonging to. aux-, auxe, auxo Greek αυξη, auxe, grow, growth, increase, enlarge. auxili-, auxiliari Latin auxilium, auxilii n., help, aid; aiding, assistance. auxillaris -is -e helpful, aiding, from Latin auxillaris; increasing, from Greek αυξη, auxe, (increasing vegetatively). auxiliaris -is -e Latin adjective, assisting, succoring, help-bringing; auxiliary (troops). Auxopus different stalk, from Greek αυξο-πους, auxo-pous, for the yellowish weak stems of this parasitic plant. avar-, avari Latin avarus, eager, covetous, greedy, desirous. avasmontanus -a -um from the Auas Berg mountains of Namibia. Ave atque vale Hail and farewell. Ave Maria Hail Mary Avellana a filbert; nux avellana, an old name from Pliny for the hazel nut, from Abella (Avella), now called Avellino (Fonte Avellana), in Campania, Italy, a town in the Apennines once known for its fruit and nuts. avellanae of hazel, living on Corylus avellana, as Eriophyes, an acarine gall mite. avellanarius -a -um living in hazel woods, Muscardinus avellanarius, a dormouse. avellaneus -a -um hazel-colored, drab, the color of the fresh shell of the Hazel-nut; from Avellana, a filbert, from Abella, now called Avellino, in Campania, Italy, a town once known for its fruit and nuts, and -aneus adjectival suffix indicating resemblance or material out of which something is made. avellanidens with tearing teeth, from Latin avello, avellere, avelli (avulsi), avulsum, and dens, dentis, Agave leaf-margins. avellanus -a -um Agellian, from Avella, Italy, Pliny’s name, nux avellana, for the hazel nut. Avellinia small-oat-like (?), dimunitive from Latin Avena. (avenillus?) avellinus -a -um hazel-brown, from Latin Avellana. avena, -avena nourishment, from Latin avena, anenae f., oats, wild oats, reed, straw, shepard’s or pan pipe. Avena Ave'na (a-VAY-na, or a-VEE-na) from the old Latin avena, anenae f., oats, wild oats, akin to Lithuanian avia oats, Russian oves. avenaceus -a -um resembling Oats, Avena, from avena, avenae. avenius -a -um veinless, or seemingly so, with obscur veins, from Latin a- and vena, venae. avenoides resembling Avena, oat-like, from Latin Avena and -oides. Avenula like a small oat, from Latin avena, avenae and the feminine diminutive. avernensis -is -e from the Auvergne in France, possibly from Latin avernus, averni m., hell; the infernal regions; the lower world. Auvergne has many dormant, but not extinct volcanoes Averrhoa for Averrhoes, 12th century physician, translator of Aristotle’s works. avers- Latin aversor, aversari, to turn away from, turned away, shun, avoid, with-drawn. aversiflorus with inverted flowers aversus turned away, bent back aversus -a -um, aversior -or -us, aversissimus -a -um Latin adjective, turned/facing away, w/back turned; behind, in rear; distant; averse; hostile. averv- Late Latin avervus, heap. avi-, avia, avis, -avis Latin avis, a bird. avi- referring to a bird, birdlike avia, aviae f., Latin unidentified plant; groundsel; also called senecio, erigero. avicella, avicellae f. Latin noun, little bird. Avicennia, avicennae for Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037), Arabian philosopher and physician. avicenniaefolius -a -um Avicennia-leaved, having leaves resembling those of the white mangrove, from Avicennia and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. avicennioides resembling Avicennia, mangrove-like, from Avicennia and -oides. avicula, aviculae f. Latin noun, small bird. avicularis -is -e pertaining or relating to small birds, eaten by small birds, (sought by birds in one source), from avicula, diminutive of avis, bird, and -aris adjectival suffix, a variant of -alis used after stems ending in l. aciculus -a -um omen, of small birds, diminutive of Latin avis, avis f. avid- Latin avidus, eager, greedy, longing for, vehemently desiring. avis, avis f., Latin noun, bird; sign, omen, port.

avisylvanus -a -um botanical Latin, of undisturbed woods, from Latin avis, bird, and sylva, wood, forest. avit- Latin avitus, of a grandfather; ancestral, very old. avitus -a -um avi'tus (a-VEE-tus) Latin adjective, ancestral, of one's ancestors, family; of or belonging to a grandfather. avium new Latin, of the birds, relating to birds, from Latin avis. avium, avii n., Latin noun, pathless region (pl.), wild waste, wilderness, desert; lonely/solitary place, from aand via, viae, f., way, road, street. avocado from a Nahuatl name, ahuacatl, for the fruit, cognate with alligator (pear). avolans flying away, from Latin verb avolo, avolare, avolavi, avolatus to fly/rush away/off; hasten away, flee, vanish; fly away (a missle). awn a bristle-like appendage, especially on the glume of grasses -ax Latin uncommon suffix meaning with a sense of ‘inclining or apt to’, used with a verb base. azanius, azania, azanium Latin adjective, a kind of pine cone; pine cones which open while yet on the tree. axanthus bearing cone flowers axi-, axis, -axis Latin axis, axis m., an axis, axle. axill- referring to axils axilla, -axilla Latin axilla, axillae f., the armpit, the side. axillariflorus -a -um, axilliflorus -a -um axil flowering, with flowers produced in the leaf axils, from Latin axilla and flos, floris. axillaris -is -e axillar'is (ax-il-AIR-is) in the armpit, axillary, growing in the leaf axil, relating to the axil (the angle between the stem and leaf), from Latin axilla, axillae. axio- Greek αξιος, axios, worth, (man’s) rank, value; worthy, good. axiom Greek αξιοµα, axioma, self-evident principle. axo-, axon, -axon Greek αξων, axon, an axle, axis. Axonpus axle-stalked, from Greek αξων-πους, axon-pous, for the spicate racemes around the upper part of the rachis. axungio to rub swine's fat or other grease, from axungia, axungiae f., Latin axle grease (hog/animal fat) (also used as medicament). Axyris without edge, Greek αξυρις, axyris, or axyros, from a, not, and xyrios, razor, blunt, not cutting, in reference to the mild taste. ayabacanus -a -um from Ayabaca, northwest Peru. Ayenia Ayen'ia (a-YEN-ee-a) az-, azale, azo Greek dry, parched az-, azale, Greek αζω, azo, dry up, parch, groan, sigh, breath hard. aza from Greek αζα, asafetidia, a plant producing the spice commmonly called “devil’s dung”. Azalea of dry habitats, from Greek ἀξαλέα, feminine of αξαλεος, azaleos, dry, in reference to the plants dry habitat or its dry brittle wood (etymology uncertain, formerly used by Linnaeus for Loiseleuria (Gledhill)). azaleanus -a -um Azalea-like. azaleodendron Azalea (flowered) tree, from Greek αξαλεος-δενδρον, azaleos-dendron. azaleoides azalea-like, resembling Azalea, from Greek αξαλεος-οειδες, azaleos-oeides. Azana from a Mexican vernacular name. Azanza from a Mexican vernacular name. Azara for J.N. Azara, early 19th century patron of botany and other sciences. azanthus early flowering azarolus medlar, a small Eurasian tree (Mespilus germanica) that is widely cultivated especially in Europe; alternately from the Italian vernacular name azarolo (azzeruola) for Crataegus azarolus, the Neapolitan medlar, from Arabic az-zuerūr. azedarach, azadarachtus -a -um a Middle-eastern vernacular name azaddirakht, for the bead tree, Melia azaradachta, from Persian āzād dirakht, free or noble tree. azila hound's-tongue, Dacian. azirchalbe calf's-snout, from Punic, A. Souter p.27 azirgunzol vervain(?), Punic. azo- Greek αζωος, azoos, lifeless. Azolla (a-ZOL-la) modern Latin from Greek αζω, azo, to dry, and ολλυµι, ollumi, to kill, or Greek ἄζεν, azen, to dry, and ὄλλυναι, ollynai, to slay; the plants are killed by drying. Possibly from a South American name thought to refer to its inability to survive out of water. (Azollaceae)

Azollaceae Azolla'ceae (az-oh-LAY-see-ee) from the genus name, Azolla, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. azonites ungirdled, from Latin a-zona, a-zonae, from Latin zona, woman’s girdle, tunic belt, Greek ζώνη, zone, girdle. Azorella without scales, from Greek α-ζοραλεος, a-zoraleos, feminine diminutive of α-ζωρος, a- zoros, not strong or stout (from Gledhill, not clear). azoricus -a -um of or from the Azores islands in the mid-Atlantic. azot- French nitrogen, azote, from Greek ἀ-, a-, without, and ζώ-ειν, ζά-ειν, zo-ein, za-ein, to live, ζωή, zoe, life, in reference to its inability to support life. aztecorum modern Latin, from the land of the Aztecs, from Aztec and -orum, genitive suffix. . azur- referring to the color blue azureovelatus -a -um blue-clothed, from Latin azureus, sky-blue, and velo, velare, velavi, velatum, to veil to cover upclothe in. azureus -a -um (a-ZYEWR-ee-us) azure, true blue, the color of deep blue, deep sky blue, from azure, which is derived from Old French lazaward, lapis lazuli with initial 'l' dropped as if it were French: adapted from Arabic (al-) lazaward from Persian ljward, lzhward, lapis lazuli, blue colour, and -eus, made from, color, like. (OED) medieval Greek λαζούριον, lazourion, and medieval Latin lazurius, lazur, lazulus, lapis lazuli. The Italic languages dropped the Arabic article al- as though it were the article l’. Azurfee German cv. azure fairy azyg-, azygo Greek αζυγος, azygos, unpaired, unmarried, unwedded. Azuma-kagami Japanese cv. mirror of the east “At painful times, when composition is impossible and reading is not enough, grammars and dictionaries are excellent for distraction.” Samuel Johnson ba Greek ba, an intensive particle. babadagicus -a -um of or from the Babatag mountains of Uzebekistan. babae wonderful!, wow!, ahh!, from Latin babae, an interjection of awe, also papae! babax Greek βαβαξ, babax, a chatterer. babalus Latin babulus babuli m., a babbler, a fool. Babiana baboon, from Afrikaan babianer, baboon, which feed on the corms. Babington for Charles Cardale Babington (1808-1895), Professor of Botany at Cambridge, author of Manual of British Botany. babyruss Portuguese babirosa = babirussa, from Malay babi, hog, and rusa, deer, the name of the horned hog. babylonicus -a -um, babylonius Babylonian, of Babylonian origin, from Latin babylon, babylonis. bac-, baca-, bacc-, bacca-, -bacca, -bacci Latin baca, bacca, a berry, an olive, a succulent fruit with seeds imersed in the pulp, a small round fruit such as a berry, referring to berries; also things that are berry-like in shape, such as a pearl, the dung of sheep, goats, and rabbits, etc. baca, bacae f. Latin noun berry, fruit of tree/shrub; olive; pearl; piece/bead of coral. bacaba a south American vernacular name for the wine palm, Oenocarpus bacaba. bacatus -a -um bacca'tus (ba-KAY-tus) of pearls, berried, from Latin baca, bacae; bacca, baccae. bacca, baccae f. Latin noun berry, fruit of tree/shrub; olive; pearl; piece/bead of coral. baccans with berries, berrying, berry-like, or pulpy; becoming berried-looking (shining red to purple, berrylike fruits of Carex baccans). baccar, baccaris n. Latin noun, Celtic Valerian, a plant which yielded a kind of oil, =nardum rusticum, =nardum gallicum, =saliunca, Valeriana Celtica; unidentified plant (cyclamen?, sowbread); another plant; w/fragrant root w/oil. baccaris, baccaris f. Latin noun, Celtic Valerian, a plant which yielded a kind of oil, =nardum rusticum, =nardum gallicum, =saliunca, Valeriana Celtica; unidentified plant (cyclamen?, sowbread); another plant; w/fragrant root w/oil. baccatus -a -um in the form of a berry, berry-like, having berries, with pulpy fruit, from Latin baca, bacae; bacca, baccae, describing fruits with fleshy or pulpy coats.

bacch-, bacchan, bacche Greek mythology Βακχος, Bakchos, Bacchus, god of wine, wine, anyone inspired, frantic, frenzy; a branch, a garland. bacchar, baccharis, n. Latin noun, bacchar, Celtic Valerian, a plant with an aromatic root which yielded a kind of oil, =nardum rusticum, =nardum gallicum, =saliunca, (?): Valeriana Celtica; Gnaphalium sanguineum (J.I. Miller). unidentified plant (cyclamen?, sowbread); another plant; w/fragrant root w/oil. baccharis, baccharis f., Latin noun unidentified plant (cyclamen?, sowbread); another plant; w/fragrant root w/oil Baccharis Bac'charis (BAK-ar-is) for Greek and Roman god of wine Bakchos, Bacchus, reference unsure, possibly used originally for different plant. Alternately an ancient Greek name of doubtful etymology, perhaps meaning estatic, from βακος, bakchos, for the spicy smell of the roots. Or for the plants fragrance resembling that of wine. (Compositae) baccifer -era -erum, bacifer -era -erum olive-bearing, berrybearing, from Latin bacca and fero. bacciflavus with yellow berries bacciformis -is -e berry-shaped, with the form of a berry, from Latin bacca and formis. baccillaris -is -e rod-like, stick-like, staff-like, from Latin bacillum, bacilli, a lictor’s staff, in botany used to describe very small rod-like structures. bacelo- Greek βακηλος, bakelos, a eunuch, womanish. bacidi- New Latin bacidium, a little rod, from Latin baculum, baculi n., a staff, stick, rod and -idium, diminutive suffix. bacifer, bacifera, baciferum berry-bearing bacill-, -bacillum Latin bacillum, a little staff, a little stick. bacillum, bacilli n. Latin noun, a little staff, especially the lictor's staff bacillaris in the form of small rods, sticks or clubs baccina, baccinae f. Latin noun, a plant also known as apollinaris. backii Backhousia, backhouseanus, bachousianus -a -um for James Backhouse (1794-1869), English nurseryman of York and plant collector. Bacopa New Latin, derivation uncertain, the name of some plant, probably from a native name in the Guianas. bact-, bacter-, bactr-, bacteria Greek baktron = bactēria, diminutive βακτηριον, bakterion, a small rod, a rod, a staff, stick, club. bacteri-, bacterio-, bacterium stick-, staff-, from Greek βακτερια, bakteria, βακτηριον, bakterion, bacteria (rod bacteria). bactro- Greek βακτρον, baktron, staff, cane. bactrianus -a -um from ancient Bactria in central Asia, from Greek Βακτριανός, Baktrianos, Latin Bactriānos. Bactria was part of Alexander’s empire. bacteriophilus -a -um bacteria-loving, symbiotic, from Greek βακτηρια-φιλος, bakteria-philos. Bactris cane, from Greek βακτρον, baktron, used in making walking sticks. bacul-, baculum, -baculum Latin baculum, baculi n. = baculus, baculi m., a rod, staff, walking stick, lictor’s staff; scepter, crozier. baculum, baculi n. and baculus, baculi m. Latin noun, a staff, walking stick, staff, a lictor’s rod or staff (not the fascas, fasces); scepter, crozier. baculiferus -a -um Latin staff carrying, bearing canes or reeds (?), with reed-like stems (?) correctly bearing sticks, from baculum a staff and fero, I bear. baculiformis stick-shaped, rod-like baculus -a -um stick, staff, from Latin baculum, baculi. bacuncul- New Latin bacunculus, from Latin baculum, a rod, and unculus, a small hook. bacunum cabbage, cabbage-seed bad- Greek bados, a step, path; also a collection. badachschanicus -a -um from Badakshan, Afganistan. badensis from Baden in Germany badi-, badii-, badit Greek βαδισις, badisis, walking, going. badio-, badism- Greek badioumai, fut. ind. of badizō, to walk, to advance slowly step by step, from badisma, a step, gait. badiocarpus -a -um with chestnut-brown fruits, from Latin badio and carpus. badis-, badisi-, badist- Greek walk, step.

badisso, badissare, badissavi, badissatus Latin verb to go, proceed; walk. baditis water-lily, from Latin baditis, baditidis n., nymphaea. badius -a -um badius, chestnut-brown, reddish-brown, from Latin badius, badia, badium, bay, reddishbrown, chestnut; color, esp. applied to horses. badizo, badizare Latin verb, to go, proceed; walk. Baeckea for Abraham Baeck, friend of Linnaeus and a physician. baen-, baeno Greek βαινειν, banein, to go, walk, step, advance. baeo-, baio- Greek βαιος, βαιο-, baios, baio-, little, small, humble. baeocephalus -a -um small headed, from Greek βαιο-κεφαλη, baio-kephale, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. Baeometra of small measure, from Greek βαιο-µετρον, baio-metron. Baeospora small spore, from Greek βαιο-σπορος, 0 baeticus -a -um Latin from the River Baetis in Andalusia, from Andalucia, the Roman province of Baetica, in Andulusia and Granada, southern Spain, baeto Greek βαιτη, baita(η?), a coat of skin, tent of skin. baetygo Greek βαιτυξ, baityx, a leech. baffinensis -is -e from Baffin Island or Baffin Bay, Canada. Bafutia originating in referring to Bafut-Ngemba, Cameroon, west Africa. bagamoyensis -is -e from Bagamoyo, Tanzania, the one time coastal headquaters of the German East Africa Company. bagn- Italian a bath bagoa- Greek βαγωας, bagōas, a eunuch, a guard of women; without seed or fruit (a Persian word). bagr- New Latin bagrus, from Spanish bagre, a fish. bahamanus -a -um from the Bahamas, Bahamian. bahamensis -is -e from the Isle of Bahama bahem palm-rod Bahia Bahi'a (ba-HEE-a) for J. F. Bahí (1775–1841), professor of botany at Barcelona. bahianus -a -um, bahiensis -is -e from Bahia State in east Brazil. Bahiopsis Bahiop'sis (bah-hee-OP-sis) from the generic name Bahia and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. bai-, bae-, boe Greek baios, slim, small, feeble; also dry, concise. baia, baiae palm-leaf, from Latin bae, baes f., palm branch; also Baiae (pl.) a posh Bay of Naples resort with hot springs, the Palms. baicalensis -is -e, baicalicus -a -um. baikalensis -is -e New Latin, from Lake Baikal, from Russian Baikal, a lake in southern (eastern) Siberia. baijulo, baijulare Latin to carry, to bear a load. Baikiaea for Dr. William Balfour Baikie, surgeon and naturalist who commanded the Niger Expeditions of 1954 and 1857. Baileya Bai'leya (BAY-lee-a) for Jacob Whitman Bailey (1811–1857), researcher of diatomaceous algae at the U.S. Military Academy. baileyanus -a -um baileya'nus (bay-lee-AY-nus) either for Captian F.M. Bailey, who collected in Tibet circa 1913; or Major Vernon Bailey, who collected on Mount Wichita, Oklahoma c. 1906, or Liberty Hyde Bailey, vide infra. baileyi Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858-1954), author and Professor of Horticulture at Cornell University and founder of Bailey Hortorium. Baillonia for H. Bailllon (1827-1895), French botanist. bain Greek bainō, baō, to go, walk, step. bainesii for John Thomas Baines (1820-1875), researcher of South African aloes. baio Greek little bajul- Latin baiulus, a porter; bajulus, a burden bearer, a carrier. baijulus, baijuli m., Latin porter, pall-bearer, carrier of a burden; steward; letter-carrier. bajolus, bajoli m., Latin porter, pall-bearer, carrier of a burden; steward; letter-carrier. bajulatio, bajulationis f., Latin carrying/bearing of burdens/loads; bajulator, bajulatoris m., Latin carrier, porter, one carrying/bearing burdens/load Bakeranthera for John Gilbert Baker (1834-1920), British botanist and author of Handbook of the Bromeliaceae.

Bakerisideroxylon Engler’s generic name for Baker’s Soderoxylon revoltum (= Vincetella revoluta). bal-, bali-, balo- Greek βαλλω, ballo, to throw, cast, hurl, shoot. balaen-, balaena, -balaena, balaeni, balaeno Latin balaena, balaenae f., Greek φαλαινα, phalaina, a whale. balaena, balaenae f., balena, balenae f. Latin noun whale. Balaenae nobie conservandae sunt. Save the whales. balan-, balano-, balanus Greek βαλανος, balanos, an acorn, something acorn-shaped, a date, iron peg, boltpin. (Wiliams) balan-, balano-, balanus, -balanus Greek an acorn; the glans of the penis (Borror) balanat- from Latin balanatus, perfumed with balsam. balanatus -a -um Latin perfumed with oil of Ben, from winged Horse-radish tree seeds Moringa pterygosperms. balanitēs acorn-shaped. Balanites acorn-having, from Greek βαλανος-ιτης, balanos-ites, from the Greek name βαλανος, balanos, describing the fruit of some species. balanitis, balanitidis f. Latin noun, a species of chestnut; shaped like an acorn. balane-, balanei-, balaneu- Greek βαλανειον, balaneion, a bath, a bathing room. balaninos made of acorns. balanoideus -a -um resembling an acorn, from Greek βαλανος-οειδης, balanos-oides, and Latin balanusoides. Balanaphora acorn-carrying, from Greek βαλανο-φορα, balano-phora, for the nut produced by these total parasites of tropical trees. balansae, balansanus -a -um for Benjamin (Benedict) Balansa (1825-1892), French plant collector who botanized the tropics. balanus balanite, Balanites aegyptiaca. balanus, balani m., acorn; other nuts, chestnut, ben-nut; date; balsam; shell-fish; suppository. From the ancient Greek name for an acorn βαλανος, balanos. balanocarpus bearing club-shaped fruit (?) balanophorus bearing clubs(??) balanti-, balantium Greek βαλαντιον, balantion, a bag, pouch. balata a Guyanese Carib vernacular name for several species of trees producing an edible fruit and guttapercha-like latex, balata,especially Mimusops balata. balatro a buffoon, a jester, from Latin balatro, balatronis m., buffoon, fool; jester, joker; bleater, babbler. balaustinus -a -um pomegranite fruit colored, from Greek βαλαυστιον, balaustion. Also a reference to the red rose-like flower. balb-, balbus Latin balbus -a -um, stammering, stuttering Balbisia, balbisianus -a -um for Giovanni Battista Balbis (1765-1831), Professor of Botany at Turin, Italy. balcanicus -a -um, balcanus -a -um from the Balkan Mountains, Balkan. balcoous -a -um from a Bengali vernacular name. baldaccii for Antonio Baldacci (1867-1950), of the Bologna Botanic Garde, Italy. Baldellia for Bartolommeo Bartolini-Baldelli, 19th century Italian nobleman. baldmonia a medieval name for Meum athamanticum, baldmoney. baldensis -is -e from the Mount (Monte) Baldo area in Lombardy, northern Italy. baldschuanicus -a -um from Baldschuan (Baldzhuan), in Central Asia baldschuanicus from Balijuan, Turkestan Balduina, Baldwinia, baldwinii for Dr. William Baldwin (1779–1819), a pioneering American botanist. (Compositae) balearicus -a -um, balearica from the Balearic Islands, of or referring to the Balearic Islands, off the coast of Spain in the Mediterranean, including Majorca, Minorca, and Iviza baleen- Latin balaena, a whale. bali-, balio Greek βαλιος, balios, spotted, dappled; swift, nimble. balist-, balista Latin ballista, a catapult or the missle thrown. ball-, ballo Greek βαλλω, ballo, to throw, attack, cast, hurl, shoot, strike. In early ancient Greek this was βαλϳω, with a ‘j’ or y as in yes sound. The ‘j’ was present in very early Greek, but no symbol is known; the sound occurs in some γ and ι utterances.

ballardiae for the English gardener and nurserywoman Helen Ballard (1908-1995), known for breeding hellebores balis, balis f. Latin noun, an unidentified plant; (vine?). baliscus -a -um Latin adjective a kind of vine? baldschuanicus -a -um from Baldschuan (Baldzhuan), Bokhara, Uzbekistan. balearicus -a -um from the Balearic Islands, Baliares Insulae, Mediterranean. balfourri for Sir Isaac Baley Balfouf (1853-1922), plant collector in Socotra, professor of Botany, Edinburgh. ballatrix dancing, feminine form of Late Latin, ballo, ballare, ballavi, ballatus, dance, from Italian ballo, a dance. Consider ballator, ballatoris m., latin noun, dancer? ballism Greek βαλλιζω, ballizo, dance, jumping about. ballot-, ballota, -ballota Greek βαλλωτη, ballota, a labiate herb, black hoarhound, horehound, Ballota nigra. Ballota New Latin, alteration of Latin ballote, ballotes f., black horehound, from Greek ballōtē of uncertain origin. Ballota Dioscorides’ Greek name βαλλοτη, ballote, for Ballota nigra. balne-, balneari, balneo- Latin balneum balnei n., a bath, a bathing place. balsam-, balsamo-, balsamum, -balsamum balsam-like, yiedling balsam, from Latin balsamum, balsami, from Greek βαλσαµον, balsamon, a balsam tree Mecca balsam, an aromatic herb balsam, Chrysanthemum balsamita; probably of Semitic origin; akin to Hebrew bāsām spice, balsa. balsameus -a -um, balsamicus, balsamae bal-SAM-ee-us balsamic or resinous, from balsamea, balsam like, having the soothing qualities of balm, aromatic from balsameus, balsam like for the bark. Balsamina Balsam, from Greek βαλσαµον, blasamon, a former generic name for Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). balsamina, balsamitus -a -um from Greek, an old generic name βαλσαµινη, balsimina, for alecost, Tanacetum balsamita. balsaminus -a -um Latin adjective, of balsam (aromatic resin used as unguent/salve); balsamic. Balsaminaceae plants of the Balsam family, from the genus name, Balsamina, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. balsaminifer -era -erum, balsamiferus balsamif'era (ball-sam-IF-er-a, bal-sa-MI-fera) balsam bearing, producing or yielding balsam, a fragrant gum or resin, from Greek βαλσαµον-φερω, balsamon-phero. balsamifluae Balsam Tree balsamifluus balsam shedding, balsam yielding balsamita Balsam herb balsamoides from Greek βαλσαµον-οειδης, balsamon-oeides. Balsamorhiza Balsamorhi'za (ball-sam-oh-RYE-za) balsamic-root, from Greek βαλσαµον, balsamon, a fragrant gum, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root; for the resiniferous roots. balsamum, balsami n. Latin noun, balsam (cultivated), Commiphora opobalsamum. balsamus -a -um of balm, from Greek βαλσαµον, balsamon, Latin balsumum, balsami. balteat- Latin balteus, a girdle to hold a weapon, a woman’s girdle, girdled, from balteum, baltei n., belt; shoulder-band/baldric; woman's girdle; band around neck/breast of horse. balteiformis shaped like a belt balticus -a -um bal'ticus (BALL-ti-kus) of or from the Baltic Sea or the surrounding region, from the coastal area of the Baltic Sea. baluchistanicus -a -um from Baluchistan province of Pakistan. bam- Greek βηµα, bama, a pace, a step, footstep; go, walk. bambus- referring to bamboo, from modern Latin bambusa, bambusae f., bamboo. bamboosarus -a -um of bamboos, for the stem morphology. bambos from the Malayan vernacular name, mambu, probably via Dutch bamboes. Bambusa from the Malayan vernacular name, mambu. bambusaefolius, -a -um, bambusifolius with the leaves like Bamboo, New Latin, Bambusa and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. bambusetorum in bamboo-dominated vegetation, of bamboo forests, from Bambusa and -orum. bambusoides like or resembling bamboo, New Latin Bambusa and -oides banana, bananae f. Latin noun, banana. banana from a west African vernacular name, banam, from Arabic, banana, for a finger. bananicus -a -um Latin adjective, a variety of vine (w/vitis).

banatus -a -um, banaticus -a -um, bannaticus of the Banat area, parts of southern Hungary, Romania, and Vojvodina, Yugoslavia. bancanus -a -um from the Isle of Pulau Banca (Banka, Bangka) in Sumatra, Indonesia, formerly Dutch India. bancus, banci m. Latin a species of fish. bandaensis -is -e from the islands surrounding the Banda Sea, Indonesia. Banisteria, banisteri fro Reverend Jonh Baptist Banister (1650-1692), English botanist in Virginia. Banksia, banksianus -a -um, banksii for Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), plant collector who accompanied Captain Cook, adviser to the Royal Gardens at Kew, president of the Royal Society, and patron of the sciences. Rosa banksiae is named after the missus. banksiae for Lady Dorothea Banks, wife of Sir Joseph Banks. Rosa banksiae was sent to England by the kew collector William Kerr, in 1807 from China. banksiopsis looking similar to Rosa banksiae, from and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. bantamensis -is -e from Bantam in Java banília, baníllia from Greek βανίλια, banilia, βανίλλια, banillia, vanilla. banyan, banian a name from Sir Thomas Herbert, referring to the use an individual tree by Indian traders as a place of worship near Gambroon, from vanija,meaning merchant, in 1628. Adapted from Portuguese banian, probably from Arabic banyān (16th c.), adopted from Gujarātī vāṇiyo, man of the trading caste, from Sanscrit vaṇij merchant, plural vāṇiyān; the Indian Fig Tree, Ficus religiosa or F. indica. baobab from a vernacular name from some central African language recorded by Prospero Alpini in his De Plantis Aegypti, (Venice, 1592), De Bahobab, who speaks of the fruit’s use “in Æthiopia”. Adansonia digitata, Monkey bread. baoulensis -is -e from Baoule, Ivory Coast, west Africa, or from the Baoule tributary of the Niger river, Mali. bap-, baph-, bapt-, baptis Greek dye; dip; baptize bap-, bapt-, baptis- Greek βαπτιζω, baptiso, plunge, dip. baphe-, bapheus Greek βαφευς, bapheus, Latin bapheus, baphei m., a dyer. Baphia from Greek βαφευς, bapheus, dyer; cam-wood, Baphia nitida yields a red dye, also used for violin bows. baphicantus -a -um of the dyers, dyers’, dye-producing, from Greek βαφευς, βαφη, bapheus, baphe. Baptisia (bap-TIS-ee-a) from Greek βάπτω, bapto, dying, βαπτίζειν, baptizein, to baptise, to immerse, bathe, wash, drench, βάπτειν, baptein, to dip, plunge, bathe; some species used as a poor grade indigo dye, as a substitute for Indigofera tinctoria. (Leguminosae) bapto- Greek βαπτος, baptos, dipped, died, Latin baptizo, baptizare, to baptize, to immerse. bar-, baro, barus, -barus Greek βαρος, baros, pressure; weight, a burden, a load. bar-, baro-, bary Greek βαρυς, barus, heavy in weight, grievous, oppressive, severe. bar-, baros Greek βαρος, baros, a weight, burden, load. barb-, barba-, -barba Latin barba, a beard. barba, barbae f. Latin beard/ whiskers; large unkempt beard (pl.); Jovis barba is the shrub Anthyllis barba. barbacensis -is -e from the area around Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brasil. barbadensis -is -e from the isle of Barbados in West India, native to Barbados; or from the Barbary Coast of north Africa. barba-jovis Jove’s-beard, Jupiter’s-beard, from Latin barba, barbae, and iovis. barbar-, barbaro- Latin barbarus, Greek βαρβαρος, barbaros, foreign, strange, uncultivated, rough. Barbarea Barbar'ea (bar-BARE-ee-a) Herba Sanctae Barbarae New Latin, from St. Barbara, who discovered the now unknown medicinal properties of the plants, and New Latin -ea, from Lyte’s translation of Dodoens’ Herba Sanctae Barbarae. A 3rd century martyr, she professed a belief in Christ, St. Barbara was beheaded by her wealthy heathen father Dioscorus. (Cruciferae) Barbarossa Italian cv. Red Beard barbarus -a -um Latin adjective, foreign, strange, also barbarous and uncivilized, uncultivated, rough, savage, cruel; used by or typical of foriegners; from the Barbary Coast of Africa, from Berber in the Sudan; from Latin barbaria, for outside Greece, for the North African Coast. barbarus, barbari m. Latin noun, a barbarian, uncivilized person; foreigner, someone who is not Greek or Roman. barbat- Latin bearded, from barbatus, bearded.

barbatulus -a -um Latin with a slight beard, somewhat bearded, with a short beard, from barbatulus -a -um, having a small or foppish beard, diminutive of barba. barbatus -a -um barba'tus (bar-BAY-tus) from Latin bearded, having tufts of long weak hairs, barbed; also of philosophers, from barba, barbae. barbatus, barbata, barbatum Latin adjective, bearded, having a beard; bearded like the men of antiquity; bearded as sign of being an adult. barbellatus -a -um having a small beard, or better as having small barbs, from Latin feminine diminutive of barba, barbae. barbe bleu French cv. Blue Beard barberae, barberii for Mrs. F.W. Barber (1818-1899), collected in S. Africa. barbi-, barbigerus, barbiger -gera -gerum barbi'gera (bar-BI-ger-a , or bar-BI-jer-a) Latin bearded, having or wearing a beard, bearing beards or barbs, from Latin barbiger, bearded (like a goat) from barba and gero. barbinervis -is -e New Latin with bristly veins, with hairs on the veins, with bearded fiber band or nerves, from Latin barba-vena. barbinodis -is -e New Latin hairy or bearded at the nodes, from Latin barba, beard, -i-, and nodis, from nodus, a knot, and is, adjectival suffix. barbit- Greek βαρβιτος, barbitos, a kind of lyre, also Latin barbitos, barbiti c., (barbiton, barbitii n.) a lyre, properly one of a lower pitch; lute in Ecc. barbitos, barbiti c. Latin noun, lyre, properly one of a lower pitch; lute (Ecc). barbitos m. and f. Latin barbitos, a lyre. barbula, barbulae f. Latin a little beard as worn by young Romans. barbulatus -a -um Latin small-bearded, with a small beard, from barbula, barbulae, a little beard; also having barbules, with small barbs, diminutive of barba. barbus, barbi m. Latin noun, barbel, river barbel, Cyprinus barbus (Barbus barbus). barcellensis -is -e from Villa de Barra area (Baracelos), Amazonas, NW Brazil. barcinonensis -is -e from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, formerly Roman Barcino, then Visigoth Barcinona. ca. 410 CE. bard- Latin bardus -a -um, Greek βραδυς, bradus, stupid, dull, slow. barema Greek βαρηµα, barema, burden, load. bargalensis -is -e from Bargal, on the coast at the NE tip of Somalia. Barkleyanthus for Theodore M. Barkley (1934–2004), North American botanist bari-, barido, baris, -baris Greek βαρις, baris, a flat-bottomed boat. baris, baridos f., baris, baridis f. Latin an Egyptian barge, a flat-bottom boat used on the Nile. Barkhausia for Gottleib Barkhaus of Lippe. Barleria for Reverend J. s (Barrelier) (d. 1673), French botanist. barnac- French a goose, cf. Middle English bernekke, bernake, identical with Old French bernaque, medieval Latin bernaca, berneka; Anas leucopsis. Barnadesia for Michael Barnadez, Spanish botanist. barnumae for Mrs Barnum of the American Mission at Kharput, 1887. baro-, barus, -barus, bary Greek pressure; a burden; heavy baro, baronis m. Latin a blockhead, simpleton, lout, dunce’ slave; alternately baron; magnate; tenant-in-chief (of crown/earl); burgess; official; husband. barometz from a Tartar word, barants, meaning lamb, in reference to the woolly ferns rootstock. Also an erroneous adaptation of Russian baranets (dimin. of baran ram') applied to species of Club-moss, Lycopodium.] (see OED, for the Scythian lamb, half animal, half plant) Barosma heavy odor, from Greek βαρυ-οσµη, bary-osme. barrattii The following comment is from the entry baratum in http://www.calflora.net/botanicalnames/pageBA-BI.html “However, I received the following from Dr. Jim Reveal: "There is no "Eriogonum barbatum." Elmer proposed 'E. baratum' in Botanical Gazette (39: 52. 1905) and distributed specimens with this name. The name was seemingly taking from the Greek baris, "a small boat," and the Latin -atus, having the nature of, but I am uncertain of this. It would be unusual for Elmer to mix Greek and Latin. This word ('baratum') is unique to this one entity in systematic botany."” barrus, barri m. Latin elephant Barteria, barteri for C. Barter (d. 1859), or the 1857 Niger Expedition. bartiseaefolius, bartsiifolius -a -um bartsiifo'lius (bart-see-i-FO-lee-us) bartisia-leaved, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf.

Bartlettia For John Russell Bartlett (1805–1886), United States Commissioner of the U.S.-Mexico Boundary Survey bartletii for Harley Harris Bartlett (c. 1886), American biochemist. Bartonia honoring Prof. Benjamin Smith Barton, (1766-1815), botanist, naturalist, and physician, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; in 1803 published Elements of Botany, the first American botany textbook, partially illustrated by William Bartram. (Gentianaceae) bartonianus -a -um, bartonii for Major F.R. Barton, who colected in Papua. bartramianus -a um for John Bartram (d. 1777), King’s botanist in America, or his son, William Bartram (1739-1823), Delaware, Pennsylvania, USA, nurseryman, early botanist, writer, and artist of the southeastern U.S. Bartramiopsis from the genus Bartramia and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. Bartschella for Dr Paul Bartsch of the United States National Museum. Bartsia for Johann Bartsch (1709-1738), prussian botanist in Surinam. barypicron, barypicri n. Latinized Greek epithet for wormwood (very bitter); barython, barythonis m. Latin noun a plant, also called Sabina. bary-, barys Greek βαρυ-, βαρυς, bary-, barys, heavy, deep, hard, strong, impressive, grave. baryosmus Greek βαρυ-οσµη, bary-osme, heavily scented. barystachys, barystachya Greek βαρυ-σταχυς, bary-stakhys, with heavy spikes, with dense spikes; also as heavily-branched in one source (?). bas-, basa-, baseo, basi, baso Latin basis, a base, foundation; a step bas-, basi-, baso- Greek βασις, basis, base, foundation wall, step. bas, baseos/is f., or basis, basos/is f. Latin noun, a pedestal; base, point of attachment; foundation, support; chord of an arc. basalis, basilaris -is -e basilar'is (bas-i-LARE-us) rising from the ground (not branching from a stem) basalis -is -e sessile-, basal-, from Latin basis,basos/is, pedestal; base, point of attachment; foundation, support; chord of an arc. basaltes, basaltis m. Latin noun, a dark and very hard species of marble in Ethiopia. basalticolus -a -um living in areas of basaltic rock, New Latin from basaltes and colo, cognate with basanites). basan-, basani-, basanism, basanist, basano- Greek βασανιζω, basanizo, test to prove genuine, examine closely, investigate; torture. basanites, basanitae m. Latin noun, a kind of quartz used in touchstones/whetstones/mortars; a teststone; from basanītes lapis, in Pliny, from Greek βάσανος, basanos, touchstone, test. -basanus -a -um -testing, from Greek βάσανος, basanos, touchstone, test. bascano- Greek βασκανος, baskanos, a sorcerer, bewitcher. baselicis -is -e of Basel, Switzerland, from the Latin name Basilea (Basilia), from Greek Βασιλεια, Basileia, kingship. Basella the Malagar vernacular name. (Basellaceae) Basellaceae Basella'ceae (ba-sel-AY-see-ee) plants of the Basella, Indian Spinach or White Malabar Nightshade family, from the genus name, Basella, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. baselloides basella-like, resembling Basella, from Basella and -oides. basi- Latin base, foundation; kiss basi-, baso Latin a base, foundation; a step basi-, bassos foot, of the base-, from the base-, from Greek βασις, basis, and Latin basis. basiatio, basiationis f. Latin kissing, a kiss basidi-, basidio-, basidium Latin a small pedestal, a short pedestal, from basidium, modern Latin from Greek βάσις basis, and -ιδιον, -idion, diminutive ending. basil-, basile-, basilic Greek βασιλ -ευς -εια, basil -eus -eia, king, cheif, prince, queen, princess, royal (basilicum) basilaris -is -e basal, relating to the base, from Latin basis and -aris, from -alis, of or pertaining to. basilateralis growing from the sides of the base, not axially Basilicum, basilicus -a -um princely, royal, from Greek βασιληις, basileis, and kingly herb from Greek βασιλικος-φυτον, basilikos-phyton; or Latin princely, royal, kingly, splendid; also a kind of vine. basilikós form Greek βασιλικός, basil. basilisca, basiliscae f. Latin name for a plant, also called regula, used as antidote for bite of basilisk/cockatrice.

basilongus -a -um having a long lower portion, from Latin basis and longus. basinervis with nerves from the base of the leaf Basiphyllaea from Greek basis, base, and phyllon, leaf, referring to the single basal leaf basiphyllus with flat leaves (?) basirameus -a -um Latin much branched from the base, from Latin basis, Greek βασις, basis, foundation, pedestal, foot, base, and ramus, rameus of or belonging to branches, boughs. basis, basis and baseos f. Latin a pedestal, base; basis villae foundation-wall; basis trianguli, base. basisetus -a -um with a hairy (?) base, in reference to the stem, from Latin basis and saeta -ae f. a bristle, stiff hair. basitonae extended to the base, from Greek βασις-τονος, basis-tonos. basium, basi(i) n. Latin noun, a kiss; kiss of the hand. basjoo the Japanese name for fiber from Musa basjoo, Japanese Fiber Banana. basm-, basmo, basmus, -basmus Greek βασµος, basmos, a step, metaphorically a degree, rank. bass- Late Latin bassus, low, deep. bassan Latin bass rock (Borror) bassar-, bassara, -bassara, bassaris, -bassaris Greek βασσαρα, bassara, a fox, made of fox skins, an impudent woman, a courtesan, a Thracian bacchante, a priestess of Bacchus, from βασσάρα, bassara, a fox. Bassia Bas'sia (BASS-ee-a) for Ferdinando Bassi (1710-1774), Italian naturalist, botanist, and Director of Bologna Botanic Garden, or George Bass, (died at sea 1803), navigator who commended Botany Bay for settlement. bastardii for Toussaint Bastard (1784-1846), French botanist, author of the Flora of Maine-et-Loire, 1809. bastardus -a -um not natural, abnormal, debased, from medieval Latin bastardus, bastardi. basuticus -a -um from Lesotho, S. Africa, known as Basutoland until 1966. bat-, bates, -bates Greek βατες, bates, one that treads, walks or haunts. bat-, bato-, batus, -batus Greek βατος, batos, a bramble (Rubus fruticosus), blackberry, thorn-bush. bat-, bato-, batus, -batus Greek βατος, batos, passable, accessible. bataanensis -is -e from Bataan, Luzon, Phillipiines. batalinii from A.F. Batalin 1847-1896), Botanic Garden, St. Petersburg. batalo- Greek βαταλος, batalos, anus, rump; stammerer. Batatas, batatas a Hatian native American name, batata, for sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, cognate via Portuguese patatas, Spanish and Portuguese batata, with potato. bataua from a vernacular name for oil palm. batavus of Dutch origin, from Latin Batavia, of the Netherlands, of Holland. The Batavi were an ancient Germanic people who lived on the island Betawe, Latin insula Batavorum, between the Rhine and the Waal rivers, now part of Holland. Batavi is from batawjō, good island, from Germanic bat- good, excellent, and awjō, island, land near water. batavicus -a -um, batavinus -a -um from Jakarta (Batavia) NW Java, Indonesia. bate-, batei Greek βατες, bates, a walker. Batemannia for James Bateman (1811-1897), orchid collector and monographer of Odontoglossum, etc. bater Greek βατηρ, bater, threshold. bath-, batho, bathy Greek deep; high bathm-, bathmo-, bathmus, -bathmus Greek βαθµος, bathmos, a step, a stair, threshold; metaphorically degree, rank. bathr-, bathro-, bathrum Greek βαθρον, bathron, a base, pedestal, stage, scaffold, throne. Also bathrum, bathri n., Latin base, pedestal. bathy- Greek βαθυς, βαθυ-, βαθος, bathys, bathy-, bathos, deep, thick, high, strong, violent, copious, abundant. bathyphyllus -a -um densely leaved, thickly leaved, from Greek βαθυ-φυλλον, bathy-phyllon. Bataceae Bata'ceae (ba-TAY-see-ee) from the genus name, Batis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. -bati-, batis, -batis Greek βατις, batis, the skate or ray fish. batia Greek βατια, batia, bush, ticket. Batis Ba'tis (BAT-is) thorn-bush, from Greek βατος, batos. (Bataceae) batis, batis f., battis, battis f. Latin name for a plant, probably samphire, Crithmum maritimum and similar species. bativalvis with broad flap or valve

batjanicus -a -um from Bacan Island, Maluka (Batjan, N. Molucca) Indonesia. bato-, batus, -batus Greek a bramble; passable Batodendron thorny tree, from Greek βατος-δενδρον, batos-dendron. Batopedina little-thorny-tangle, from Greek βατος-πεδαω, batos-pedao. batrach-, batracho-, batrachus, -batrachus Greek βατραχος, batrachos, a frog. Batrachia a section of Geranium, from βατραχος, batrachos, for its resemblance to Ranunculus acris (ranunculus is Latin for little-frog). batrachioides water-buttercup-like, resembling Batrachium, from βατραχος-οειδης, batrachos-oeides. batrachion, batrachii n., batrachium, batrachii n., Latin a plant of genus Ranunculus. Batrachium little frog, diminutive of βατραχος, batrachos, the Greek name for several Ranunculus species. (Ranunculaceae) Batrachospermum frog-seed, from Greek βατραχος-σπερµα, batrachos-sperma, for the mucilaginous appearrance. batrachospermus -a -um with mucilagonous seed, from Greek βατραχος-σπερµα, batrachos-sperma batt-, batto Greek βαττος, battos, stammerer, stammer. battandieri named for Jules Aime Battandier (1848-1922), French botanist; of the Algiers Medical School. batus, bati f. Latin, a bramble; blackberry bush, raspberry bush. -batus -a -um accessible, passable; -thorn bush, from Greek βατος, batos, a sectional suffix in Rubus. batyle Greek βατυλη, batyle, female dwarf. bauca- Greek βαυκαλιον, baukalion, a narrow-necked vessel that gurgles. bauco- Greek βαυκος, baukos, prudish, affected. baudotiii for Herr Baudot (fl. 1837), German amatuer botanist. Bauera, bauera, baueri, bauerianus -a -um for H. Gottfried and Franz Bauer, botanists, travellers, and illustrators, and for Ferdinand Bauer (1760-1826), botanical artist and traveller. (Baueraceae) Baueraceae from the genus name, Bauera, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Bauhinia modern Latin from Linnaeus, for the Swiss botanists Caspar (Gaspar) Bauhin (1560-1624), and his brother Johan (Jean) Bauhin (1541-1613). (Caesalpiniaceae) bauhiniiflorus -a -um with flowers resembling those of Bauhinia. Baumannii either the Bauman brothers, nurserymen at Bollweiler, Alsace, or Herrn E.H. Baumann of Bolivia, producer of Begonia baumanii. Baumea for Baume, Luzon, Cyperaceae. baumeanus -a -um from Baume, Luzon. bauno- Greek βαυνος, baunos, furnace, forge. baurii for Reverend L.R. Baur (1825-1889), who collected Rhodohypoxis in South Africa. bavaricus -a -um Bavarian, of Bavarian origin, from Bayern State, Germany. Bavarian or Baiuvarii means men of Baia, the Celtic tribe Boii, whose name is preserved in the words Bavaria and Bohemia. bavosus -a -um from the Mexican vernacular name, bavosa. baxis Greek βαξις, baxis, oracular saying, report, rumor. bay Old French baie, berry, Laurus nobilis, baccae-lauri, the laurel berry; laurels were awarded to scholars, hence baccalaureate, baccalor, bachelor. OED has an alternate version, which see. baytopiorus -a -um, baytopii for Professor Turhan Baytop (1920-20002), Turkish pharmacist, plant collector and writer. bdell-, bdella, -bdella, bdello Greek βδελλη, bdella, a leech. bdella, bdellae f., bdellium, bdellii n. Latin an aromatic gum; a resinous tree, probably a species of Balsamodendron. bdellium sticking, leach-like, from Greek βδελλα, bdella; βδελλιον, bdellion, possibly from Hebrew b’dōlakh, referring to the pungent resin of some species of Balsamodemdron (= Commiphora) species. bdelycto Greek βδελυκτος, bdelyktos, disgusting, abominable. bdelygma, -bdelygma, bdelygmato Greek βδλυγµα, bdelygma, disgust, abomination bdelyr-, bdelyro- Greek βδελυρια, bdelyria, disgusting, abominable; beastly, coarse, objectionable. bdesm-, bdesma, -bdesma Greek βδεσµα, bdesma, a stench. bdol-, bdolo-, bdolus, -bdolus Greek βδολος, bdolos, a stench, stink. -bdolon -smelling, -stench, from Greek βδολος, bdolos. bealei for Thomas Chay Beale (c.1775-1842), Portuguese Consul in Shanghai who facilitated Robert Fortune’s collecting work. beanianus -a -um, beanii for William J. Bean (1863-1947), author of Trees Shrubs hardy in the British Isles.

beatricis for Beatrice Hops, who discovered Watsonia beatricis in S Africa (c. 1920). beatus -a -um Latin beatus, happy, blessed, abundant, prosperous, from beo, beare, to bless, gladden, make happy, enrich. Beaufortia for Mary Somerset (c. 1630-1714), Duchess of Beaufort, patroness of botany. Beaumontia for Lady Diana Beaumont (d. 1831), of Bretton Hall, Yorkshire. beauverdianus -a -um for Gustave Beauverd (1867-1942), of the Boissier Herbarium, Geneva. bebaeo Greek βεβαιος, bebaios, firm, steady, steadfast, durable. bebbia, bebbianus -a -um, bebbii Beb'bia (BEB-bee-a) for Michael Shuck Bebb, early northern Illinois botanist and willow specialist who lived near Seward (1833-1895). bebel-, bebelo Greek βεβηλος, bebelos, profane, uniniated. beber Vulgar Latin, beber, bebri, a beaver, possibly from Gaulish beber, beaver, or Latin cognate fiber, ‘beaver’. bebius -a -um from the Bebisch mountains, Dalmatia, Yugoslavia; firm, steady, trusty, from Greek βεβαιος, bebaios. bebr-, bebro- Greek βεβρος, bebros, stupid. beccabunga from an old German name Bachbungen, from German bach, brook, and bunge, from Old High German bungo, bulb, swelling, meaning mouth-smart or streamlet-blocker, Brook-lime, or Water Pimpernel, Veronica beccabunga. beccarianus -a -um for Odoardo (Odordo) Beccari (1843-1920), botanist and traveller in Borneo. Beccariophoenix Beccari’s date palm, botanical Latin from Beccari and phoenix. bech-, bechic, becho- Greek βηχος, bechos, cough. beckii (BEK-ee-eye) Beckmannia after Johann Beckmann (1739-1811), professor at Goettingen (Göttingen), botanist, and author of one of the first botanical dictionaries. beco- Greek βεκος, bekos, bread. bedeguaris -is -e brought by the wind, from Persian bādāwar, bādāward, the supposed cause of the Hymenopteran-induced gall, rose bedeguar, or Robin’s pin-cushion, others say this is from Persian bād, wind, breath, and Arabic ward, rose. Bedeguar is also the name of white spiny or thorny plant, an Echinops, or Silybum marianum, Milk Thistle. Bedfordia, bedfordianus -a -um for John Russell, (1766-1839), Sixth Duke of Bedford. beesianus -a -um named for Bees, a nursery and seed supplier in Ness, Cheshire, UK, plant introducers from China and elsewhere. Befaria for Dr. Bejar, a Spanish botanist (a Linnaean spelling error). Begonia named for Michel Bégon (1638-1710), French Canadian govenor (?), French Governor of St. Dominique and patron of botany. Begoniaceae of the Begonia family, from the genus name, Begonia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. begonifolius -a -um, begoniifolius -a -um with unsymmetrical leaves like Begonia, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. begonioides Begonia-like, from Begonia and oides. beharensis -is -e from Behara, Madagascar, for felt leaf, Kalenchoe beharensis. behen from an Arabic name for several plants, medieval Latin behen, from Arabic bahman, behmen, a kind of root, a dog rose. The exact plant is unsure. beissnerianus -a -um, beissneri for Ludwig Beissner of Poppelsdorf (1843-1927), writer on Coniferae. bejariensis -is -e of, from or pertaining to Béjar, Spain. bel-, bellemn-, belli-, bello-, bellus, -bellus Greek βελος, belos, an arrow, a dart, sting, any weapon or engine of war. Belamcanda probably based on a vernacular name in western India for the leopard lily; originally published as Belamkanda belemn-, belemno Greek βελεµνον, belemnon, javelin. belgicus -a -um from Belgium or the Netherlands bell, bell- Latin bellus, beautiful, handsome, pretty, charming (bellatus) bell-, bellac-, bellat, belli, bellic Latin bellum, war, duel between two. belladonna bellado'na (bel-uh-DON-a) beautiful lady, referrring to the former use of deadly nightshade as an eye cosmetic. Women used belladonna eyedrops to dilate their pupils, to produce a fetching, dreamy, intoxicated stare. bellat- Latin belator, a warrior, bellatrix, female warrior.

bellatulus neat and beautiful bellerophon Greek mythology a hero belle etoile French cv. beautiful star belli-, bellid-, bellis, -bellis Latin bellis, a daisy. bellidiflorus with daisy-like flowers bellidifolius beautiful-leaved, with leaves like the Daisy, Bellis, from Latin bellus, pretty, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. bellidiformis bellidifor'mis (bel-id-i-FOR-mis) bellidioides bellio'ides (bel-ee-OH-i-dees) bellis-like Bellis Bel'lis (BEL-is) a daisy, from Latin bellus, pretty, for the beauty of the genus. (Compositae) bellu, bella Greek a beast, monster bellulus dwarf, neat, a miniature bellum Latin bellum, war, contest between two. bellum, -i n. Latin war, fighting (old form duellum) bellus -a -um bel'lus (BEL-lus) Latin pretty, handsome, beautiful, charming; adv. belle. Beloglottis from Latinized Greek belos, arrow, and glotta, tongue, possibly alluding to sagittate lip belon-, belona, -belona Greek βελονη, belona, a dart, arrowhead, needle; a pipefish, Sygnanthus sp. belophyllus having spear-shaped leaves belt- Greek βελτιον, beltion, better, more excellent. beltist- Greek βελτιστος, beltistos, best, most excellent. belu-, belua, -belua, belui Latin belua, a large beast, monster, brute. belua -ae f. Latin a beast, large animal; as a term of reproach, a monster, brute, beast. belus, -belus Greek a dart, sting bemb-, bembe-, bembec, bembex, -bembex, bembi-, bembic, bembix, -bembix Greek βεµβιξ, bembix, a top, a whipping top, a cyclone, a whirlpool; a buzzing insect. bembro Greek βεµβρος, bembros, stupid. benac-, benacus, -benacus Latin (N) a deep lake bene, bene- Latin bene, well, good, excellent, honorably, properly, -ably, rightly, opposite of male. benedictus -a -um benedic'tus (ben-e-DIK-tus) blessed, healing, wholesome; well spoken of. Benedictus benedicat “May the blessed one give a blessing.” A very brief form of grace. beneolens beneo'lens (ben-ee-OH-lens) benetes Greek βενετειος, beneteois, blue. benevole, benigne kindly bengalensis, benghalensis -is -e benghalen'sis (beng-al-EN-sis) native to or from the State of Bengal in India benguelensis from Benguela in Angola beni-chidori Japanese cv. red thousand birds beni-shidari Japanese cv. weeping red benign Latin benignus, good, friendly, kind, liberal, generous. beninensis from Benin in Upper Guinea Benitoa for San Benito County, California, referring to distribution benth-, benthic, bentho-, benthus, -benthus Greek βενθος, benthos, the depths of the sea. benthamii ben'thamii (BEN-tham-ee-eye) benzoin (BEN-zo-in) a dry, brittle, aromatic resin from Styrax benzoin, of Java, from *lo-benzoi, *lo-benjuy, from Arabic lubān jāwī, the frankincense of Jāwā (Sumatra). The lo- appears to have been dropped as if it were the article (see azureus). In English originally benjoin, which was corrupted to benjamin. (OED) beran Anglo-Saxon to bring forth. berberi- New Latin barberry Berberidaceae Berberida'ceae (bur-bur-i-DAY-see-ee) plants of the Berberis family, from the genus name, Berberis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. berberidifolius -a -um berberidifo'lius (ber-ber-id-i-FO-lee-us) Berberis Ber'beris (BER-ber-is) New Latin, the genus including barberry, alteration of Medieval Latin barberis barberry, from Arabic barbārīs. (Berberidaceae) berceuse French cv. lullaby Berchemia (Rhamnaceae) berchtoldii

bergamot, bergamot orange French bergamote, bergamotte, from Italian bergamotta, from a Turkic word akin to Turkish bey-armudu, literally, prince's pear, for Citrus bergamia; alternately from Bergamo, the Italian town. Bergenia named for Karl August von Bergen (1704-1760), German professor Bergerocactus Bergerocac'tus (ber-ger-oh-KAK-tus) for Alwin Berger (1871-1931), German cactologist and horticulturist at La Mortola, Italy, and Cactus, an old genus name. berggold mountain gold Berlandiera, berlandieri berlandier'i (ber-lan-dee-ER-ee) for Jean Louis Berlandier (1805–1851), Belgian explorer and botanical collector in North America. (Compositae) bermpéna from Greek βερµπένα, bermpena, lemon verbena. bermudianus from the Bermuda Islands bernicl-, bernicla, -bernicla Middle English a goose Bernardia Bernard'ia (ber-NAR-dee-a) bernardinus -a -um bernardin'us (ber-nar-DEE-nus) bero-, beroe Greek Βεροη, Beroe, an ocean nymph, the daughter of Oceanus. berolinensis from the neighbourhood of Berlin, Germany. Berteroa berteroi ber'teroi (BER-ter-oy) berthelotii for a French consul and naturalist, Sabin Berthelot (1794-1880 bertolonii for Antonio Bertoloni (1775-1869), Italian Botanist Berula Ber'ula (BER-yoo-la) beryll-, beryllo, beryllus, -beryllus Latin beryllus -i, Greek βηρυλλος, beryllos, a sea-green gem stone. berytheus -a -um from Berytdagh in Kataonia, Armenia besicl- French spectacles bessa Greek βησσα, bessa, a wooded glen, a drinking cup. Besseya Genus named in honor of professor Charles Edwin Bessey, American botanist (1845-1915), student of Asa Gray, botany professor at Iowa Agricultural College and the University of Nebraska, president of the AAAS, introduced the systematic study of plant morphology as the basis of modern plant taxonomy. Also authored The Geography of Iowa (1876) besti-, bestia, -bestia Latin bestia, a beast. bet-, beta, -beta Latin beta, a vegetable, the beet. beta Greek βητα, beta, β B, second letter of the Greek alphabet. Beta Be'ta (BEE-ta) derivation uncertain, a name used by Pliny, possibly from Celtic name for red root. According to Fuchs, beet seed, when it swells out, resembles β, beta, the second letter of the Greek alphabet. beta, -ae, f. Latin for beet, vegetable, Beta maritima, from Cicero, Cassell. betaceous beet-like betaceus -a -um like a beet betinus -a -um purple like a beet Betonica derivation uncertain, from Pliny, who wrote, “The Vettones, a people of Spain, were the original discoverers of the plant known as the ‘Vettonica’ in Gaul” (the Betonica alopecuros of Linnaeus, Foxtail Betony, a European species). According to Theis, the name is altered from Keltic Bentonic, from ben, head, and ton, good or tonic. (Alcock) Welsh betwn. betonica, -betonica Latin betonica, wood betony betonicaefolius, betonicifolius -a -um betonica-leaved, with leaves like Stachys officinalis, betony, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. betul- referring to the birch tree genus, Betula, the ancient Latin name of the tree, from betul-, betula, Greek(?) for birch. Bētūla (BET-ew-la) a birch tree, from the classical Latin name, bētūla, bētulla, from Gaulish betulla, or British bedu, Celtic beitha; alternately from Belgic Gaul from German wit, white, to signify nothing but albula; akin to Middle Irish bethe, beithe box (tree), Welsh bedw birch. Pliny called it Gallica arbor. Betulaceae Betula'ceae (bet-yu-LAY-see-ee) plants of the Birch family, Betula, from the genus name, Betula, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. betulifolius -a -um, betulaefolius birch-leaved, with leaves like Betula, the birch tree, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. betulinus -a -um resembling Birch, Betula betuloides betulo'ides (bet-yoo-LO-i-dees) like a birch

beuth-, beuthos Greek βευδος, beudos, a woman’s dress. bex-, bexi Greek βηξ, bex, cough. bhutanicus from Bhutan bi- Latin bis, two, twice, double. bi-, bis referring to the number two, twice, used in compound words, from Old Saxon twi-, Old High German zwi-, Old Norse tvi-, tve-, Latin bi- from Old Latin dui-, Greek di-bi(...) referring to life, from Greek, bios, mode of life biacuminatus having two divergent points biaio Greek βιαιος, biaios, forcible, violent. bialatus with two wings biangulate having two corners or angles biarco- Greek βιαρκες, biarkes, supplying, life-giving. biaristatus with pairs of bristles biarticulatus two jointed biast-, biastes, -biastes Greek βιαστης, biastes, forceful, mighty, potent; one who uses force biauritus, biauriculate two eared bib-, bibe, -bibe, bibul Latin bibere, to drink, drinking. Bibere humanum est, ergo bibamus. To drink is human, let us therefore drink. bibi Latin bini, a pair. bibio, -bibio, bibion Late Latin an insect. bibli-, biblio, biblium, -biblium Greek βιβλιον, biblion, a book, paper. biblio- Greek βιβλος, biblos, βυβλος, byblos, Egyptian papyrus, paper, book. biblo Greek paper bibo scurvy-grass; water plantain. bibracteatus with two bracts (modified leaf bractea, a thin plate) bibrosco Greek βιβρωσκω, bibrosko, eat, be eaten, be bitten, worm-eaten. bibul- Latin bibulus, fond of drinking, drinking. bicalcaratus with two spurs bicallosus with two callosities (hardened skin) bicalyculatus having a double calyx bicamine of pine, from Dioscorides bicapsular with two capsules bicarinatus two-keeled, double keeled or finned bicarpellary of two carpels or pistils bicephalus two headed, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. bicerus with two horns bicipital with two supports bicknellii in honor of Eugene Pintar Bicknell (1859-1925), New York business man, amateur naturalist and ornithologist, see also Hylocichla minima bicknelli, Bicknell’s Thrush. bico- Greek βικος, bikos, jar, cask, drinking bowl, a measure. bicolor, bicolorus bi'color (BI-kol-or) two colored, bicolored bicompositus of two component parts biconjugatus twice joined (when each of two secondary petioles bears a pair of leaflets) biconvexus double convex, said of of lenses bicornis, bicornutus two-horned, with two horns bicrenatus twice notched or toothed bicristatus bicrista'tus (bi-kris-TAY-tus) with two combs or crests bicruris with two legs or limbs bictonienisi from Bicton, near Sidmouth, England. bicuspidatus with two points bicuspis with two sharp points Bidens Bi'dens (BI-dens, BYE-denz) From New Latin, from Latin, bis, bi- bi-, two and dent-, dens tooth, two teeth, for the two barb-toothed pappi of the original species. (Compositae) bidens, bidentatus having two teeth, or with cusps (a canine tooth with two points) biduus lasting two days

biebersteinii for Baron Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein (19th century German explorer in southern Russia bienn- Latin biennium, bienni(i), n., a span of two years, every two years. biennis -is -e bien'nis (bi-EN-is, bye-EN-is) biennial, plants which bloom in the second year, from Latin adjective biennis, -is -e, two years old; lasting two years, in reference to the plant completing its life cycle in two years, usually flowering and fruiting the second year. bifariam Latin adverb on two sides, twofold, from bifaries, twofold. bifarius arranged in two rows biferus producing two crops in one season bifidus -a -um twice-cleft, split into two parts, divided or cut in two, from Latin bifidus, divided into two parts biflorus -a -um biflor'us (bye-FLO-rus, bi-FLOR-us) blooming in pairs, or having two flowers. bifoliolatus -a -um having two leaflets, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. bifolius -a -um bifo'lius (bi-FO-lee-us) two-leaved, with two-leaves, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. biforatus with two openings biformatus, biformis of two forms, having two forms or shapes bifrons two-fronded, double foliaged, different on each side. bifurcatus, bifurcus bifurcate, having two prongs, twice-forked Bigelowia, Bigelovia, bigelovii bigelo'vii (big-el-OH-vee-eye) for Dr. Jacob Bigelow (1787–1879), Massachusetts medical, botanical scholar, and prominent author of “ Florula Bostoniensis”. (Compositae) bigelowii Bigelow, J. (Bigel.)/ Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879); Bigelow, J.M./ John Milton Bigelow (18041878) bigeminatus, bigeminus in two pairs bigibbus with two swellings or projections, two humped biglandulosus with two glands biglobus double balled biglumis two-glumed, consisting of two glumes (of grasses) Bignonia (Bignona) for Abbé Jean Paul Bignon (1662-1743), librarian to Loius XIV. Bignoniaceae Bignonia'ceae (big-noe-nee-AY-see-ee) plants of the Bignonia, Trumpet-flower family, from the genus name, Bignonia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. bignonoides big-no-nee-OI-deez; like Bignonia, Trumpet-flower-like bijugis, bijugus yoked, two-together, double-yoked (applied to pinate leaves with two pair of leaflets) bilabiatus -a -um double-lipped, divided into two lips bilateralis -is -e arranged on opposing sides, as the leaves of the Yew. bili-, bilis, -bilis Latin bilis, gall, bile; anger, displeasure. bilinguis two tongued -bilis -is -e Latin adjectival suffix indicating capacity or ability, tending to be, cabable of, worthy of, having the quality of, used with a verb base when the root infinitives end in -ere or -ire. bilix Latin bilix, having a double thread. bilobatus, bilobis?, bilobus two-lobed, divided into two lobes (of anther and leaves) bilocularis with two small compartments biltmoreana bimaculatus, bimaculosus two spotted bimammus with two nipples bimus Latin bimus, lasting for two years, two years old. bin- Latin bini, twofold, two, two at a time, of pairs of things. binarius Latin binarius, of two. binatim adv. in twos binatus twin, a leaf consisting of two parts bínei Greek imperative ‘f___!’ (Romans, especially Roman women, liked to talk dirty in Greek. (Ostler 2007)) binervatus, binervis, binervus, binervius, binervosus two-nerved, having two nerves or veins (said of leaves) biniflorus bearing flowers in pairs binocularis two-eyed, two-spotted binodis consisting of two nodes bio-, bioo-, bios, biot- Greek βιον, bion, living, life. biolettii biolet'tii (bi-oh-LET-ee-eye)

bion- Greek βιωναι, bionai, to live. bios-, biosis Greek βιωσις, biosis, living, way of life, manner of life. bios Greek βιος, bios, life, lifetime. biota Greek βιοτη, biota, life. biotic- Greek βιωτικος, biotikos, pertaining to life. bipartitus two-parted, divided nearly to the base into two parts bipectinate like a comb on both sides bipennis two sheathed bipetalus two-petaled bipetalous a flower with two petals bipinnatifidus -a -um bipinnati'fidus (bi-pin-a-TIF-i-dus) twice pinnately cut, twice cut in pinnate manner. bipinnatus -a -um bipinna'tus (bi-pin-AY-tus, or bi-pin-AH-tus) twice-pinnate, double pinnate, or feathered, from Latin bi, bis, twice, and pinnatus, feathered, winged, with bipinnate leaves biplanatus two planed biplicatus twice folded, pleat bipontinus from Zweibrüken, Bavaria bipunctatus two-spotted, double-dotted biradiatus with two rays, as in certain umbels birmanicus from (Birma) Burma in India(?) birr-, birrus Latin birrus, Greek βιρρος, biros, a type of cloak. bis Latin bis, twice, double. bisaccate having two pouches bisasa wild rue bisectus cut in two parts, or nearly so; divided into two equal parts biseptatus having tow partitions biseriatus, biserialis disposed in two rows biserratus twice or double toothed (with serrated teeth), double serrate, as when teeth are again toothed bisexualis having both stamens and pistils biscotiformis biscuit-shaped, from Latin bis, twice, coctus, cooked, and forma, shape. bispinosus two-spined, with two thorns or spins bissanica cyclamen (?) bissola horehound bistipulate with two stipules Bistorta Bistor'ta (bis-TOR-ta) from Latin, bi-, twice, and tortus, twisted, in reference to the rhizomes of some species. bistortoides bistorto'ides (bis-tor-TOE-i-dees) bistortus twice-twisted, double twisted, double turned bistriate marked with two parallel lines bisulcatus, bisulcus two-grooved, double furrowed biternatus -a -um twice ternate, with two sets or clusters of three, as in a leaf, from Latin bi, from bis, twice, ternus, in three's, -atus, possessive of or likeness of something, with, shaped, made bithynicus from Bithynia, a former region of northwest Asia Minor on the coast of the Black Sea bittac-, bittaco-, bittacus, -bittacus Greek βιττακος, bittakos, a parrot. bitum-, bitumen, -bitumen, bitumin Latin bitumin, asphalt, pitch. Bituminaria Bituminar'ia (bi-too-min-AIR-ee-a) bituminosus -a -um bitumino'sus (bi-too-min-OH-sus) with a bituminous, asphalt smell bituminous bituminous, coal black biunciferus bearing two-pronged spines bivalvis -is -e with two valves, flaps, or doors, from Latin bi-, from bis, twice, valvis, from valva, leaves of a folding door, and -is, adjectival suffix bivelus with two sails bivenosus -a -um two nerved, two veined Bixaceae plants of the Bixa, Arnotta family, from the genus name, Bixa, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. bizonatus -a -um bizona'tus (bi-zo-NAY-tus) blab-, blabo Greek βλαβη, blabe(η?), harm, hurt, damage.

blaber-, blabero- Greek βλαβερος, blaberos, harmful, noxious. blac-, blacic-, blaco- Greek βλακικος, blakikos, stupid, lazy, sluggish. blacic, blacico Greek stupid, indolent bladar, bladaro- Greek βλαδαρος, bladaros, flacid. bladder Anglo-Saxon, blaedre, bladder. blaes-, blaeso- Greek βλαισος, blaisos, crooked, bent, distorted, dishonest. blaesus -a -um Latin adjective blaesus -a -um, lisping, stammering, speaking indistinctly from a speech defect or drunkeness. blakei Sidney Fay Blake, 1892-1959 blamma Greek βλαµµα, blamma, harm, damage. blan-, blano Greek βλανος, blanos, blind. blanchardii blancheae blanch'eae (BLANCH-ee-ee) bland-, blandi Latin smooth-tongued, flattering blandus -a -um alluring, agreeable, pleasant, charming, enchanting, from Latin blandus, adjective, flattering, caressing, alluring, tempting, pleasant, mild; not bitter blap-, blaps, blapt Greek hurt, damage blaptico- Greek βλαπτοκος, blaptokos, hurtful, mischievous blasphem- Greek βλασφηµεω, blasphemeo, slander, speak profanely. blast-, blastem, blasto, blastus, -blastus Greek βλαστος, blastos, a bud, sprout, sucker. -blast(...) referring to an embryo blasta Greek βλαστη, blasta, growth. blastem- Greek βλαστηµα, blastema, offshoot, offspring. blatero Latin blaterare, to babble, to chatter. blatos also, blastos cassia, from Dioscorides. blatt-, blatta Latin noun blatta, blattae f., a cockroach, moth or bookworm, a name applied to various insects. blatta, blattae f. Latin noun, blood clot. Blattaria, blattarius -a -um blattar'ia (bla-TARE-ee-a) Latin name blatta, moth, or of cockroaches, or an ancient name in Pliny meaning cockroach-like, from blatta, blattarae. blattarioides resembling Moth Mullien, Verbascum blattaria blatte- Latin blattea purple, Greek βλαττα, blatta, purple. blattea, blatteae f. Latin noun, purple, (color of a blood). Blaue Donau German cv. Blue Danube blaue glocke German cv. blue bell blaues meer German cv. blue sea blaufuchs German cv. blue fox blaumeise German cv. blue tit blauspiegel German cv. blue mirror blaustrumpf German cv. blue stocking blaut- Greek βλαυτη, blaute, a slipper. blechado Greek βληχας, blechas, a bleater. blechn-, blechno, blechnum, -blechnum a kind of fern, from Greek βλεχνον, blechnon, the male fern, Dryopteris felix-mas, an ancient name for ferns in general. Blechnaceae Blechna'ceae (blek-NAY-see-ee) from the genus name, , and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. blechnifolius with leaves resembling Harts-tongue fern, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. blechnon, blechnonis f., blechon, blechonis f. Latin noun, wild pennyroyal. blechr-, blechro Greek βληχρος, blechros, gentle, faint, dull, sluggish, slight, small; weak, feeble. blekitny anoil Polish cv. blue angel blema Greek βληµα, blema, a coverlet, cast of dice. blemma, -blemma, blemmato Greek βλεµµα, blemma, a glance, look. blenn-, blenno-, blennus Greek βλεννυς, blennus, slime; a kind of fish, as in blennius, blenni(i) m., small sea-fish, blenny. blenn-, blennus Latin blennus, Greek βλεννος, blennos, a simpleton, driveling fellow, from Latin blennus, blenni m., blockhead, dolt, simpleton, imbecile; driveling idiot.

Blennosperma Blennosper'ma (blen-oh-SPER-ma) from Greek blennos, mucus, and σπερµα, sperma, seed, referring to the cypselae (achenes) becoming mucilaginous when wet. (Compositae) blep-, blepo, blepsis Greek βλεφησις, blepesis, a look, a glance, eyesight. blep-, blepo- Greek βλεπο, blepo, see, have the power to sight, look (look terrible, look longingly). bleph-, blephar-, blepharid, blepharis, -blepharis, blepharo Greek βλεφαρις, blepharis, an eyelash. bleph- Greek βλεφαρον, blepharon, eyelid. blephar- referring to an eyelash, therefore, fringed blepharanthus having fringed flowers,as with eyelashes blephariglottus fringed-tongued Blepharipappus from Greek βλεφαρις, blepharis, eyelash, and pappos, pappus, for the ciliate pappus scales Blepharizonia from Greek βλεφαρις, blepharis,, eyelash, and zona, girdle or ring; possibly referring to rings of ciliate pappus scales, or from the resemblance to the genera Blepharipappus and Hemizonia. blepharochlaenus covered as with a fringe blepharodes eyelash-like, same as ciliate blepharophorus bearing fringes blepharophyllus -a -um with fringed, ciliate leaves, with leaves fringed like eyelashes blepharopus, blepharopodus with ciliate stalks, from and Greek πους, ποδος, pous, podos. Blephilia Greek βλεφαρις, blepharis, eyelash, for the resemblance of the bracts and calyx teeth. blepo- Greek βλεπος, blepos, look, see. bleps-, blepsis Greek βλεψις, blepsis, seeing. blesensis from Blois on the Loire in France blet-, bletos Greek βλητος, bletos, stricken, palsy-stricken, stricken by disease. Bletia for Luis Blet, a Catalonian apothecary of the eighteenth century who accompanied Ruiz and Pavón on their New World explorations. bletron Greek βλητρον, bletron, a fastener, band, hoop. bleu Nantais French cv. Nantes blue Blindia for J. J. Blind, pastor at Münster, Germany (1834-1848). blisso/blitto Greek βλισσω/βλιττω, blisso/blitto, steal honey from a hive; steal; rob. blit-, blito, blitum, -blitum Latin blitum, bliti, a tasteless herb used in salads. blitas Greek βλιτας, blitas, a worthless woman. blite- Latin bliteus, insipid; worthless, silly, stupid. blitoides blito'ides (bli-TOE-i-dees) blitum, bliti n. Latin noun, a kind of spinach, blite, Amaranthus blitum. Bloomeria Bloomer'ia (bloo-MARE-ee-a) for H. G. Bloomer (1821–1874), early San Francisco botanist and onetime botanical curator at the California Academy of Sciences blosis Greek βλωσις, blosis, arrival, presence. blosyr-, blosyro- Greek βλοσυρος, blosyros, hairy, shaggy, bristling, burly; grim, stern, fearful. blothr-, blothro- Greek βλοθρος, blothros, tall, high-growing. Blutaparon abridged from old Latin name Bulutaparon Blütenisch German cv. blossom table bly-, blys-, blysm Greek βλυσις, blysis, bubble up, bubbling up. Blysmopsis from the genus name Blysmus, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. Blyxa Greek blyxo, to gush forth, spout out, bubble up bo-, boa, boi Latin boa, boae f., a water serpent, a large Italian snake. bo-, boar, boo-, bos, -bos, bov Latin boarius, relating to cattle, an ox, a cow. boama Greek βοαµα, boama, shreik, cry. boarius -a -um Latin adjective, of oxen/cattle; forum boarium was the cattle market at Rome. bocconi boccon'i (bo-KONE-eye) bodinieri named for a French missionary and plant collector Emile Bodinier (1842-1901 bodnantensis for Bodnant garden in North Wales, UK boe, boeo Greek little; an ox Boechera Boech'era (BOO-ker-a) (Pronunciation based on personal name derived from) Boehmeria Georg Rudolph Boehmer (Böhmer) (1723-1803), professor at Wittenberg, of the Saxony Boehmers) boeoticus, boeotius, boeotus from Boeotia in Greece Boerhavia Boerha'via (bore-HA-vee-a) for Hermann Boerhaave (1668-1738), physician and botanist of Leiden

boete- Greek βοητης, boetes, clamorous. boeth-, boethos Greek βοηθος, boethos, assisting, auxillary. bogoriensis from Buitenzorg in Java bogotensis of or from Bogota in Columbia bohemicus of or from the former kingdom of Bohemia in eastern Europe. bol- Greek βολις, bolis, a missle or javelin, a sounding lead, anything thrown. bol-, bola, bolo, bolus Greek a throw, stroke bol-, bolac, bolax, -bolax Greek βωλαξ, bolax, clod of dirt, lump of something. bola Greek βολη, bola, a throw. bolo-, bolus, -bolus Greek βωλος, bolos, a clod, lump, a Kress Creek RE. bolanderi bo'landeri (BO-lan-der-eye) Henry Nicholson Bolander, (1831-1897), California State Botanist, author and educator. bolb-, bolbo-, bolbus Greek βολβος, bolbos, a bulb, an onion, a bulbous root. bolbiton, bolbiti n. Latin noun, cow dung. Bolboschoenus Bolboschoe'nus (bol-bo-SKEE-nus) New Latin bulb-rush, from Greek βολβός, bolbos, a swelling or bulb, and σχοῖνος, skhoinos, or schoenos, a rush, reed, or cord, for the presence of corms, as opposed to Schoenus, which has no tubers. bolet-, boletus, -boletus Latin boletus, boleti, a kind of mushroom. boletus, boleti m. Latin noun, a mushroom (the best kind); bolet. bolido- Greek βολιδος, bolidos, a missle or javelin. bolit-, bolito, bolitum, -bolitum, bolitus, -bolitus Greek βολιτον, boliton, cow dung. bolivianus -a -um, boliviensis -is -e of or from Bolivia in South America bolleanus bollea'nus (bole-ee-AY-nus) bolo Greek throw; a clod, lump bolo- Greek βολος, bolos, a throw with a casting net; the thing caught. Boltonia (bol-TO-nee-a) in honor of James B. Bolton, fl. 1750s-1799, 18th century English botanist and artist, author of “Ferns of Great Britain”, etc., 1788. (Compositae) bolus, -bolus Greek: a throw, stroke, a clod; Latin a morsel bolus Greek βωλος, bolos, clod, lump of earth. bolus Latin bolus, boli, noun, a throw, as with a fishing net or dice bom-, bomo-, bomus, -bomus Greek βωµος, bomos, a raised place, stand; a tomb or cairn. bomaco Greek βοµαξ, bomax, beggar; ribald, coarse. bomb-, bombus, -bombus Greek βοµβος, bombos, a buzzing, humming, booming. bomba-, bombac-, bombax, -bombax Late Latin bombax, cotton Bombacaceae plants of the Bombax, Silk-Cotton Tree family, from the genus name, Bombax, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. bombol Italian a bottle bomby-, bombyc, bombyx, -bombyx Greek βοµβυξ, bombyx, the silkworm, Bombyx mori; a wasp-like insect; silk garment. bombyc- referring to silk bombycifer with silky hairs bombucinus, bombycina of silk, silk-like, as smooth as silk bombyli-, bombylius, -bombylius Greek βοµβυλιαζω, bombiliazo, a buzzing insect; a bumble bee, a humble bee, gnat, mosquito. bombylifer bearing flowers resembling bumble bees Bommeria named for the Belgian pteridologist. 1829 bomo- Greek βωµος, bomos, a raised place, base, platform, stand, tomb, cairn. bomoloch-, bomolocho-, bomolochos Greek βωµολοχος, bomolochos, beggar, toady; a small jackdaw. bon- Latin bonitas, good, goodness, excellenc, kindmess, integrity. bona fide in good faith bona-nox good/beautiful night bonariensis -is -e bonarien'sis (bo-nar-ee-EN-sis) from Bonaria in Buenos Aires, Argentina (also seen as Buenos Ayres) bonas- Latin bonasus, a bison, Bison bonasus, the wisent (?); New Latin: the ruffed grouse, Bonasus umbellus.

bononiensis relating to Bononia, now Bologna, from Bologna, Italy, from Bononia and -ensis adjectival suffix indicating country or place of growth or origin or else habitat, native to. bonus good bonus-henricus “good Henry” boo Greek an ox, cow boo-, boop- Greek βοωπις, boopis, ox-eyed. boothii booth'ii (BOOTH-ee-eye) bor-, bora, -bora, bori- Greek βορα, bora, food, meat. borag- Late Latin borago, borage, Borago officinalis. Borago New Latin, from Medieval Latin borago, borrago, borage, probably from (assumed) Vulgar Latin bórago from Greek βόραγο, borago, borage. borbonicus from the island of Borbon in Africa burrago borass-, borasso-, borassus, -borassus Greek βορασσος, borassos, palm fruit, the spadix of the date, with immature fruit. borbonicus Latinized ‘Bourbon’ of Bourbonne, France, of the Bourbon kings of France; referring to the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean. borbor-, borobro-, borborus Greek βορβοριζω, borborizo, mud, mud-like, filth. bore-, boreal Greek βορεας, boreas, Latin boreas, mythology the north wind, the north, northern. borealis -is -e; boreus (bo-ree-AH-lis) northern, of the North wind, of the North, from Latin boreas, boreae, from Greek βορεας, boreas. boreali-orientalis north-eastern boreus northern, of the North wind, of the North, from Latin boreas, boreae, from Greek βορεας, boreas. boreus Greek βωρευσ, boreus, pickled mullet. Borges sumus. Resistere inutile est. We are the Borg. Resistance is futile. bori- Greek food, meat borisii, borisii-regi for King Boris of Bulgaria borith- a grassy plant used by fullers, soap, from Hebrew. borneensis -is -e from the island of Borneo off south east Asia boro- Greek βορος, boros, greedy, gluttonous, devouring. Boraginaceae Boragina'ceae (bor-aj-in-AY-see-ee) plants of the Borage family, from the genus name, Borago, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. The double r of borrāgo may carry over into Borraginaceae, as it is sometimes seen. boraginoides resembling Borage, Borago. Borago from medieval Latin borrāgo, or one of the Romanic forms: compare French bourrache (also Old French bourrace ), Provençal borrage, Italian borraggine, borrace, Spanish borraja, Portuguese borragom; in modern Latin borāgo; probably, according to Diez, from borra, burra ‘rough hair, short wool’ (compare late Latin burra ‘a shaggy garment’), in reference to the roughness of the foliage (OED). (Boraginaceae) borreganus -a -um borrega'nus (bor-eh-GAIN-us) Borrichia honoring Ole Borch, aka Olof Borrich, (Latinized as Olaus Borrichius) (1626–1690), Danish botanist. (Compositae) borysthenicus from Borysthenes, the ancient name for the river Dnieper in Russia bos, -bos Greek βους, βως, bous, bos, bullock, bull, an ox, cow. bos, -bos Latin bos, bullock, bull, an ox, cow. bos bouis lingua, bugloss bosc- Greek βοσκας, boskas, feed, feeding. bosc-, boscas Greek a kind of duck Boschniakia Boschniak'ia (bosh-nee-AK-ee-a) boscii bosi-, bosis Greek βοσις, bosis, food, fodder. bosniacus of Bosnian origin bostrich-, bostricho- Greek βοστρυχηδον, bostrychedon, curly, like curls; also one reference to a kind of insect. bostrych-, bostrycho- Greek βοστρυχος, bostrychos, curl, a lock of hair; anything twisted or wreathed; a kind of winged insect. botan-, botana, -botana Greek βοτανη, botana, pasture, grass, fodder, herbs, weeds.

botaur-, botaurus, -botaurus New Latin botaurus, a bittern, Botaurus spp. bothr-, bothri, bothro-, bothrus, -bothrus Greek βοθροσ, bothros, a pit, trench, hole, trough, hollow, grave. bothy-, bithyn-,, bothynos Greek βοθυνος, bothynos, trench, pit, hole, trough, hollow, grave. botr-, botrio, botry-, botryo, botrys, -botrys Greek βοτρυς, botrys, a bunch of grapes. botrio, botrionis m. Latin noun, bunch/cluster of grapes. botronatus, botronatus m. Latin noun, woman's hair ornament in form of a cluster of grapes. botruosus, botruosa, botruosum Latin adjective, full of clusters. botrus, botri f. Latin noun, grape. botrus, botrus m. Latin noun, cluster of grapes; (Vulgate 4 Ezra 9:21). Botrychium Botrych'ium (bot-TRIK-ee-um) New Latin, from Latin botrus, botrus, n., a bunch of grapes, from Greek botrychos stalk or a bunch of grapes, and New Latin -ium; from the grapelike cluster of sporangia. botryitis, botryitidos/is f. Latin noun, kind of precious stone/calamine; [cadmia ~ => grape/cluster-shaped zinc oxide]. botryo, botryonis m. Latin noun, a bunch or cluster of grapes. botryodes, (gen.), botryodis Latin adjective, in form of a cluster of grapes. botryoides cluster-like, as a cluster of grapes, resembling a bunch of grapes botryon, botryi n. Latin noun, a kind of medicine; (prepared from excrements L+S). botryon, botryonis m. Latin noun, bunch or cluster of grapes. botrys bot'rys (BOT-ris) botrysos, botryi m. Latin noun, a plant similar to wormwood/mugwort; (also called artemisia). botrytis raceme-like, as a bunch of grapes bottae bot'tae (BOT-ee) botul-, botulus, -botulus Latin botulus, a sausage. botularius, botulari(i) m. Latin noun, sausage seller/maker. botuliformis sausage-shaped, allantoid botulismus, botulismi m. Latin noun, botulism. botulus, botuli m. Latin noun, sausage; black pudding; stomach filled with delicacies (haggis?); rude word. bottnicus from the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia bou- Greek βους, bous, bullock, bull, cow, ox. boub-, boubon, -boubon Greek βουβαστις, boubastis, the groin. boubal-, boubalo-, boubalus, -boubalus Greek βουβαλος, boubalos, the buffalo. boubal- Greek βουβαλις, boubalis, an African antelope, Bubalis mauretanica. (not Bulbalis) Bougainvillea for Louis de Bougainville (1729-1811), French explorer. boule de neige French cv. snowball bouno- Greek βουνος, bounos, mound, small hill. boustrophedon from Greek ox-turning, a term for the direction of writing changing with every line, from right to left, then left to right, with the letters turning also, used in Greece prior to the 5th century BCE. Bouteloua Boutelou'a (boo-tel-OO-a) for the brothers Claudio (1774-1842 or 1848) and Estaban (1776-1813) Bouteloua Agraz, Spanish botanists. Cited in one reference as after Claudia Bouteloua (1774-1842), Spanish horticultural writer. Spanish grama, coarse grass, from Latin gramina, plural of gramen grass. So saying gramma grass is like saying pizza pie. (Gramineae) Bowlesia Bowles'ia (BOWL-zee-a) Boykinia Boykin'ia (boy-KIN-ee-a) honoring Dr. Boykin, of Georgia, a pioneer botanist. (Saxifragaceae) bov-, bovi Latin bovis, from Greek βους, bous, a cow, ox, bull. brabeut- from Greek βραβευτης, brabeutes, an umpire or judge. bracat- Latin bracatus, wearing trousers. Braccae illae virides cum subucula rosea et tunica Caledonia-quam elenganter concinnatur! Those green pants go so well with that pink shirt and the plaid jacket! Braccae tuae aperiuntur. Your fly is open. brach- referring to a branch or an arm, the former from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short. brach- Greek βραχυς, brakhys, short, few, little. brachi-, brachio, brachium, -brachum Greek βραχιων, brakhion, the arm. brachi- Latin bracchium, fore-arm. brachi- Greek βραχυ-, brakhy-, short-, shortness of-, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short. brachialis of arms-length, about 18” brachiatus like arms, crossed arms; branched at right angles, when branches spread and diverge widely

brachist-, brachisto Greek βραχυτης, brachytes, shortness, narrowness, smallness; shortest in one source. brachy, brachy- short, squat, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short. brachyacanthus -a -um with short anthers (?), from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. brachyactis -is -e short-rayed, the sometimes used genus name for Aster brachyactis, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachyandrus short-stamened, with short filaments or threads(?), from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachyantherus -a -um brachyan'therus (brak-ee-AN-ther-us) with short pouches or bags, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachyanthus short flowering, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachyarthrus with short joints, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachyatherus with short spikes, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachybotrys, brachybotryus short-clustered, bearing short racemes, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachycarpus -a -um brachycar'pum (brak-ee-KAR-pum) short-fruited, bearing short fruits, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and from καρπός, karpos, fruit. brachycaulis -is -e with short stalks, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. brachycentrus with short thorns, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachycephalus short-headed, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and κεφαλή, kephale, head. brachycerus -a -um with short horns or short antennae, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and κέρας, keras, horn. Brachychaeta from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and χαίτη, khaite, hair, in reference to the pappus. (Compositae) brachycladus -a -um brachycla'dus (brak-ee-KLAY-dus) Brachydontium from Greek brakhys, short, and odontion, small tooth, referring to the peristome teeth Brachyelytrum Greek brakhys, short and ελυτρον, elytron, husk for the small glumes, or Greek brakhys short, and ελυτρον, elytron covering, shard of a beetle's wing, from eilyein to enwrap, and Latinizing suffix um. brachyglossus -a -um, with short tongues, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue. brachylepis -is -e brachylep'is (brak-ee-LEP-is) brachylobus -a -um brachylo'bus (brak-ee-LO-bus) with short lobes, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short, and brachyneurus having short or small nerves, from Greek βραχύς, brakhys, short brachyodontus with short teeth brachypetalus short-petaled brachyphyllus -a -um brachyphyl'lus ((brak-ee-FIL-us) Brachypodium Brachypod'ium (brak-ee-PODE-ee-um) brachypodus -a -um brachypod'us (brak-ee-PODE-us) short-stalked, or having short foot stalks, from and Greek πους, ποδος, pous, podos. brachypterus with short wings brachypus short-stalked, short footed, short based brachyrrhynchus having short beaks Brachyscome from Greek brachys, short, and kome, hair brachyshaetus short-haired brachysiphon with a short tube brachystachyus -a -um, brachystachy with or bearing short spikes brachystylus short-styled, short-knobbed brachystemus with short filaments or threads brachystephanus with short petals or shallow corolla brachystylus short-stalked brachytrichus short-haired brachyurus with short tails bract- referring to bracts a bract is a leaf-like OR petal-like structure beneath the true petals of some flowers bracte, bractea, -bractea Latin bractea, a thin metal plate, gold leaf.

bracteatus -a -um bractea'tus (brak-tee-AY-tus) New Latin for bracted, bracteate, bearing bracts, modified leaves immediately below the calyx, or on the peduncle, from Latin bractea, a thin metal plate, gold leaf, and -atus, Latin suffix indicating possession, likeness of, or ‘provided with’. bracteolatus with bracteoles, minute modified leaves on the peduncle bracteosus -a -um bracteo'sus (brak-tee-OH-sus) bract-bearing, with large, showy or significant bracts bractescens bracteate brad-, brado-, brady- Greek βραδυς, bradys, slow, dull, sluggard. Bradburia For John Bradbury (1768–1823), English naturalist, collector for the Liverpool Botanic Garden in the Missouri Territory (1810–1811). bradburiana brahuicus from the Brahui Mountains on the border of Beluchistan in Asia Bramia from east Indian vernacular Brami. branch-, branchi-, branchium, -branchium, brancho-, branchum, -branchum Greek βραγχια, bragchia (branchia) a gill; a fin;hull of a ship; also hoarse. branch- Greek βραγχος, braychos (branchos), a gill a fin. brancifolius with claw-like, cleft leaves, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Brandegea Brande'gea (bran-DEE-jee-a) brandegeana brandegea'na (bran-dee-jee-AY-na) brandegeei brande'geei (bran-DEE-jee-eye) branta, -branta Icelandic a brant, goose. Brasenia New Latin, for Christoph Brasen (1774), 18th century Moravian missionary and plant collector in Greenland and Labrador; name of unknown origin in one source. (Nymphaeceae formerly Cabombaceae) Brasilianus, brasiliensis of Brazilian origin, from Brasil. Brassia for William Brass, an eighteenth-century British botanical illustrator and collector brassic-, brassica, -brassica Latin brassica, cabbage. Brassica Bras'sica (BRAS-i-ka) New Latin, from Latin, cabbage, alternately Celtic bresic, cabbage. (Cruciferae) brassica cabbage, Brassica Cretica Brassicaceae Brassica'ceae (bras-i-KAY-see-ee) from the genus name, Brassica, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. brassicae folia cabbage-leaves, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Brassicaefolius, brassicifolius brassica-leaved, with cabbage-like, Brassica, leaves, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. brassiciformis cabbage-like brastes Greek βραστης, brastes, earthquake. brastos Greek βραστος, brastos, a boiling up. Brauneria ???? Alexander Karl (Carl) Heinrich Braun, (1805-1877) braunii braun'ii (BRAWN-ee-eye) brauntonii braunton'ii (brawn-TONE-ee-eye) Brautschleier German cv. bridal veil brecc- Italian break brecciarum brecciar'um (breh-chee-AR-um) brechm-, brechmo-, brechmus, -brechmus Greek βρεχµα, brechma, the top of the head, parietal bones. brecho Greek βρεχω, brecho, wet, soak. bregma-, -bregma, bregmat Greek βρεγµα, bregma, the top of the head, parietal bones. brem Greek roar brenth-, brentha, brenthus, -brenthus Greek βρενθος, brenthos, of stately bearing, arrogance; also a stately water bird. breph-, brepho-, brephus, -brephus Greek βρεφος, brephos, a foetus, an unborn or newly born child, foal, whelp, cub, etc. brephogeus found bret- Greek βρετας, bretas, wooden image of a diety. brev-, brevi- Latin brevis, short. brevialatus -a -um breviala'tus (brev-ee-a-LAY-tus) brevibracteatus -a -um brevibractea'tus (brev-ee-brak-tee-AY-tus)

brevicaudatus -a -um short-tailed, from Latin brevis, short; little, and caudatus -a -um (kaw-DAY-tus) caudate, tailed, with a tail, from the long tipped panicle, from cauda, caudae (coda, codae) f., the tail of an animal. brevicaulis -is -e short-stemmed, with short stalks, from Latin brevis, short; little, -i-, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. Iris brevicaulis. brevicollis, brevicolle short-necked(?) in one source, see the next entry, but more likely small bumps, from brevis, short, little, and collis, a small hill. Trematodon brevicollis. brevicollus -a -um short-neck, from brevis, short, little, and collum, the neck, and -us, Latinizing suffix. Encalypta brevicolla. brevicrinis (m.), brevicrines (f.) short hair, from brevis, short, little, and crinis, hair, tail, antennae brevicornis short horned brevicornu brevicor'nu (brev-i-KOR-nu) breviculus -a -um brevic'ulus (brev-IK-yoo-lus) brevicuspis short pointed breviflorus -a -um breviflor'us (brev-i-FLOR-us) brevifolius -a -um brevifo'lius (brev-i-FO-lee-us) short-leaved, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. brevifrons short-fronded, with short foliage brevihamatus having short hooks breviligulatus -a -um with a short ligula, from Latin brevi, short, ligula, ligulae, shoe strap or shoe tie; small spoon, and -atus, Latin suffix indicating possession, likeness of, or ‘provided with’. brevilobus -a -um brevilo'bus (brev-i-LO-bus) brevimammus with short nipples brevior shorter, more short, from Latin comparative of brevis, short; little, -ior, more so, to a greater degree brevipaniculatus short-panicled brevipedunculatus short-pedunculed, with a short flower stalk brevipes bre'vipes (BREV-i-pees) short-footed, short-based, or short-stalked brevipetalus with short petals brevipilus -a -um short-hairy, from Latin brevis, short, little, and classical Latin pilus hair, of unknown origin. brevirostris, brevirostra with short beaks brevis, breve short, or brief, from Latin brevis, short; little breviscapus short-scaped, short stalked, short stemmed brevisetus short-bristled brevispathus short-spathed brevispinus -a -um short-spined brevissimus -a -um brevis'simus (brev-IS-i-mus) very short, shortest brevistipis with short stalks brevistylus short-styled breviter Latin adverb shortly, briefly, from brevis, short, and iter, a way. breviusculus very short brevivexillus -a -um brevivex'illus (brev-ee-VEX-il-lus) brevistamineus -a -um brevistamin'eus (bre-vee-stam-IN-ee-us) breweri brew'eri (BROO-er-eye) brewerianus for William Brewer (1828-1910), American botanist briar-, briaro-, briaros Greek βριαρος, briaros, strong. Brickellia See Kuhnia Brickel'lia (brik-EL-ee-a) New Latin, from John Brickell, fl1730 (1748-1809), IrishAmerican physician and naturalist who settled in Savanna, Georgia, and New Latin suffix –ia. Not John Brickell (1710?–1745), Irish naturalist who visited North Carolina ca. 1729–1731 and published on the natural history of North Carolina in 1737. (Compositae) Brickelliastrum from the generic name Brickellia and Latin -astrum, indicating inferiority, a wild type, or an incomplete resemblance to. brickellioides brickellio'ides (brik-el-ee-OH-i-dees) bricumus wormwood brigantiacus from Briançon in eastern France brilliantissimus very or most brilliant brime Greek βριµη, brime, strength, might.

brimos- Greek βριµοσις, brimosus, indignation. Brintonia For Jeremiah Bernard Brinton (1835–1894), of Philadelphia bris d’Anjou French cv. Anjou breeze brith-, britho-, brithy Greek βριθυς, brithys, heavy; a weight. britho Greek βριθω, britho, to be heavy, weighted down, laden, full. brittanicus, britannus of Britian, of British origin, from Great Britian brittonianum Nathaniel Lord Britton (1859-1934) briz-, brizo Greek nod, sleep; a grain briz-, brizo Greek βριζω, brizo, to be sleepy, nod, slumber. Briza from Greek βρίζω, brizo, to nod, as in sleep, or βρίθω, britho, to bend downward, in reference to the pendulous spikes. (Gramineae) brizaeformis, briziformis briza-form, like Briza, Wagglegrass Brizopyrum from the genus name Briza, and πυρός, pyros, wheat. (Gramineae) broch-, brocho Greek: a loop; Latin with projecting teeth broch-, brocho Greek βροχος, brochos, noose, slip knot, snare. brochet- Greek βροχετος, brochetos, rain, moistening, steeping. brochth- Greek βροχθος, brochthos, throat. brochus -a -um Latin adjective, projecting or prominent teeth; of persons having projecting or prominent teeth. Brodiaea Brodiae'a (BRO-dee-a) for James Brodie (1744–1824), Scottish cryptogamic botanist. brom-, broma, -broma, bromato Greek βρωµα, broma, food, meat. brom-, bromo-, bromus, -bromus Greek βροµος, bromos, oats. brom-, bromo-, bromus, -bromus Greek βρωµος, a stench, foul smell. bromeli- New Latin bromelia, the pineapple. Bromeliaceae plants of the Pineapple family, Bromelia Ananas, from the genus name, Bromelia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. bromeliaceus resembling Pineapple bromet Greek βροµητης, brometes, brayer, ass. bromi-, bromio- Greek βροµιος, bromios, noisy, boisterous, buzzing. bromo Greek oats; a stench bromoides resembling wild oats, from Latin bromos, bromi m., a name used by Pliny for oats from ancient Greek name for oat, originally from βρῶµα, βρόµος, broma, bromos, food, also βρῶµος, bromos, oats, and οειδης, -oides, with the form of, for a supposed resemblance to a brome or wild oats. bromos Greek βρωµος, bromos, stench. bromosus -a -um Latin adjective, stinking, fetid. bromus, -bromus Greek oats; a stench Bromus Bro'mus (BRO-mus, BROH-mus) New Latin, from Latin bromos, bromi m., a name used by Pliny for oats from ancient Greek name for oat, originally from βρῶµα, βρόµος, broma, bromos, food, also βρῶµος, bromos, oats. (Gramineae) bronch-, bronchi-, broncho-, bronchus, -bronchus Greek βρογχος, brogchos (bronchos), the wind pipe, trachea. bronchialis bronchial bront-, bronta, -bronta, bronto Greek βροντη, bronta, thunder. bronzeschleier German cv. bronze veil Brosimum Greek βρωσιµος, brosimos, edible brosis, -brosis Greek βρωσις, brosis, eating, food, meat, pasture, flavor, tatse; corrosion, rust. brot-, broto-, brotus, -brotus Greek blood, gore; mortal brot-, broto-, brotus Greek βροτος, brotos, a motal man. brot-, broto-, brotus Greek βρωτος, brotos, to be eaten. brote-, broteo Greek βρωσιµος, brosimos, edible, eatable. Brothera for Viktor Ferdinand Brotherus (1849-1929), Finnish bryologist brotic- Greek βρωτικος, brotikos, voracious, gnawing. broton Greek βρωτον, broton, food, meat. brotos Greek βροτος, brotos, mortal man. Broussonetia for Pierre Marie Auguste Broussonet (1761-1807), French biologist at Montpellier

bruch-, bruchus, -bruchus Latin a wingless locust, from bruchus, bruchi m., or brucus, bruci m., locust; a kind of wingless locust; a caterpillar (OED); agricultural pest. bruch-, bruchus Greek βρυκω, βρυχω, bruko, brucho, to eat greedily, gobble. Bruchia for Philipp Bruch (1781-1847), German pharmacist and bryologist brucos maidenhair Brugmansia Brugman'sia (brug-MAN-see-a) brum-, brumal- Latin brumalis, winter, wintery; of the shortest day. brumalis-is -e wintery, blooming in winter, from brumalis -is -e, Latin adjective wintry; during winter; connected with winter solstice or winter. brumaria, brumariae f. Latin noun, the plant leontopodion, leontopetalon. brun- Latin brown bruneri brunizem a dark brown prairie soil, from bruni-, brown, suggested by Fr brun, and Russian chernozem, black earth, from IE base *ĝhthem-, earth > L humus. brunne-, brunnei Late Latin brunneus, brown. brunelloides resembling Brunella comocladifolia, West Indian Sumach Bruniaceae plants of the Brunia family, from the genus name, Brunia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Brunnera for Samuel Brunner (1790-1844), Swiss botanist brunneus deep brown, dark dull brown, rich brown brunnescens from Latin brunneus, dark brown, or Germanic brun, and –escens, beginning to or becoming, referring to a tendency to turn brown. Brunnichia for Morten Thrane Brunnich (1737-1827), eighteenth-century Danish naturalist brut- Latin brutus, heavy, immovable; stupid, dull, insensible. bruttius from Bruttium, the ancient name of Calabria in southern Italy bry- from Greek βρυω, bryo, to swelll or to teem with. bry- referring to moss (bryoides) bryc-, brych-, brycho-, bryco- Greek devour; roar bryc-, brych-, brycho-, bryco- Greek βρυχαοµαι, brykhamai, roar, bellow, death-cry. brychio- Greek βρυχιος, brychios, from the depths of the sea, deep. bryco- Greek βρυκω, βρυχω, bryko, brycho, to eat greedily, gobble. brygm-, brygmo- Greek βρυγνος, brygmos, gnashing teeth, bitting, chattering, shivering. bryo- Greek βρυον, bryon, swell or teem with; grow luxuriantly; moss. Bryobrittonia from Greek βρυον, bryon, moss, and for Elizabeth G. Knight Britton (1858-1934), American botanist bryco- Greek βρυκω, βρυχω, bryko, brycho, to eat greedily, gobble. bryoides bryo'ides (bry-OH-i-dees) like or resembling moss bryon Greek βρυον, bryon, oyster-green. bryon, bryi n. Latin noun, a kind of fragrant lichen, moss, sea plant (oyster-green?); white poplar catkin. bryonia, bryoniae f., bryonias, bryoniae f. Latin noun, the plant bryony; B. alba white b., Bryonia dioica; b. nigra black b., Tamus communis. Bryonia from Greek βρύω, bryo, to grow rapidly. (Cucurbitaceae) bryoniifolius with leaves like Bryoni, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. bryophilus moss-loving Bryophyllum from Greek βρύω, bryo, to grow, and φύλλον, phyllon, a leaf, i.e. germinating from a leaf. referring to the ability of the succulent leaves to produce a new plant when planted. (Crassulaceae) Bryoxiphium from Greek bryon, moss, and xiphium, sword, referring to the plant form bu- Greek an ox bu- Latin prefix, bu-, Greek βου-, bou-, large, huge, great, monstrous. bubal-, bubalus Greek βουβαλος, boubalos, a buffalo. bubalinus -a -um Latin of or pertaining to the African gazelle bubalion, bubalii n. Latin noun, a kind of wild cucumber. bubo, -bubo Latin bubo, bubonis, an owl. bubo, bubonis m. Latin horned owl or eagle owl, especially as bird of ill omen. bubon Greek βουβων, boubon, the groin, glands. bubul- Latin bubulus, of oxen or cattle.

bucarius, bucharicus from Bokhara in Turkestan bucc-, bucca, -bucca Latin bucca, the cheek. bucca, buccae f. Latin jaw, mouth; mouthful; cheek with blowing a trumpet; also cavity of the knee joint. buccin- Latin a trumpet; a shellfish buccin- Latin buccina, bucina, a crooked trumpet, sheperd’s horn, military horn. buccina, buccinae f. Latin noun, horn; bugle, watch-horn; curved trumpet, war trumpet; shell Triton blew. buccinator one who blows a horn, trumpeter, proclaimer. buccinatorius, bucinat- well-known(?) bucciniiformis, buciniiformis trumpet shaped bucephalophorus resembling a bullock’s head, in shape or markings, in one source, better as bearing an ox head, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. bucephalus ox-headed, ox’s head bucer-, bucerus -a -um Latin buceros, horned buchananii for John Buchanan (1819-1898), Scottish botanist who worked in New Zealand, Carex buchananii. bucharicus from Bokhara in central Asia Buchloë New Latin, a contraction of Bubalochloë from Greek βουβαλος, boubalos, buffalo, or Greek bous, cow, ox or head of cattle, and χλόη, chloë, young grass or a young green shoot, similar to Greek chloos light green. bucolic- Greek βουκολικος, boukolikos, pastoral, rustic. Buchnera New Latin, after J.G. Buchner (18th century German botanist bucinatus like a curved horn Bucklandiella from Monte Buckland, mountain of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, name commemorating William Buckland (1784-1856), geologist, canon of Christ Church, Oxford, dean of Westminster from 1845, and Latin -ella, diminutive. buda, budae f. Latin noun, sedge. budama bugloss Buddleia Bud'dleja (BUD-lee-a) named for the Reverend Adam Buddle (1661-1715), British botanist and clergyman. buddleifolius -a -um buddleja-leaved, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Buddlejaceae Buddleja'ceae (bud-lee-AY-see-ee), from the genus name, Buddleia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. buddleoides buddleja-like bufo, -bufo, bufoni- Latin a toad bufo, bufonis m. Latin noun, a toad. bufonis -is -e, bufonius -a -um bufo'nis (boo-FO-nis) bufo'nius (boo-FO-nee-us) of the color of a toad, pertaining to or like a toad; growing in damp places, from bufo, bufonis m., Latin noun, a toad. Buglossoides bugloss-like, from βουγλωσσος-οειδης, bouglossos-oeides. buglossus -a -um ox-tongued, from βουγλωσσος, bouglossos, the Greek name for Anchusa, a reference to the rough-textured leaves, bugloss is Lucopsis arvensis, from , and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue. bul-, bules, -bules, buli- Greek βουλη, boule, will, determination, consel. -bula, -bulum Latin suffix for an instrument of means, as in incunabulum,or fundibulum. bulb, bulb-, bulbus, -bulbus Latin a bulb, an onion, referring to a bulb, from bulb-us, from Greek βολβός, bolbos, onion, bulbous root. bulbiceps a stem bulbous at the base, in Jackson (1900) listed as from Latin bulbus, bulbi, m,. an onion or a bulb, and caput, capitis, n., a head, of New Latin ceps, head. ‘-ceps’ is possibly from Latin caepa (cepa) -ae f. and caepe (cepe) -is, n. onion, as in cepacious. bulbiferus -a -um bulb-bearing, onion-bearing; bulbil-bearing, from modern Latin bulbus, bulb, from Greek βολβός, bolbos, onion, bulbous root, and -fer, from ferre, to bear. bulbigerus bulb-bearing, onions; bulbil-bearing Bulbilis onion, a small bulb bulbilliferus with bulbs sprouting from the leaf axils bulbillus modern Latin bulbillus, diminutive of bulbus. Bulbocodium with a woolly bulb bulbocodioides resembling Bulbocodium, Meadow Saffron Bulbophyllum Greek bolbos, bulb, and phyllon, leaf, referring to its leafy pseudobulb

Bulbostylis having a bulblike style, from Latin bulbus from Greek βολβός, bolbos, onion, bulbous root, and στυλος, stylos, a pillar or rod. bulbosus -a -um bulbo'sus (bul-BO-sus) Latin bulbous, having bulbs, onion-like; swollen, from bulbosus. buleuto- Greek βοµλευτος, bouleutos, devised, plotted, cf. Latin buleuta, buleutae m., member of a Greek council or senate. bulga Latin bulga, leather knapsack. bulgaricus of Bulgarian origin, from Bulgaria bulim- Greek: hunger; New Latin a mollusc bulim- Greek βουλῑµία, boulimia, ravenous hunger, from βοῦς, bous, ox, and λῑµός, limos, hunger, in reference to a morbid hunger. bulim- Greek βουλῑµός, boulimos, a genus of terrestrial gastropods apparently with a ravenous hunger. bull-, bulla, -bulla Latin bulla, a bubble, round swelling, boss, stud. bullaceus, bullatus, bullosus inflated, bladder-like bullatus -a -um bulla'tus (bull-AY-tus) swollen, blistered, bubbled, studded, or puckered as the leaf of the primrose. bulleyanus for Arthur Bulley (1861-1942), wealthy merchant from Liverpool, UK, sponsor of plant hunters and founder of Bee’s nursery in Cheshire. Bulley’s garden became Liverpool Botanic Garden. bullii -bulum, -bula Latin, suffix indicating an instrument, tool, or means, used with a verb base. bumalda bumammus -a -um Latin adjective having large clusters; with large breasts. bumasta, bumastae f. Latin large swelling grapes; vine having such grapes. bumastus -a -um Latin adjective large swelling, like grapes. bumastus, bumasti f. Latin noun large swelling grapes; vine having such grapes. bumastus Greek βουµαστος, bumastos, having large grapes. bumbulum, bumbuli n. Latin break wind; fart. bumelia, bumeliae f. Latin large or common ash-tree, Fraxinus excelsior. bun-, buno, bunus, -bunus Greek βουνος, bounos, a hill, mound; alter; blood clot. -bundus, -bunda, -bundum Latin adjectival suffix indicating doing, continuation, augmentation, increased quality, like a present participle, or action accomplished, used with a verb base. bungeanus, bungei for Alexander von Bunge (1803-1890), Russian botanist bunioides resembling Bunium, Earth-nut bunophilus hill-loving, found on hills buphthalmoides resembling Buphthalmum, Ox-eye buphthalmos, buphthalmi m., buphthalmus, buphthalmi f. Latin a flower of chrysanthemum family, possibly Chrysanthemum coronarium; kind of houseleek. bupleurifolius bupleurum-leaved, with leaves resembling Bupleurum, Rabbit-ears, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. bupleuroides resembling rabbit-ears bupleuron, bupleuri n. Latin a plant, unidentified, possibly hare's-ear. Bupleurum from Greek βοῦς, bous, an ox, and πλευρὸν, pleuron, a rib, for the veined leaves of some species. (Umbelliferae) buprest-, buprestis, -buprestis Latin buprestis, buprestis f., Greek βουπρηστις, bouprestis, a beetle poisonous to cattle (poisonous, sting cattle to swelling); also an unidentified plant. burdickii Bureava, bureavii (byur-OH-a, byur-OH-ee-eye, or classically byur-OH-wa, byur-OH-wee-eye) honoring Louis Édouard Bureau, (1830-1918) French medical doctor, botanist, entomologist, paleobotanist, and author of several books on the fossil plants of the Loire basin. burejaeticus from the Bureja Mountains in eastern Siberia burion calf's-snout burkei bur'kei (BUR-kee-eye) burkwoodii for the brothers Arthur Burkwood (1888-1951), and Albert Burkwood, of Park Farm Nursery, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, UK burlewii burlew'ii (bur-LOO-ee-i) burmanicus from Burma Burmannia for Johannes Burman (1707–1779), Dutch botanist

Burmanniaceae plants of the Burmania family, from the genus name, Burmannia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. burr- Latin burrus -a -um, red. burra Latin burra, nonsense, a trifle. burranicum Latin burranicum, a vessel for milk, a vessel for a burranicus drink composed of milk and must or new wine. burricus Latin burricus, burrici m. (burrichus, burrichi), a small horse. burs-, bursa, -bursa Latin a hide; a purse bursa Greek βυρσα, bursa, ox-hide, hide, skin. bursa, bursae f. Latin pouch, purse; supply of money, funds. bursa-pastoris bur'sa-pastor'is (BUR-sa -- pas-TORE-is) New Latin, from Medieval Latin bursa bag, purse, from Late Latin, oxhide, from Greek βυρσα, byrsa, and Latin pastoris, of a shepherd. According to Alcock (1876) bursa-pastoris is from Gerard, but the name was historically pera-pastoris, from older authors, including Lonicerus. Derived from Latin pera, a pouch, purse, or satchel, and pastoris, of a sheperd. Bursa may be a Latinization of the French bourse, a purse or pouch. The French name is Bourse de Pasteur, Sheperd’s-Purse. Bursera Bur'sera (BUR-ser-a) honoring the Danish botanist Joachim Burser (1583-1639),American flowering trees and shrubs. Burseraceae Bursera'ceae (bur-sur-AY-see-ee) plants of the Bursera family, gum-yielding trees, from the genus name, Bursera, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. bursiformis, bursarius pocket-shaped, pouch-shaped bushii C. bushii, after its discoverer, Benjamine Franklin Bush (1858-1937), American botanist. -bus Latin suffix, having the quality of. bust-, bustum, -bustum Latin bustum, a funeral pile, grave mound, tomb. buteo, -buteo, buteoni- Latin buteo, buteonis, a kind of hawk (buzzard?). As a cognomen butom-, butomus, -butomus Greek βουτοµον, boutomon, a kind of water plant; a sedge Carex riparia. Butomaceae plants of the Rush family, Butomus, from the genus name, Butomus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. butomos sedge Butomus New Latin, from Greek boutomos, boutomon sedge; Greek butomos / butomon, marsh plant; from Greek bous, cow, and temno, to cut; for the sharp leaves, known or believed to cut mouths of cattle butorid New Latin a bittern buturum, buturi n., butyron, butyri n. Latin butter. bututzim cabbage butyr-, butyrum, -butyrum Latin butryum, butter. butyraceus butter-like butyrosus -a -um butter yielding bux-, buxus, -buxus Latin the box tree Buxaceae plants of the Bux family, Buxus, from the genus name, Buxus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Buxbaumia, buxbaumii New Latin for Johann Christian Buxbaum (1693-1730), German botanist, member of the Russian Academy of Science, professor of botany at St. Petersburg, one of the first to write on the flora of Estonia, collected plants in the Far East; see also Buxbaumia, a genus of mosses (order Buxbaumiales) buxifolius -a -um buxifo'lius (bux-i-FO-lee-us) box-leaved, with leaves like Buxus, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. buxiformis -is -e byas Greek βυας, the eagle owl, Bubo bubo. byblis Greek βυβλις, byblis, a nymph. byblo- Greek βυβλος, papyrus. bycano- Greek βυκανη, bukane, a spiral trumpet, a horn. bycto- Greek βυκτης, byktes, a swelling, blustering, hurricane. byo Greek βυω, byo, stuff full of, plug with, stow away. byrfira the name of a plaster. byrr-, byrrh- Latin byrrus -a -um, red, flame-colored. byrs-, byrsa, -byrsa, byrso Greek βυρσα, byrsa, ox hide, a hide,a skin. bysma Greek βυσµα, bysma, plug, bung. byss-, bysso, byssus, -byssus Greek fine thread; fine linen; the depths of the sea

byss-, bysso-, byssus Greek βυσσος, byssos, depths of the sea. byss- Greek βυσσος, byssos, fine flax, fine linen. Byssaceus velvet-like, mould-like (Byssus = mould???) byssisedus holding on with fine fibers byth-, bytho- Greek βυσοος, bysoos, bury, plunge, sink, submerge. byth-, bythio-, bythios, bytho- Greek βυθος, βυθιος, bythos, bythios, in the depths of the sea, sunken. byzantinus, byzantius Byzantine, the region near Istanbul, no Constantinople TMBG. “There may be a difference of opinion as to the advantage of spending much time upon the study of Botany; but there is one opinion only as to the importance of knowing the names of the plants of which man has to make use, or which he is continually meeting with.” Lindley caball-, caballus, -caballus Latin caballus, caballi m., a pack horse, a nag, a hack, cognate with Gaulish caballos, a working horse. Cabomba probably an aboriginal name (Cabombaceae) Cabombaceae Cabomba'ceae (ka-bom-BAY-see-ee) from the genus name, Cabomba, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cabulicus -a -um from Kabul, the capital of Afganistan cac-, caca, cach-, caco Greek κακ-, kak-, bad, badly done, bring bad, etc. cac- Greek κακη, kaka, wickedness, vice, cowardice, baseness of spirit. caca Greek κακη, kaka, badness, baseness, cowardice. cacainus chocolate-brown cacali-, cacalia Greek κακκαλια, kakkalia, the colt’s foot, Mercuralia tomentosa. cacali-, cacalia, -cacalia Greek the colt's-foot Cacalia (ka-KAY-lee-a) New Latin, from Latin, a very old Greek name for a plant, used by Dioscorides, κακο-λιαν, kako-lian, very-hurtful; or from Greek kakalia, kakkalia, the colt’s foot, Mercuralia tomentosa. cacalia, cacaliae f. Latin the plant, Mercurialis tomentosa, colt's foot; also called leontice. Cacaliopsis from the genus name Cacalia and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. cacaliaefolius cacalia-leaved, from , and and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. cacatu Malayan kakatoe, kokatua, the cockatoo. cachemirianus, cachemiricus of Cashmere, from Kashmir caco, cacoa, -cacoa Greek excrement cach- Greek bad cachinn-, cachinna- Latin cachinnus, laugh loudly, splashing of the sea. cachleco Greek καχληξ, kachlex, gravel, shingle, a pebble on a stream bed. cachr-, cachri, cachry, cachrys, -cachrys Greek καχρυς, kachrys, parched barley; a winted bud, catkin. caco Greek bad, decayed, diseased caco-, cacoa Greek κακκη, kakke, human excrement. cacoc Greek κακος, kakos, bad, evil, ugly. cact-, cactus, -cactus Greek κακτος, kaktos, a prickly plant, the Spanish Artichoke, Cynara cardunculus. Cactaceae Cacta'ceae (kak-TAY-see-ee) plants of the Cactus family, from the genus name, Cactus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cactiformis -is -e cactus-like cactos, cacti m., cactus, cacti m. Latin cardoon, Cynara cardunculus, Spanish artichoke; a prickly plant with an edible stalk; anything thorny or unpleasant. cad Latin fall cad-, cado-, cadus, -cadus Greek καδος, kados, a flask, an urn, cask, jar, pail. cad- Latin cadere, to fall, wane, decay, subside, sink, from the verb cado, cadere, cecidi, casus, fall, sink, drop, plummet, topple; be slain, die; end, cease, abate; decay. cadaver, cadaveri- Latin cadaver, cadaveris n., a corpse, cadaver, dead body, carcass; ruined city. cadens falling cadisco- Greek καδισκος, kadiskos, an urn for receiving ballots. cadmeus from Caria, (Cadmi), a region in southwest Asia Minor (?); probably the citadel (or acropolis) of Thebes in Greece.

cadmicus cadmic, metallic like tin, from Latin cadmia, cadmiae, zinc oxide. caduc-, caduci Latin caducus -a -um, adjective, falling, falling early, doomed, frail, perishable. caducus -a -um short-lived, falling off early as the sepals of Poppy cadus Greek καδος, kados, jar, jug; Latin cadus, cadi m., jar, large jar for wine, oil, or liquids; urn, funeral urn; money jar. cae- (see also ce and coe) caec- Latin caecus -a -um, blind, hidden, unseen, obscure, dark. caecili-, caecilia, -caecilia Latin a kind of lizard, from caecilia, caeciliae. caecilia, caeciliae f. Latin noun, a blind-worm; kind of lizard, or a kind of lettuce. Caeciliana a specific type of lettuce, from Pliny, from caecilia, caeciliae. caecus -a -um, caecior -or -us, caecissimus -a -um Latin adjective, blind; unseeing; dark, gloomy, hidden, secret; aimless, confused, random; rash. caecus, caeci m. Latin noun, a blind person. caed-, caedo- Latin caedere, to cut down, strike, beat, kill. caela-, caelat- Latin caelare, to engrave, emboss, carve. caelatus embossed, or apparently so, past participle of caelo, caelare, or caelatum, caelati n. embossed or engraved work, esp. in gold/silver. caelestinus; caelestis heavenly blue, true blue caelo, caelare, caelavi, caelatus Latin verb carve, make raised work/relief; engrave, emboss; chase, finish; embroide caen-, caeno- Greek καινος, kainos, new, fresh, recent. caenis Greek καινις, kainis, a knife. caenum, caeni n. Latin filth, mud, mire, slime, dirt, uncleanness; the scum or filth of people. caepa (cepa) -ae f. and caepe (cepe) -is, n. onion caerefolium with leaves like chervil, Anthriscus cerefolium, from caerefolium, caerefoli(i) n., chervil Anthiscus cerefolium, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf.. caero- Greek καιρος, kairos, the right time, the right place, the right proportion. caerul-, caerule Latin caeruleus -a -um, blue, bluish, azure, sky blue. caeruleo-punctatus with blue dots caerulescens becoming dark blue, bluish, slightly blue caeruleus -a -um, coeruleus, caerulus -a -um caeru'leus (ser-OO-lee-us, or classically kie-RU-lee-us) cerulean, dark blue, deep sky blue, bright, deep blue, true blue, from Latin caeruleus -a -um, dark-colored, dark blue, cerulean, azure, sea-colored, sea-green. caes- referring to bluish-gray Caesalpinia Caesalpin'ia (kee-sal-PI-nee-a, or see-sal-PI-nee-a, see-zal-PIN-ee-a) New Latin, from Andrea Cesalpino, Latinized as Andreas Caesalpinus, died 1603, Italian botanist, and New Latin –ia. Caesar si viveret, ad remum dareris. If Caesar were alive, you'd be chained to an oar. caesareus from Caesarea in Palestine caesari- Latin hair, long hair, from caesariatus -a -um, adjective, having long, flowing, luxuriant hair, or plume; having lush vegetation or foliage. caesaries caesariei f. Latin hair, a head of hair, long, flowing, luxuriant hair; dark, beautiful hair; the plume of a helmet. caesi- Latin caesius, bluish gray, light grayish blue caesiellus diminutive of caesius. caesius -a -um caes'ius (classically KIES-ee-us, as in German Kaiser, or SEES-ee-us, locally SEE-zee-us) caesious, blue-gray, light grayish blue, lavender blue, light grey, from Latin caesius -a -um, bluish grey of the eyes, bluish gray, as in eyes, or dull, milky blue, lavender blue, or grey blue. caesp-, caespes, caespit- turf, sod, somewhat tufted, from Latin caespes, or cespes, a sod. caespes (cespes) caespitis m. Latin a turf, sod, grass, grassy ground, earth; an altar, rampart, or mound of sod, turf, or earth; by transference a hut or altar of turf. caespi- tufted, growing in a clump caespitellose somewhat tufted caespititius spreading into carpet-like patches caespitosus -a -um, cespitosus -a -um caespito'sus (classically KIES-pi-TOE-sus, or sees-pi-TOE-sus, locally ses-pi-TO-sus) growing in tufts like grass, tufted, clumped, clump-forming, from caespes, a turf, sod; or field. caespitulose somewhat crowded in tuft-like patches

caespitululus -a -um Late Latin a little sod. caffer, caffra New Latin caffra, caffrum, referring to the Kafir region of South Africa, from Kafferaria, from South Africa caffrorum from the Kaffirs, of Kaffir origin cairicus from Cairo cajanifolius cajanus-leaved pigeon-pea, from , and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. Cakile Caki'le (ka-KY-lee) New Latin, from Arabic qāqulla. (Cruciferae) cal, cal-, calo Greek καλλος, kallos, beauty, beautiful. cal- Latin caleo, calere, calui, to be warm, to be hot with passion. cala- Latin insert; summon calabrus -a -um, calabricus from the Calabria region of southern Italy calam-, calam-, calamo-, calamus referring to a reed, from Latin calamus, Greek καλαµος, kalamos, a cane, a reed, a reed pipe. Calamagrostis, calamagrostis, calamagrosteis (kal-ah-mah-GROS-tis) reed grass, New Latin, compounded name from Calamus and Agrostis, from Latin calamus, from Greek καλαµος, kalamos, reed, cane, and Latin agrostis, grass, couch grass, from Greek αγρωστις, agrostis, field grass eaten by mules, variously ascribed to Triticum repens and Cynodon dactylon, green provender, or perhaps a dog’s tooth grass, perhaps from agros, field. Alternately calamo may be from Greek mythological figure Kalamos, the son of Maiandros (Meander), god of the Meander River, an allusion to the wet habitat of some species. Our word acre has its root in Latin ager and Greek agros. Calamariae plants of the Reed or Sedge family calamarius resembling reed or sedge calamifolius -a -um New Latin, reed-leaved, with reedlike leaves, from Latin Calamus, a reed, and folium, foli(i), n., noun, a leaf. calamiformis reed-like, hollow Calamintha (ka-la-MIN-tha) calamint, from Greek mythological figure Kalamos, the son of Maiandros (Meander), god of the Meander River; alternately from “Latin calaminthe, from Greek καλαµίνθη, καλάµινθος, kalaminthe, kalaminthos, applied to the same or some similar plant. The Greek is explained < καλός beautiful + µίνθη, µίνθος mint: but this is perhaps only popular etymology. The English word was subsequently assimilated to the Latin form, and to mint.” (OED) (Lamiaceae or Labiatae) calaminthe calamint, as above. calaminthoides resembling Calamint, Calamintha calamistr-, calamistrum, -calamistrum Latin calamistrum, calamistri, a curling iron for hair. calamistratus -a -um Latin curly, curled with a curling iron, effeminately adorned. calamit- Latin calamitas, misfortune, loss, failure, damage. calamitas, calamitatis f. Latin loss, damage, harm; misfortune or disaster; military defeat; blight, crop failure. calamites, calamitae m. Latin small green frog; rain frog; also called diopetes rana. calamitosus miserable, destitute, forboding evil calamosus resembling Calamus or Rattan (the chair-bottom cane) Calamovilfa Greek καλαµος, kalamos, reed, and Vilfa, an old name for another genus of grass; alternately calamo may be from Greek mythological figure Kalamos, the son of Maiandros (Meander), god of the Meander River. calamus, calami from Dioscorides, from Latin calamus, calami m., reed, reed-like, cane; reed pen; reed or pan pipe; arrow; fishing pole; stalk; sweet flag; branch; arm; branch of a candelabrum, for the foliage, also applied to sedges and grasses, from Greek καλαµος, kalamos, reed, cane; alternately, calamo may be from Greek mythological figure Kalamos, the son of Maiandros (Meander), god of the Meander River, a reference to the wetland habitat of sweetflag, or in one source, Latin, calamus of the shops. calamus odoratus sweet cane. calandr-, calandrus, -calandrus Greek a kind of lark; New Latin a weevil calandr-, calandrus Greek καλανδρος, kalandros, a kind of a lark. Calandrinia Calandrin'ia (kal-an-DRIN-ee-a, or ka-lan-DREE-nee-a) for J. L. Calandrini (1703-1758), Swiss botanist. calanthus bearing beautiful flowers calapp Malayan a coconut calathiformis cup-shaped, almost hemispherical calathinus cup-shaped, basket-like, as the heads of a composite calath- referring to a basket (Calathea)

calath-, calathisc, calatho-, calathus, -calathus Greek καλαθος, kalathos, a wicker basket, narrow at the base. calathus, calathi m. Latin wicker basket, flower basket; wine-cup; milk pail; cheese bowl or curdled milk bowl. calc-, calci Latin the heel; lime, limestone calc-, calcar-, calce-, calci- Latin calcar, calcaris, a spur, stimulus, incitement. calc-, calci- Latin calx, calcis, the heal. calcan-, calcane- Latin calcaneum, (calcaneus), calcanei, the heel. calcar-, calcare, calcari Latin lime, limestone, from calcaria, calcariae, lime quarry. calcaratus spurred, having a spur calcareus -a -um calcar'eus (kal-KARE-ee-us) pertaining to lime, of limestone, chalk-loving, or chalky white calcareus, cretaceus chalky white, dull with a grayish tinge calcariformis spur-shaped calce Latin chalk-white; a shoe calce- Latin calceus, calcei, shoe, soft shoe, slipper. calceat- Latin wearing shoes from calceatus, calceatus, a covering for the foot, shoe as opposed to sandal. calceiformis, calceolatus shaped like a little shoe of slipper calceol- referring to slipper-shape calceolus -a -um (kal-KEE-o-lus) calceolus, calceoli, a shoe, slipper, small shoe, half-boot, the diminutive of calceus, a shoe from calceus and -olus, Latin diminutive suffix. calceolaris shoe or slipper-shaped (Calceolus, a small shoe) calceolatus shoe or slipper-shaped (Calceolus, a small shoe), -atus, Latin suffix indicating possession, likeness of, or ‘provided with’. calceus lime calci Latin the heel; lime, limestone calcicolus -a -um growing on limy soil calcifugal chalk-hating, or chalk-avoiding, as heather calcigerus bearing slipper-like flowers calciphilous chalk-loving calcitr- Latin kicking, from calcitro, calcitrare, calcitravi, calcitratus, to kick, to strike with heels. calcitrapa foot-trap, man-trap calcul-, calculus, -calculus Latin calculus, calculi, a small stone, a piece for reckoning, voting, or gaming. cald- Latin hot, warm, from calderius -a -um, concerned with warming or concerned with warm water cale- Latin heat, from caleo, calere, to be warm, inflamed, excited. Caledonia, Caledoniae f. Latin Caledonia, Scotland, northern part of Britain. calen- Latin warming, heating calesco, calescere, to become warm, to be hot with passion. calend- Latin Calenda, Calendae, the first day of the Roman month; a month. caledonicus from the Caeldon River in South Africa Calendula (ka-LEN-du-la) from Latin calends, or calenda, first day of the month, or a month, and -ula, tendency; possibly meaning through the months, an allusion to the almost year-round flowering of some species. (Compositae) calendulaceus calendula-like, resembling Calendula, Marigold calenduliflorus with leaves like Calendula calendulinus orange like Calendula, pot marigold calf Anglo-Saxon caelf, the young of cattle and some other mammals. cali-, calia, calio Greek καλια, kalia, a wooden house, cabin, hut, barn, shrine, a bird’s nest. cali-, calic-, calix, -calix Latin calix, calcis, a cup, goblet, a drinking or cooking vessel; chalice, cup of wine, pot, water regulator. calicarpus bearing cup-like fruit calicle- small cup-like structures, from Latin caliculus, diminutive of Latin calix cup. caliculatus cup-shaped calid-, calidus (caldus) -a -um Latin calidus, warm, hot; fiery, passionate. calidri-, calidris, -calidris from Greek σκαλιδρις, skalidris, a spotted shore bird; a sandpiper or sanderling, Calidris. caliente Spanish cv. hot californicus -a -um califor'nicus (ka-li-FOR-ni-kus, kal-I-FORN-I-kus) of Californian origin.

calig-, caliga, -caliga Latin caliga, caligae, a boot, a stout shoe, a soldier’s boot. caligin- Latin caliginosus, dark, obscure. caliginosus -a -um sombre, dark from Latin adjective, caliginosus -a -um, foggy, misty; covered with mist; obscure, dark, gloomy; uncertain. calim- Greek καλυµµα, kalimma, a covering. calio Greek a nest; a hut calion henbane. calipt-, calipto- Greek καλυπτος, kalyptos, covered, wrapped around, enveloping. calisaureus with golden cups calix, -calix Latin calix, calcis, cup, goblet, drinking vessel, cooking vessel. call-, calle-, calli-, callo- Latin hardened, from callum (callus), calli, thick or hard skin, toughness, insensibility. call-, calli, callo, callus, -callus Greek a beauty; beautiful. Calla (KAL-la, or KA-la) from a name used by Pliny, Greek καλλος, kallos, beauty, beautiful; alternately New Latin, modification of Greek kallaia rooster's wattles, perhaps from kallos beauty. callaea, -callaea Greek καλλαιον, kallaion, a cock's comb, wattles, tail feathers. calleryana calli-, calo- Greek καλλι-, καλλο-, kalli, kallo, suffix indicating the idea of beautiful. calli- Greek καλλιον, kalion, more beautiful. callianthus with or bearing beautiful flowers Calliandra Callian'dra (ka-lee-AN-dra) Greek for beautiful stamen. callibotryus, callibotrys bearing beautiful racemes callicarpha callicar'pha (ka-li-KAR-fa) callicarpus, Callicarpa (kal-li-KAR-pa) beautiful-fruited, or sometimes beautiful seeded, from Greek καλλος, kallos, beauty, and καρπος, karpos fruit, and -us. calliceras bearing beautiful horns callichromus beautifully colored callid- cal'lidus (KAL-i-dus) Latin callidus -a -um, dextrous, skillful, sly, shrewd, clever, cunnning. callidictyus beautifully checkered (chequered) or veined calliferus forming blisters callifolius with leaves like Calla callilepis from calli, from Greek καλλο-, callo-, beauty, and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. callimorphus, callimorphum beautifully-formed, beautifully shaped callio Greek more beautiful calliomarcus an herb useful against a cough. Callirhoë (ka-LIR-o-ee or ka-lee-RHO-ee) Sometimes spelled as Callirrhoë. Named for one of several characters and fountains, springs or wells in Greek mythology, including, respectively, the daughter of the river god Achelous and wife of Alcmaeon, the daughter of Hermocrates, the daughter of Lycus, and the daughter of Oceanus; also a woman from Calydonia. Alternately New Latin, from Latin Callirrhoe, a water nymph, daughter of the river god Achelous and wife of Alcmeon, from Greek Kallirrhoë. Josephus mentions Herod the Great seeking relief from his terminal illness at the hot springs of Callirhoe or Callirrhoe, said to be east of the Dead Sea. Callirrhoe is also the name of one of Jupiter’s outer moons and a hotel in Athens. Callisia from Greek kallos, beauty, referring to the attractive leaves callis-, callisto- Greek καλλιστος, kallistos, most beautiful. callis Latin callis, callis, narrow track, footpath, trail. callis, callis m. Latin rough or stony track, path; moorland, mountain pasture; mountain pass or defile. callistachyus, callistachys with a beautiful spike callistegioides callistegia-like Callistemon Callis'temon (kal-IS-te-mon) Callistephus from Greek κάλλος, kallos, beauty, and στέφος, stephos, crown, for the characteristics of the pappus. (Compositae) Callisto Latin, Greek Kallisto, a nymph changed into a she-bear. Callitrichaceae Callitricha'ceae (kal-i-tri-KAY-see-ee) plants of the Callitriche family, Star-grass, Water Starwort or Water Fennel family, from the genus name, Callitriche, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names.

Callitriche Calli'triche (kal-I-tri-kee) New Latin, modification of Late Greek kallitrichos beautiful-haired, from Greek kalli- calli-, and Late Greek -trichos, from Greek trich-, thrix hair callitrichiformis resembling Callitrich, Star-grass callitrichus beautifully haired Callitris Greek callos, beautiful, and treis, three, referring to the beauty of the plants and the three-whorled leaves and cone scales callizonus beautiful-zoned, with ring-like swelling, or hardened surface callo- Latin hardened, thick-skinned; Greek καλλος, kallos, beautiful. callochorus with hard blister-like skin callocomus with a beautiful tuft or crest callophorus bearing a hard skin, callus callophyllus with hard blistery leaves callopsis like hardened blisters, from and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. callosus -a -um callos'us (kal-OH-sus) thick, calloused, with calluses, with a hard skin, bearing callosities or hard in texture callun- Greek καλλυνω, kalluno, adorn, beautify, gloss over, sweep clean. Calluna from Greek καλλυνω, kalluno, to clean, or New Latin, irregular from Greek καλλυνειν, kallynein to beautify, sweep clean, from καλλος, kallos beauty. Calluna is a heather closely related to Erica and was used for making brooms. callyntro- Greek καλλυντρον, kallyntron, broom, brush. calm- Greek καλµα, kalma, burning heat, especially that of the sun, heat of the day. calo- Greek καλον, kalon, a billet of wood. calo- Greek καλος, kalos, virtuous, beautiful. Calocedrus Caloce'drus (kal-oh-SEE-drus, classically kal-oh-KEE-drus) Greek callos, beautiful, and kedros, cedar calocephalus beautiful-headed, with a beautiful head (in one source as calcocephalus, with beautiful head), from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. calochilus with beautiful lips Calochortus Calochor'tus (kal-oh-KOR-tus) Greek kalos, beautiful, and chortos, grass. calochrous with beautiful skin calocomus beautiful-haired, with beautiful hair, tuft or crest calolepis with beautiful membrane(?) -scale, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. Calonyction (kal-o-NIK-tee-on) calophyllus -a -um beautiful-leaved calophytum beautiful plant, with beautiful leaves Calopogon beautiful beard, from New Latin, from Greek καλος, kalos, beautiful, and ancient Greek πώγων, pōgōn, beard, referring to the hairlike protuberances on the lamellae. (Orchidaceae) caloptilus beautifully haired calor-, calori Latin calor, caloris, heat, warmth, glow, warm or hot summer weather, passion, excitement, ardour. Caloscordum (kal-o-SKOR-dum) calostomus with a beautiful throat calothyrsus in beautiful bunches calpi-, calpid-, calpis, -calpis Greek καλπις, kalpis, an urn, pitcher. calpodendron urn-tree, referring to the shape of the fruit, Greek καλπις, kalpis, an urn, pitcher, and δένδρον, dendron, tree. caltha, -caltha Latin caltha, a marigold. calta, caltae f., caltha, calthae f. Latin marigold, Calendula officinalis. Caltha (KAL-tha) New Latin, from Latin, pot marigold, from a Latin name for a strong-smelling yellow flowered plant, from Greek κάλαθος, kalathos, goblet, cup, for the yellow calyx may well be compared to a golden cup; or from the Greek name for some yellow flowering plants. (Ranunculaceae) calthifolius -a -um calthifo'lius (kal-thi-FOL-ee-us) with leaves like Caltha, Marsh marigold calthioides resembling Caltha, Marsh-marigold calumn- Latin calumnia, calumniae, sham, false accusation, artiface, pretence, a deception, trick. calumnatus hood- or bonnet-like (?)

calv-, calvus -a -um bare, naked, bald, hairless, from Latin calvus -a -um, bald, hairless, naked, or calva, calvae, the bald scalp. calva- Latin calvaria, calvariae, the skull. calvescens getting bare, becoming bare, from the Latin verb calvesco, calvescere, -, -, lose one's hair, become bald; molt (birds); become bare/empty of vegetation; and -escens Latin adjectival suffix from escentia, translated as -ish, -part of, -becoming, -becoming more, -being, inceptive, indicating a process of becoming or developing, becoming like, having an incomplete resemblance. calvifolia with hairless leaves calvis, calvi m. Latin a bald person. calx, -calx Latin calx, the heel; lime, limestone. calx, calcis c. Latin heel; spur; pad of a dog’s foot; forefeet; kick with the heel, Roman toe was unprotected; butt (beam). calx, calcis c. Latin limestone, lime; chalk, goal, goal-line (the chalk mark), end of life; game piece. calx, calcis m. Latin lead vial, bottle, jar. caly-, calyc, calyc-, calyx, -calyx Greek κάλυξ, kalyx, the calyx, referring to a flower's calyx caly-, calyc-, calyx Greek κάλυξ, kalyx, covering, seed pod. Calycadenia Greek κάλυξ, kalyx, cup, and aden, gland, alluding to tack-glands of peduncular bracts and/or phyllaries Calycanthaceae Calycantha'ceae (kal-i-kanth-AY-see-ee) plants of the Allspice family, Calycanthus (Cupflower), from the genus name, Calycanthus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Calycanthus Calycan'thus (kal-i-KAN-thus, or ka-lee-KAN-thus) Allspice, Cupflower, from Greek κάλυξ, kályx, covering, cup, and anthos, flower. calycarpus -a -um bearing fruit in a cup like Allspice calyciflorus -a -um bearing the petals and stamens upon the calyx. calycinus -a -um calyx-like, with a prominent or lasting calyx, in the nature or form of a calyx calycle a little calyx, from Latin calycul-us (which is now often used instead), diminutive of Greek calyx. Calycocarpum cup fruit, from Greek κάλυξ, kalyx, cup, and καρπὸς, karpos, fruit. (Menispermaceae) calycopterus -a -um having a winged calyx Calycoseris Calyco'seris (kal-i-KO-ser-is) Greek κάλυξ, kalyx, cup, and seris, chicory, alluding to shallow cups on the apices of cypselae. calycosus -a -um with a large or remarkable calyx, from Latin calyx, Greek κάλυξ, kalyx, outer covering of a fruit, flower, or bud, and -osus, plentitude or notable development. calycotrichus with a hairy calyx calycularis a whorl of bracts beneath the calyx calyculatus -a -um calyx-like, with bracts resembling an outer calyx Calydorea from Greek caly, sheathed or covered, and dory, spear, probably referring to the spear-shaped buds enclosed until anthesis within the rhipidial spathes Calylophus (kal-ee-LO-fus) calymma, -calymma, calymmato Greek καλυµµα, kalymma, a veil, hood, head covering, also Latin calymma, calymmatis n. covering. Calymperes from Greek καλυµµα, kalymma, covering, and peiro, pierce, alluding to fissured calyptra calyps-, calypso, -callypso Greek καλυψω, kalypso, a beautiful nymph (she that conceals). Calypso from Greek Καλυψώ, Kalypso, in Homer’s Odyssey the naiad (or Nereid) and daughter of Atlas, who delayed Odysseus for seven years. calypt-, calypto Greek καλυπτηρ, kalypter, covered; a covering, sheath, lid, tile. Calyptocarpus from Greek καλυπτηρ, kalypter, covered or hidden, and καρπος, karpos, fruit calyptr-, calyptra, -calyptra Greek καλυπτρα, kalyptra, a veil, a head-dress. calyptratus bearing a kalyptra, a lid, hood- or cap-like covering of a flower or fruit from New Latin, from Greek καλυπτρα, kalyptra, a veil, from kalyptein. Calyptridium Calyptrid'ium (kal-ip-TRID-ee-um) calyptriformis shaped like an estinguisher (?) Calystegia Calyste'gia (kal-i-STEE-jee-a) calystegioides like Calystegia, bindweed or bear-bind calyx, -calyx Græco-Latin the calyx, the outermost envelope of a flower, from Latin calyx, calicis, Greek κάλυξ, kalyx, outer covering of a fruit, flower, or bud; shell, husk, pod, pericarp, from the root of καλύπτειν, kalyptein, to cover. See OED for a discussion of Greek kalyx, Latin calix.

calyx, calycis m. Latin noun, calyx or cup of a flower or nut; a bud?; fruit or animal skin, husk; shell of an egg, shell of a sea urchin); a name for plants, one like arum, anchusa (Dyer's bugloss), and monk's-hood?. camaco Greek καµαξ, kamax, pole, prop, shaft. camara the cell of a fruit, from Latin camara, camarae, vault, vaulted or arched room, an arched roof or ceiling; a small boat roofed over with timber. Camassia (ka-MA-see-a or camas’sia) New Latin, from English camass and New Latin –ia, from Native American (Shoshone) name quamash or camass. camato- Greek καµατος, kamatos, toil, labor, trouble, distress. cambessedesii for Jacque Cambessedes (1799-1863), French botanist cambi Latin exchange cambodiensis from Cambodia or Cambogia in Indo-china cambr-, cambri Latin Cambria, Cambriae, Wales. cambricus -a -um referring to or from Cambria or Wales. Cambria is the Latinized form of Cymru, Welsh for Wales, from Old Welsh combrog, compatriot, Welshman. camel-, camelo-, camelus, -camelus Greek καµηλα, kamela, a camel. camelinus -a -um, camel-colored, tawny, New Latin, from Medieval Latin camelina, chamaelinum, alteration of Latin chamaemelinus of chamomile, from chamaemelon chamomile. Camelina from Greel χαµαὶ, khamai, dwarf, and λίνον, linin, flax. (Cruciferae) Camellia named for Georg J. Kamel (1661-1706), a Jesuit, pharmacist and botanical author who worked in the Phillipines. (Camelliaceae) Camelliaceae from the genus name, Camellia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. camelliflorus with flowers like Camellia camellifolius with leaves like Camellia camer-, camera, camero Latin camera, camerae, Greek καµερα, kamera, anything with a vaulted or arched covering; a vault or chamber, an arch. camilo- Greek καµιλος, kamilos, rope. camin-, caminus Greek καµινος, kaminos, furnace, oven, kiln. caminus, camini m. Latin a smelting or foundry furnace, forge; home stove or home furnace; vent for underground fires. Camissonia Camisson'ia (kam-is-OWN-ee-a, or ka-mi-SO-nee-a) Camissoniopsis Camissoniop'sis (kam-is-own-ee-OP-sis) cammarum death-dealing, poisonous, from Latin cammaron, cammari n., the plant aconitum. camp-, campa, -campa, campe, -campe, campo Greek a bending; a caterpillar camp-, campa-, campo Greek καµπη, kampa, caterpiller. camp-, campo-, camps-, campso-, campto Greek καµπη, kampa, bending, winding, flexible, flexion. camp-, campos, campus Greek καµπος, kampos, a sea-monster. camp-, campus, -campus Latin a field; Greek: a sea monster camp-, campus Latin campus, campi, field, plain, level space. campan, campan- Latin a bell, referring to a bell, from campana, campanae, a bell. campaniflorus with bell-shaped flowers like Campanula Campanula (kam-PAHN-ew-la) from the dimunitive of Late Latin campana, bell, for the bell shaped corolla Campanulaceae Campanula'ceae (kam-pan-yu-LAY-see-ee) plants of the Campanula, bell-flower family, from the genus name, Campanula, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. campanulaceus bell-shaped, in reference to the corolla campanularius -a -um campanular'ius (kam-pan-yoo-LARE-ee-us) bell-flowered campanulatus campanula'tus (kam-pan-yoo-LAY-tus) campanulate, bell-shaped, in reference to the corolla campanulinus bell-like campanuloides campanula-like, resembling bell flower, Campanula campe, -campe Greek a caterpiller, from Greek κάµπη, kampe, caterpillar. campe, campes f. Latin caterpillar; (in pure Latin eruca); turning or writhing, evasion. campecheanus from the coast of Campeche bay, the Gulf of Mexico campestr- from the Latin adjective campester, campestris, campestre, level, even, flat, of a level field; on an open plain or field, of fields; plains-dwelling.

campester, campestris, campestre or campestris, campestris, campestre campes'tris (kam-PES-tris) Latin adjective of the fields, flat lands, or plains, growing in fields. http://users.erols.com/whitaker/dictpage.htm has three similar nouns. campho Greek καµπτω, kampto, bend, curve. camphoratus pertaining to camphor, like camphor, with an odor like camphor (relating to or smelling like camphor, a tough gumlike crystalline from the wood and bark of the camphor tree and used chiefly as a carminative [French carminatif, from Latin carminatus, past participle of carminare to card, from carrere to card, and French -if –ive, for expelling gas from the alimentary canal; relieving colic, griping, or flatulence] and stimulant in medicine.) campo Greek a caterpillar; bending, flexible; a sea animal, from Greek κάµπη, kampe, caterpillar, or καµπύλος, kampylos, bent, curved. campo American Spanish, from Portuguese or Spanish campo, field, open country, in Brazil, a grass plain with occasional stunted trees, a savannah. (OED) camporum campor'um (kamp-O-rum, kam-PORE-um, or kam-PO-rum) of meadows, of plains, of fields or plains, where the deer and the antelope play! By usage growing in meadows. Camporum is the genitive plural of Latin campus, campi, n. of any open, level land, without reference to cultivation or use, an even flat place; cf. Doric Greek kapos, kêpos, a garden, orchard or plantation. camps, campto Greek bending, flexible, from καµπτός, kamptos, flexible. campschaticus of Kamtchatka campsio- Greek καµψιον, kampsion, a little case, a little casket. Campsis (KAMP-sis) from Greek, kampsis, curvature, or καµπτός, kamptos, flexible, for the curved stamens. New Latin, from Greek kampsis bending; from the curved stamens; akin to Greek kampē bend, turn. campto- Greek καµπτιεν, kamptien, to turn, bend; flexible; or from καµπτός, kamptos, flexible. camptocarpus bearing united fruits, grown together fruits, (?), from Greek καµπτός, kamptos, flexible, and camptoceras bearing united kernels(?), from Greek καµπτός, kamptos, flexible, camptocladus with bent (?) twigs, from Greek καµπτός, kamptos, flexible, camptolepis with united scales(?), from Greek καµπτός, kamptos, flexible, and λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. Camptosorus bearing deformed, grown together, fleshy multiple fruit, as Mulberry and Pineapple, New Latin, from campto-, from Greek καµπτός, kamptos, flexible; akin to Greek kampē bend and –sorus, New Latin, from Greek sōros heap; akin to Latin tumēre to swell campus, -campus Latin campus, campi, a field, a plain; Greek: a sea monster campylacanthus -a -um with bent thorns, from Greek καµπύλος, kampylos, bent, and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. campylo- Greek καµπυλε, kampyle, a crooked staff. campylo-, campylos curved, bent, from Greek καµπύλος, kampylos, bent, curved campylocarpus curved-fruit, bearing bent fruit Campylocentrum Greek καµπύλος, kampylos, crooked, and kentros, spur, alluding to the floral lip with a long, slender, sharply curved spur campyloneurus, Campyloneurum with bent nerves or bent veins in the leaves, from Greek kampylos, curved, and neuron, nerve Campylopodiella from the genus Campylopus and Latin -ella, diminutive campylopodus campylopo'dus (kam-pee-lo-PO-dus) campylopterus with curved or bent wings Campylopus from Greek kampylos, curved, and pous, foot, alluding to curved seta campylorrhynchus with a curved beak campylospermus bearing bent seeds or spores Campylostelium from Greek kampylos, bent, and stele, pillar, alluding to curved seta campylotropus a peculiarly bent form of ovule campylotus having curved ears campylurus with a bent of curved tail camtschatcensis, camtschaticus, kamtschaiticus from Kamchatka, Siberia camur Latin camur, turned inward, hooked, curved. camur, camura, camurum, or camurus, camura, camurum Latin adjective curved, bent, hooked, crocked; turned or arched inward, having such horns camus Greek κηµος, kamos, a muzzle, nose-bag, gag.

camus, cami m. Latin necklace; a collar for neck; Late Latin muzzle, bit, or curb for horses. can- Latin gray, ash-colored can-, cano-, canum, -canum Greek κανων, kanon, a straight rod, bar, weaver’s rod. can-, cano-, canum Latin canus -a -um, whitish-grey, grey, ash-colored. canabino Greek καναβινο, kanabino, lean, slender. canach- Greek καναχος, kanachos, noisy. Canadanthus from Canada and Greek anthos, flower, referring to mainly Canadian distribution canadens, canadensis -is -e canaden'sis (kan-a-DEN-sis, kan-a-DEN-see) of or from Canada or the north-east USA, of Canadian origin. canal-, canalis, -canalis Latin canale, canalis, a canal, duct. canal- referring to lines, grooves, from Latin canale, canalis n., channel, canal/, conduit; ditch, gutter; trough, groove; funnel; pipe, spout canaliculatus -a -um having fluted stalks, with longitudinal grooves, channeled, with a channel, grooved, like a pipe, from Latin adjective canaliculatus -a -um, channeled, grooved; like a channel or pipe. canalipes with a hollow stalk, with a pipe-like or channeled stalk. canaranus from Canara (Kanara), in British India canariensis referring to or native to the Canary Islands, Gran Canaria; or Canary-like canarinus canary yellow canarius -a -um Latin adjective of or connected with dogs, dog-; kind of grass; lappa canaria is kind of bur. Canbya Can'bya (KAN-bee-a) for William M Canby (1831-1904), Delaware botanist? canc-, cancer, -cancer, cancr-, cancro Latin a crab; an ulcer; cancer canc-, cancer, cancr-, cancro Latin cancer, canceris, a crab, cancer. cancer, canceris m., cancer, canceris n., cancer, cancri m. Latin noun a crab; Cancer (zodiac); the South; summer heat; cancer, disease, tumor, canker. cancell-, cancelli Latin cancelli, plural of cancellus, latticework, railing, grating, diminutive of cancer, cancri m., lattice, grid; barrier; cancellatus -a -um cross-barred, resembling a grill or latticed, from Latin cancellātus, past participle of cancellāre, to make lattice-wise, to cross out a writing, as in the lattice stink-horn and lattice-leaf plant canchasmo Greek κανχασµος, kanchasmos, loud laughter. cand-, cande-, candid-, candor Latin candidus -a -um, shining white, glittering white, brilliant. candid-, candidus Latin candidus -a -um, shining white, radiant, bright. candelabriformis resembling the arm of a candelabra candelabrum candela'brum (kan-del-AY-brum) candelabra, from Latin candelabrum, candelabri n., or candelabrus, candelabri m., candelabra; a stand for holding burning candles or lamps; a lamp stand. candens with a whitish shine, from Latin candens, candentis. candens, candentis (gen.), candentior -or -us, candentissimus -a -um Latin adjective shining, bright, or clear light; approaching white; boiling or red-hot, glowing. candeo, candere, candui, - Latin verb, be of brilliant whiteness, shine or gleam white; become or be hot; glow, sparkle. candesco, candescere, candui, - Latin verb grow or become light or bright white; begin to glisten or radiate; become hot, or become red hot. candi- Latin hoary, white candicans white, hoary, becoming white, white shining, possibly derived from Latin candicānt-em, present participle of candicāre to be whitish or white. candidat- Latin candidatus -a -um, clothed in white or whitened clothes. candidissimus -a -um very white, brilliant white; very white hairy or hoary candidulus -a -um rather white candidus -a -um can'didus (KAN-di-dus) New Latin candidus, very white, pure white, from candidus, glistening, dazzling white, very white, pure white, clear, bright, from candēre to shine, be white; akin to Late Greek kandaros ember, Sanskrit candra shining, moon. Similar to candidatus clothed in white, referring to the white toga worn by candidates for office in ancient Rome, as a symbol of purity. Is this why American politicians typically wear dark suits? Candolleaceae plants of the Candollea family, from the genus name, Candollea, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. They have columniferous flowers, having combined stamens and styles in a central column.

Canella Latin canella, cinnamon, related to cana, cane or reed, and -ella, diminutive, because of the tightly rolled bark when dried. Canellaceae plants of the Connamon family, Canella, from the genus name, Canella, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. canescen- Latin canescere, becoming gray, white or hoary, becoming old. canescens canes'cens (kan-ES-sens) becoming grayish white or whitish gray, gray (or white) and somewhat hairy, gray-pubescent, generally or rather hoary, from New Latin canescens gray, grayed, or hoary, from, canescens, canescent, from canesco, canescere, become white or hoary, to become old; generally for the tiny whitish hairs. canesco, canescere, -, - Latin verb, become covered in white, whiten; grow old/hoary; be/grow white/gray with age cani-, canin-, canis, -canis Latin canes, canis, a dog. canicula a little dog, from Latin noun canicula, caniculae f., bitch (canine or human); dog-star; dog-fish, shark; dog-days; lowest throw at dice. canip- Latin canipa, canipae f., a fruit basket used in religious festivals. caninus -a -um very common, as pleniful as dogs, pertaining to a dog, relating to dogs (often to denote something inferior or coarse); modern botany with sharp teeth or thorns. Canis meus id comedit. My dog ate it. cann-, canna, -canna, cannul Greek κάννα, κάννη, kanna, kanna, a reed, reed pole, reed mat, reed fence, possibly from Hebrew qāneh, Arabic qanāh, reed, cane. Canna from Greek κάννα, kanna, a reedlike plant. canna, cannae f. Latin a small reed or cane; panpipe or flute; small vessel or gondola; the windpipe; canesugar, a term a hollow reed or cane to a tube or pipe. Cannabaceae Cannaba'ceae (kan-a-BAY-see-ee), the hemp family, from the genus name, Cannabis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cannabi-, cannabis, -cannabis Greek hemp, modern Latin a name used by Linnaeus from Latin cannabis, Greek hemp, κάνναβις, kānnabis, cf. Proto-Germanic *hanipaz and Sumerian kunibu. cannabinus -a -um cannab'inus (kan-AB-in-us) like cannabis or hemp, from Greek κάνναβις αγρια, kannabis agria, a name used by Dioscorides for the leaves of hemp-agrimony, wild hemp, meaning resembling hemp, from the Greek κανναβις, kannabis, for hemp, and –inus, belonging to or resembling. Cannabis New Latin, from Latin, hemp, from Greek κάνναβις, kannabis, related to Armenian kanap, possibly from Arabic kinnab or Persian kannab. cannabis, cannabis f. Latin noun, hemp; hemp rope; canvas or linen (medieval usage). cannifolius with leaves like Flowering Reed or Indian Shot. cannobruneus of the color of Cinnamon. cannoides resembling Canna, Flowering Reed or Indian Shot. cano Greek a straight rod cano-, canor- Latin a song, melody, to sing or play, from the verb cano, canere, cani, (or cecini), canitus, sing, celebrate, chant; crow; recite; play music, or sound a horn; foretell. canor, canoris m. Latin noun, a song, vocal music; tune, melody; birdsong; music of instruments; poetic strain. cano-ater canon Latin a rule, model, from Latin canon, canonos/is, from Greek κανων, kanon, a general rule, limit, boundary, measuring rod. canonicus sounding, making a sound cant- Latin song; sing; or from Latin cantus, cantus, a song, melody, poetry. cantabricus, cantabrius from Latin Cantebria -ae f., northwest Spain, province north Spain in north Old Castile bordering on Bay of Biscay capital Santander, or from the Cantabrian mountains in north Spain. cantabrigiensis of or relating to Cambridge, England canterburiensis from the Canterbury Plains of New Zealand canteri, canterius, -canterius Latin a horse, from canterius, canteri(i), a poor-quality horse, hack, nag, gelding, rafter, a π-shaped vine prop. canth- Greek κανθός, kanthos, the corner of the eye. canth- tyre, edge, possibly from Latin canthus, canthi m., tire, iron ring around a carriage wheel; wheel. canthar-, canthari-, cantharo, cantharus, -cantharus Greek a kind of beetle; a drinking cup (Borror).

canthar-, canthari-, cantharo- Latin cantharis, Greek κανθαρίς, kantharis, blister-fly, a kind of blister beetle, Cantharis spp., especially C. vescicatoria, the Spanish Fly. canthar-, cantharos from Greek κανθαρος, kantharos, the dung beetle, Scarabaeus pilularius; a type of drinking cup, a type of boat. cantharophilae beetle-loving, plants fertilized by beetles cantharis cantharidis f. Latin a blister beetle, especially the Spanish fly, C. vescicatoria. cantharus, canthari m. Latin a tankard, a large drinking vessel with handles; the bowl or basin of a fountain; a vessel of holy water; a pipe; a sea-fish, the black bream (Black Sea bream?). From Greek κάνθαρος. cantheli-, canthelia, -canthelia Greek κανθηλια, kanthelia, panniers, any large baskets, a pack saddle. cantherius, cantherii m. Latin a gelding, a nag, from Greek κανθηλιος, kanthelios, an ass, mule, gelding. canthylo- from Greek κανθυλο, kanthylo, a swelling, tumor. cantoniensis, cantonensis fron Guangzhou, or Canton (Canto), China cantrabrigiensis from Cambridge, England canum, -canum ca'num (KAY-num) Greek κανων, kanon, a straight rod, bar, a weaver’s rod. canus ca'nus (KAY-nus) ash-colored, hoary, white or gray, as grey felt canut Latin white, gray-haired cap-, caper-, capre- Latin caper, capri, a he-goat, billy-goat, a goatish smell, the smell under the armpits. cap- Latin caput, capitis, the head. cap- Latin verb capio, capere, take, capture, tempt, choose, obtain, hold, grasp, undertake. capa-, capac-, capaci Latin capax, capacis, broad, wide, roomy, able to hold much, amount contained. caparosus woolly or hairy capax, capacis (gen.), capacior -or -us, capacissimus -a -um Latin adjective large, spacious, roomy, big; capable, fit, competent; has right to inherit. cape Late Latin cappa, cappae, a cape, cloak, cossack, cope; also listed as a hood(?). capell-, capella, -capella Latin capella, capellae, a she goat. capella, capellae f. Latin noun, a chapel; choir; to sing a capella is to sing without instrumental accompaniment; capellae magister is a choirmaster. capella, capellae f. Latin noun, a she-goat; meteor type; star of the first magnitude in constellation Auriga, heliacal rising in rainy season; dirty fellow, old goat; man with a goat-like beard; body odor. capelo from Greek καπηλος, kapelos, a retail-dealer, huckster, tavern-keeper. capensis -is -e capen'sis (ka-PEN-sis) of or referring to the Cape of Good Hope region (Table Mountain), in southern Africa, often meaning South Africa in general, or another cape region caper, -caper Latin caper, capri, a goat; the smell under the armpits. caper-, capero Latin caperare, to be wrinkled. caperat-, caperatus Latin wrinkled, curly or crested, from caperatus (caperratus) -a -um, wrinkled, furled (sails). caperro, caperrare, caperravi, caperratus Latin verb, be or become wrinkled; wrinkle; furl sails. capet-, capeto, capetus, -capetus Greek καπετος, kapetos, a ditch, trench, hole, grave. capill-, capilla Latin capillus, capilli, a hair; a hair of head; single hair; hair, fur, or wool of animals; a hairlike fiber. capill- referring to a hair, thread from Latin capillarius, capillare (erroneous reference) capillaceus -a -um capilla'ceus (ka-pil-AY-see-us) hair-shaped, hair-like capillaris -is -e fine as hair, hair-like, slender capillatus -a -um hairy, covered with hair, pubescent, from Latin adjective capillatus -a -um, having long hair, in reference to older generation, foreign peoples, boys; hairy; hair-like. capilliformis hair-shaped, formed like a hair capillipes having hairy stalks, hair-like foot or stalk, slender-footed capillus-veneris capil'lus-ven'eris (ka-PIL-lus -- VEN-er-is) the plant Venus’-hair capillaris herba. capio, capere, cepi, captus Latin verb take hold, seize; grasp; take bribe; arrest or capture; put on; occupy; captivate. capisterium, capisterii n. Latin noun, a vessel used for cleaning or separating seed-grain from the rest. capistr-, capistrum, -capistrum Latin capistrum, capistri, a halter, headstall or harness, nosepiece, muzzle. capit-, capiti, capito referring to the head, usually to the flower cluster, Latin caput, capitis the head capit-, capiti-, capito- with a little head, from Latin capitulum, capituli. capitalatus -a -um having little heads

capitan- Latin capitaneus -a -um, large, from capitaneus -a -um, Latin adjective, large, chief in size; capital in reference to letters. capitatus -a -um capita'tus (kap-i-TAY-tus, or kap-i-TAH-tus) capitate, headed, in a dense head, with a head, with a solid head or tip, head-shaped, as a head of a composite bloom, from Latin caput, capitis, noun, a head, and –atus, adjectival suffix, possessive of or likeness of something, or with, shaped, made. capitellatus capitella'tus (kap-it-el-AY-tus) having little heads, with a small head capitellus little head capitulatus like a head capn-, capno, capnus, -capnus Greek καππνός, kapnos, smoke capnodes, capnoides smoke colored cappadocicus -a -um, cappadocius -a -um referring to Cappadocia, ancient district of eastern Asia Minor chiefly in valley of the upper Kizil Irmak in modern Turkey, capital Caesarea Mazaca. Capparaceae Cappara'ceae (kap-ar-AY-see-ee) the caper faily, from the genus name, Capparis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cappari, capparis, -capparis Greek a kind of plant capparis caper-bush, caper, the buds of Capparis spinosa (L.). Capparidaceae plants of the Caper-shrub family, from the genus name, Capparis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. capo- from Greek καπη, kapê, crib, manger. capr- Latin capra, caprae, a she-goat. capr-, capre, capri Latin a goat; the smell under the armpits capra, caprae f. a nanny goat, referring to a she goat, relating to goats, from Latin capra, caprae f. a roedeer, a wild she-goat. capreol-, capreolus, -capreolus Latin capreolus, a support, a prop; a tendril. capreolus, capreoli m. Latin noun, a young roe-deer; wild goat or chamois; rafter, support; vine tendril; weeding fork. capreolatus with tendrils or supports, winding, twining, twisting capricornis goat's horn, with horns like a goat; Tropic of Capricorn caprific-, caprificus, -caprificus Latin caprificus, the wild fig and its fruit. caprificus, caprifici (us) f. Latin noun, the wild fig tree; fruit of wild fig tree, wild fig. Caprifoliaceae Caprifolia'ceae (kap-ri-fole-ee-AY-see-ee) plants of the Honeysuckle family, Caprifolium, from the genus name, Caprifolium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. caprifoliaceus resembling honeysuckle, Caprifolium Caprifolium, caprifolius -a -um goat-leaf, with goatlike leaves, from caprae-folium, an old generic name. caprinus -a -um goat-like, of or pertaining to goats, from Latin caprinus -a -um, of goats. capriolique vitium vine-tendril. capro- Greek καπρος, kapros, wild boar. caps-, capsa, -capsa Latin capsa, capsae, a box, chest. caps, capsi- Greek καψις, kapsis, eat quickly, gulping, gulping down. Capsella Capsel'la (kap-SEL-la) New Latin, from Latin capsa box, case, chest and New Latin –ella, a diminutive suffix meaning small; from capere to take, to hold, both in reference to the fruit. (Cruciferae) capsella, capsellae f. Latin a small box or casket; coffer. capsicastrum resembling an inferior sort of Capsicum, Cayenne Pepper capsicinus bright red like Capsicum, a pepper capsicoides resembling Capsicum, Cayenne Pepper capsicum, capsici n. Latin noun, paprika, pepper. Capsicum “modern Latin (Tournefort) of uncertain composition. Linnæus explained it from Greek κάπτειν, kapein, ‘to bite’ (rather ‘to gulp down’); but it is generally referred to Latin capsa case, as if named from the pods. In either case the formation is etymologically irregular.” (OED) capsul-, capsula, -capsula Latin capsula, capsulae, a little box, case, or capsule, from capsa, box, repository, and -ula little, diminutive suffix. capsula, capsulae f. Latin a small box for books; chest, casket. capsularis having capsules, like a capsule, bearing seed in capsules capt-, capto- Greek καπτος, kaptos, strenght, vigour, courage. capt- Greek καπτω, kapto, gulp down greedily, eat quickly. capt- Latin captare, to seize, catch at, lay hold of, hunt, conduct.

capto, captare, captavi, captatus Latin verb, try, long, or aim for, desire; entice; hunt legacy; try to catch, grasp, seize, or reach. capucinus orange-red like the flowers of Tropaelum, nasturtium capul- Latin capulus, a handle; a tomb, sepulchre, coffin. capulum, capuli n., capulus, capuli m. Latin sword-hilt, or handle; handle of other implements; bier, coffin; sepulcher, tomb, scacophagus; halter for catching or fastening cattle, a lasso. capulatus -a -um from capulus -i m. a coffin, a handle, esp. the hilt of a sword, and -atus, adjectival suffix for nouns, noting possessive of or likeness of something, as in with, -shaped, -made. capulatus -a -um classical Latin adjective, hooded. caput- Latin caput, caputis, a head, used in compound words. caput-medusae Medusa's head capyro- Greek καπυρος, kapyros, dry, dried by the air, brittle, crisp, crackly (sound). car- Latin dear, loved car-, cara, -cara Greek καρα, kara, the head, the head of animals; peak, top. car-, carex, -carex, caric Latin carex, caricis, a sedge, a rush. Clarkia honoring General William Clark, companion of Merriwether Lewis crossing the Rocky Mountains. (Onargaceae) car- Latin carus -a -um, beloved, dear, costly. carab-, carabus, -carabus Greek καραβος, karabos, a kind of horned beetle, prickly crustacean or crayfish; a light ship; a gate. carabus, carabi m. Latin crustacean, crayfish; sea crab; small wicker boat covered in rawhide. carabus, carabi m. Latin scarabe; modern Latin coleopteron, beetle. caracasanus from Caracas in Venezuela Caragana Modern Latin from a Mongolian name; alternately of Turkic origin (OED). caramanicus from Caramania (or Karamania) in southern Asia Minor caran-, carang, caranx New Latin, carangue, from Spanish(?), a flatfish. Carangidae. carano- Greek καρανος, karanos, a chief. carapac- French carapace, Spanish carapacho, a covering, shield, from medieval Latin capara, a hood, from Latin capa, a hood. carb-, carbo-, carbon Latin carbo, carbonis coal. carbas- Latin carbasus, carbasi, flax, or fine (Spanish) flax, linen cloth; cambric; canvas; curtains, sails, linen garments, awning. carbasus, carbasi f. heteroclite plural carbasa -orum n., flax; meton., anything made of flax, e.g. garments, curtains, sails. carbo, carbonis m. Latin burning or burnt wood; charcoal; glowing coal; pencil or marker; worthless thing; charred remains; coal. carbonaceus black like charcoal carc-, carcer, carcera Latin carcer, carceris, a prison, in prison, jail, a cell. carc- Greek καρις, karis, shrimp, prawn. carcer, carceris m. Latin prison, jail, cell; a jail bird; in plural, carceres, the starting-barriers of a racecourse, traps; begining. carchaleo- Greek καρχαλεος, karchaleos, rough, fierce. carchar-, carcharo Greek καρχαρος, karcharos, saw-like, sharp-pointed, jagged, hence a type of shark (a name for the species or genus of several sharks). carcharus, carchari m. Latin a fish (kind of); kind of dog fish. carcin-, carcino, carcinus, -carcinus Greek καρκινος, karkinos, a crab; a kind of shoe, an ulcer or cancer. carcinoma, carcinomat- Greek cancer; an ulcer. “From Classical Latin carcinōma, an ulcer or tumor, from ancient Greek καρκίνωµα, karkinoma, sore or ulcer, cancer, from καρκινοῦν, karkinoun, to make crab-like, (in passive i.e. καρκινοῦθαι, karkinouthai, to suffer from cancer, to be cancerous, from καρκίνος, karkinos, crab, sign of the Zodiac, sore or ulcer, cancer, from the same I.E. base as classical Latin cancer, and the I.E. bade of -ινος, -inos, and -µα, -ma. According to Paulus Aegineta (Epitomae Medicae 6. 45. 1), the tumour (ancient Greek καρκίνος ) was so called because the swollen veins surrounding the part affected bore a resemblance to the limbs of a crab (ancient Greek καρκίνος).” (OED) card-, cardi, cardia, -cardia, cardio referring to a heart, from Greek καρδια, kardia, the heart. card-, cardin-, cardo, -cardo Latin cardo, cardinis, a hinge, pivot; crisis. card- Greek καρδια, kardia, stomach, ‘cardiac orifice of the stomach”, (poetical) heart.

cardo, cardinis m. Latin noun, a hinge; pole, axis; chief point or circumstance; crisis; tenon and mortise; area; limit. cardam-, cardamum, -cardamum modern Latin, from Greek καρδαµίνη, kardaminē, some cress-like plant, from κάρδαµον, kardamon, cress, from καρδία, kardia, a heart, and δαµάω, damao, to strengthen, in reference to the stomachic properties. cardamina, cardaminae f. Latin a cress-like plant. Cardamine Cardam'ine (kar-DAM-in-ee) New Latin, from Greek καρδαµίνη, kardaminē, water cress, from κάρδαµον, kardamon, garden peppergrass. (Cruciferae) cardaminifolius with leaves resembling Cuckoo-flower or Lady’s Smock, Cardamine pratensis. cardamōmum, cardamōmi n. Latin cardamōmum (Elettaris cardamomum); its seeds used in medicine or spice, from Greek καρδάµωµον, kardamomon, from κάρδαµον, kardamon, and ἅµωµον, amomon. cardamum, cardami n. Latin a cress-like plant; (pure Latin nasturtium). Cardaria cardelis, cardelis f. Latin, the goldfinch (Fringilla carduelis); thistle-finch. cardia-, cardio heartcardiaca relating to the heart Cardiaca common Mother-wort (Leonurus Cardiaca) cardiminefolius(??) cardimine-leaved cardin-, cardinal- Latin cardinalis, a chief, principal, hence pivotal; red. cardinalis -is -e cardina'lis, cardina'le (kar-din-AY-lis, kar-din-AY-lee) Latin adjective cardinal, principle, or chief; that serves as pivot, on which something turns or depends. cardinalis -is -e (kar-di-NAH-lis) in botanical Latin red, cardinal red, deep scarlet. In classical Latin cardinalis became associated with an ecclesiastical meaning, Catholic cardinals were regarded as of pivotal importance. The word came to refer to the color of the raiment of a Catholic cardinal, now referring to the scarlet red color. A different, very old meaning from Latin cardo, cardinis m., noun, an ancient door hinge, pivot and socket upon which a door was made to swing, and -alis adjective suffix for nouns, of or pertaining to. As something pivotal, a pivotal decision, on which something else hinges; the College of Cardinals is locked behind a hinged door to select a new pope. The color of their raiments took its name from their pivotal importance. Cardinal directions, cardinal winds, cardinal numbers, cardinal sins, cardinal virtues, St. Louis Cardinals, … cardiochlaenus heart-shaped Cardionema Cardione'ma (kar-dee-oh-NEE-ma) Greek kardio, heart, and nema, thread, alluding to the obcordate anthers and slender filaments. cardiopetalus with heart-shaped petals cardiophyllus cardiophyl'lus (kar-dee-oh-FIL-lus) with heart-shaped leaves cardiostogmus with heart-shaped scars or marks Cardiospermum heart seed, with heart-shaped seed, from Greek καρδία, kardia, heart, and σπέρµα, sperma, seed, for the globose seeds marked with a large cordate hilium (Sapindaceae) cardo cardinis m. Latin a hinge; any pole or pivot, axis; chief point or circumstance, crisis; tenon/mortis; 'cardo duplex' , the ends of the earth's axis, a cardinal point, main consideration. cardu- Latin carduus, cardui, a thistle carduaceous belonging to the Carduus, thistle family carduaceus cardua'ceus (kar-dew-AY-see-us) thistle-like carduelis, carduelis f. Latin noun, a goldfinch, Fringilla carduelis; thistle-finch. carduetus, cardueti m. Latin noun, a thicket of thistle; sedgebrush, rushes (Ecc); carduus, cardui m. Latin noun, a thistle; prickly bur or prickly seed-vessel; cardoon, an artichoke-like vegetable. carduchorum from Cardo in western Tibet carduifolius with thistle-like leaves cardunculus -a -um cardun'culus (kar-DUNK-yoo-lus) like a little thistle; the Spanish artichoke Carduus Card'uus (KARD-ew-us, or KAR-dyew-us) New Latin, from Latin, carduus, cardui m. a thistle, the ancient name for a thistle-like plant, akin to Latin carrere (carere) to card, as to card wool. care, carius, carissime Latin adverb, dear, at high price; of high value; at great cost or sacrifice. carectum, carecti n. Latin a sedgy spot, a bed or plot of sedges or rushes. caren-, careno, carenum, -carenum Greek καρηνα, karena, the head, heads,; a mountain peak or crest. carens absent or lacking

carentanus from Kärnten (Carinthia), a province in Austria caret-, caretto French caret, a kind of turtle. careum caraway, a spice Carum carvi (L.) carex, -carex Latin a sedge, from cārex, cāricis f., reed-grass; sedges; rushes. Carex Car'ex (KARE-ex) Classical Latin name for a sedge, from Latin cārex, caricis f. sedge, rush, possibly derived from Greek keirein, ‘to cut’, from the sharp leaves and stems of many species, or from the Proto-IndoEuropean root *kars, scratch or rub. Sedge is from the Old English secg, from Germanic *sagjaz, from P.I.E. *sok-yo, sedge; also Indo-European root *sek, shared by Latin secāre ‘to cut’, similar to such words as Sicarii and Judas Iscariot, and section, sector, bisect, dissect, and intersect. (Iscariot may also have a geographical origin.) Alternatively from Latin carco, I lack, referring to the sterile spikelet. (Cyperaceae) “A delightful genus to work with—“ Goodrich and Neese (1986) quoted in Hurd etal (1998). careyana for John Carey (1797-1880), British botanist who travelled and collected in the United States with Asa Gray careyi cari-, caries, -caries, cario Latin rottenness, from caries, cariei f., rot, rottenness, corruption, decay; caries; shriveling up; dry rot; ship worm; or cariosus -a -um Latin adjective rotten, decayed wood, decayed teeth; crumbly; friable, loose, porous; decayed and old. cari, carid, caris, -caris Greek καρις, karis, a shrimp. caribaeus of or from the Caribbean, the Leeward Islands caric- Latin a sedge caric- referring to a part of Asia Minor, from Caria an ancient province in south-west Asia Minor. carica car'ica (KARE-i-ka) Latin carica, caricae f., a kind of fig, a dried fig. Caricaceae plants of the family of Melontree or Papawa-tree, Carica Papaya, from the genus name, Carica, and aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. caricifolius with sedge, Carex-like leaves caricinus resembling sedge caricus -a -um from Carica, in Asia Minor; the common fig, Ficus carica caricography the description of the genus Carex and its species caricous resembling a fig, from Latin cārica, a kind of dry fig caricosus carex-like, fig-like caricus, cariensis from Caria in Asia Minor (ancient geography) caries Latin cariēs, cariēi f., rot, rottenness, corruption, decay; caries; shriveling up; dry rot; ship worm. carīn-, carīna, -carīna Latin a keel, from carīna -ae f., the keel of a ship, the bottom of ship, hull; boat, ship, vessel; voyage; a half walnut shell. carinans boat or keel shaped carinatus carina'tus (kare-in-AY-tus) keeled, with a keel or shell, like a boat, from Latin carīnt-, ppl stem of carīnāre, furnish with a keel (or shell) carīna -ae f., the keel of a ship cariniferus, carinifera keel bearing, boat bearing, bearing organs resembling the keel of a boat carinthiacus from the Alps in Kärnten (Carinthia) in Austria cario- Latin cariosus, rottenness. cariosus -a -um Latin adjective decayed, rotten, decayed wood, decayed teeth; crumbly; friable, loose, porous; decayed and old. caripensis from Caripe in Venezuela caris, caridis f. Latin a kind of crab. carisa Latin carisa, carisae f., an artful woman. caritas Latin caritas, caritatis f., costlyness, dearness, esteem, favor, charity, love, affection. carlesii for Wiliam Carles (1867-1900), British plant-collector Carlina for Charles V (1500–1558), Holy Roman Emperor carlinoides resembling Carline-thistle, Carlina Carlowrightia Carlowrightia (kar-lo-RITE-ee-a) Carlquistia for Sherwin Carlquist, b. 1930), Californian botanist carmeli from Mount Carmel in nw Israel, formerly Palestine carmesinus crimson Carminatia for Bassiani Carminati, eighteenth-century Italian author of book on hygiene, therapeutics, and materia medica carmineus, carminatus carmine

carn-, carneo, carni Latin carnis, carnis f., flesh, meat. carn- referring to flesh-color or the flesh carnal- fleshy, from Latin carnalis -is -e, carnal, fleshy; bodily, sensual; of the flesh; not spiritual, worldly. carneus flesh-colored, from Latin carneus -a -um, of the flesh, carnal; not spiritual. Carnegiea Carne'giea (kar-NEE-gee-a, or kar-NEE-jee-a) for Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), Scottish-born American philanthropist and patron for systematic studies of cacti carnicus fleshy carnif-, carnifex, -carnifex, carnific Latin carnifex, carnificis m., an executioner, hangman, murderer, tormentor. carnifex, carnificis m. Latin an executioner, hangman, murderer, tormentor. carniolicus, carnicus of Carniola, an area of former Yugoslavia, south-central Europe, or from Krain (Carniola) a province of Austria (or Slovenia). carno- Gallic horn, from Greek καρνον, karnon. carnos- fleshy, from Latin carnosus -a -um. carnosulus slightly or somewhat fleshy carnosus -a -um carno'sus (kar-NO-sus) botanical Latin fleshy, succulent, sappy carnosus -a -um, carnosior -or -us, carnosissimus -a -um Latin fleshy; characterized by flesh; consisting of meat; fleshy in color or appearance. caro, carnis f. Latin flesh. caro- Greek καρος, karos, heavy sleep, torpor. carolin- referring to or from the Carolinas OR in honor of the name Charles or Carol carolinianus -a -um, carolinensis -is -e, carolinus -a -um carolinian'us (kare-o-lin-ee-AY-nus, or ka-ro-lin-eeAH-nus) of Carolina, Carolinian, of North or South Carolina, USA. carophyllus with fleshy leaves carot- Greek stupor; Latin a carrot. carot-, carotic- Greek καρωτικος, karotikos, stupefying, soporific, from καροῦν, karoun, to stupefy. carota (ka-ROT-a) from the Latin carōta, carōtae, the carrot, from the Greek name καρωτόν, karoton, from κάρᾱ, kara, head. Possibly from a Keltic reference to the color of the root, from car, red. Carrot is English and carotte is French. Carotte is also used in Germany, but it is not the usual name (Karrote). carp-, carpo, carpus Latin the wrist; Greek a fruit. -carp(...) referring to a fruit carp-, carpo-, carpus Greek καρπος, karpos, fruit, fruits of the earth, grain, seed. carp-, carpo-, carpus Latin carpus, the wrist. carpalimo- Greek καρπαλιµος, karpalimos, swift, eager, ravenous. carpasum, carpasi n. Latin noun, plant with narcotic juice; (white hellebore? OLD). carpathicus -a -um, carpaticus -a -um New Latin, referring to the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Europe carpathium, carpathii n. Latin noun, plant with narcotic juice; (white hellebore? OLD). carpathum, carpathi n. Latin noun, white hellebore plant, Veratrum album. Carpe diem “Seize the day”, from Horace’s Odes carpellum the carpel, from which the fruit arises Carpenteria Carpenter'ia (kar-pen-TER-ee-a) carpesioides carpesio'ides (kar-pes-ee-OH-i-dees) carpetanus from Castile in Spain carph-, carpho-, carphus, -carphus Greek καρφος, karphos, straw, dry twigs, chips, bits of wood. Carphephorus from Greek κάρφος, karphos, chaff, and φέρω, phoro, to bear, referring to the chaffy receptacular paleae. (Compositae) Carphochaete from Greek καρφος, karphos, chaff, and χαιτη, chaite, bristle, long hair. carphoclinius carphoclin'ius (kar-fo-KLIN-ee-us) carphos, carphi n. Latin fenugreek; goat's thorn. carpicus relating to fruits carpin-, carpinus, -carpinus Latin carpineus, carpinei n., Latin hornbeam tree Carpinus betulus. (also as carpinus) carpinifolius -a -um New Latin, Carpinus-leaved, with leaves like Carpinus, hornbeam, from Latin carpinus, hornbeam, and folium, leaf.

Carpinus (kar-PEEN-us) New Latin, from Latin carpinus, hornbeam; akin to Lithuanian skirpstus copper beech and probably to Greek karpos fruit; or possibly from carpentum, a Roman horse-drawn vehicle with wheels made from its hard wood. carpo carpere carpsi carptum Latin to pluck, pull off, select, choose out Carpobrotus Carpobro'tus (kar-po-BRO-tus) Greek karpos, fruit, and brota, edible things carpon, carpos fruit, from Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit carpt-, carptus plucked, stripped, bare, from Latin carpere, to pluck, pull off, select, separate. -carpus -fruit, -fruited, from carpon, carpos, fruit, from Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. carruthii possibly for William Carruthers (1830-1922 carsio- Greek καρσιος, karsios, crosswise, crooked, oblique. carta, cartae f., cartus, carti m. Latin noun, a sheet or page of papyrus; a record or letter, a book or writing(s); thin metal sheet or leaf. cartero Greek καρτερος, karteros, strong, staunch. carstiensis from Karst, Austria-Hungary cartaginensis, cartaginiensis from Cartago in South America carthaginensis, carthaginiensis from Carthage, the ancient Punic city in North Africa Carthamus Cartham'us (kar-THA-mus) New Latin, from Arabic (colloq.) qartam safflower, from Arabic qorthom, to paint, in reference to its coloring properties. (Compositae) carthusianus, carthusianorum relating to or from the Carthusian monks. From Medieval Latin Cartusiensis, from Cartusia, Chartreuse, motherhouse of the Carthusian order, near Grenoble, France. cartilag-, cartilagin-, cartilago, -cartilago Latin cartilago, cartilaginis, cartilage, gristle. cartilago, cartilaginis f. Latin noun cartilage, gristle; substance harder than pulp but softer than woody fiber cartilagineus like cartilage, gristly, sinewy, like the skin of an apple pip carto- Greek καρτος, kartos, shorn close, shortened, chopped, sliced. caruifolius -a -um caruifo'lius (ka-roo-i-FO-lee-us) Carum New Latin, probably from Medieval Latin carvi, from Arabic karawyā, from Greek karon caraway; alternately from Caria, according to Pliny the native country of the plant. (Umbelliferae) caruncul- Latin a bit of flesh caruncula, carunculae f. Latin a small piece of flesh, in medical usage a small piece of tissue, fleshy growth, diminutive of caro, carnis. carunculātus modern Latin, fleshy, having a caruncle, from caruncula and –atus, suffix indicating possession, likeness, or ‘provided with’. carus -a -um, carior -or -us, carissimus -a -um Latin adjective, dear, beloved; costly, precious, valued; high-priced, expensive. Ah, cara mea. carvi from Medieval Latin carvi, from Arabic karawyā, from Greek κάρυον, karon. carvifolius -a -um with leaves like Carum carvi, caraway cary, cary-, caryo, caryum, -caryum from Greek κάρυον, karyon, a nut, stone, or kernel, referring to a nut; the nucleus. Carya (KA-ree-a) From karya, nut tree and káryon, nut, kernel, or the Greek name for the walnut, Juglans regia, and other nuts, akin to Latin carina hull, half of a nutshell, Sanskrit karkara hard. Caryocaraceae plants of the neotropical Butter-nut tree family (?),from the genus name, Caryocar, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. caryocarpus -a -um bearing nuts in one source (??) better nut-fruit, or nut-seed, from Greek κάρυον, karyon, a nut, stone, or kernel, and καρπος, karpos, fruit, fruits of the earth, grain, seed. caryon, caryi n. Latin walnut; nut. caryophyllon, caryophylli n. Latin dried flower-buds of clove; cloves. caryophyllum, caryophylli n. Latin clove. Caryophyllaceae Caryophylla'ceae (kare-ee-off-il-AY-see-ee) plants of the Clove-pink family, from the genus name, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. caryophyllaceus, caryphyllatus having petals with long claws like the Clove-pink; clove-like(?) in one source caryophylleus -a -um of the color or odor of cloves, from Caryophyllus aromaticus, the clove tree originally from the Mollucas. Also cited as probably meaning walnut-leaved. caryophylloides caryophyllo'ides (kare-ee-o-fil-OH-i-dees) caryopteridifolius caryopteris-leaved Caryopteris from Greek κάρυον, karyon, nut and pteron, wing, a wing-nut! Caryota from Greek κάρυον, karyon, nut, because, sometime ya feel like a nut, sometimes …

caryota, caryotae f., caryotis, caryotidis f. Latin date; nut-shaped date; (as gift on Saturnalia). caryotaefolius caryota-leaved caryotifolius with leaves like Taggery Palm, Bastard Sago, or Toddy Palm caryotideus caryota-like caryotoides resembling Taggery Palm, Bastard Sago, or Toddy Palm casa, casae f. Latin cottage, cabin, small humble dwelling, hut, or hovel; home; house; shop, booth; farm (late). casc- Latin old, from cascus -a -um, ancient, old; archaic; primitive. case-, casei, caseus, -caseus Latin caseus, casei, cheese. caseum, casei n., caseus, casei m. Latin cheese; pressed curd; comic term of endearment, alas mon petit chou. caseolaris bearing fruit resembling small cheeses cashmerianus, cashemerianus of or from Cashmere, or Kashmir, home of the cashmere goat. A disputed territory of northern India, (summer capital Srinagar, winter capital Jammu partly administered by India, but also claimed and partly controlled by Pakistan. Strategically near Afghanistan, China, and the former USSR. casiae, -ae, f. cassia, casia from Celsus. casio- Greek κασις, kasis, brother or sister. cask- potsherd, skull, helmet, from Spanish casco, ‘a caske or burganet, also a head, a pate, a skonce, an earthen pot, sheard or galley cup’. (OED) caspicus, caspius Caspian, of or from the Caspian Sea cassi-, cassidi, cassis, -cassis Latin cassis, cassidis, a helmet. cassideus shaped like a helmet, helmet shaped, as the upper sepal in Aconitum cassiarabicus Arabian cassia cassis, cassidis f. Latin, a helmet, a metal helmet; wearer of a helmet; war, active service, the same as cassida, cassidae. cassis, cassis m. Latin a hunting net (often plural); spider's web; snare, trap. Cassia (KA-see-a) Middle English, from Old English, from Latin casia, cassia, a tree with an aromatic bark, like cinnamon, or the sweet-smelling mezereon; from Greek kasia, kassia, a name for this species or a related genus of Semitic origin; akin to Hebrew qesiah cassia; alternately from Hebrew Katzioth. (Leguminosae) cassinoides (ka-si-NOI-deez) cassine-like, like Ilex cassine cassius from Mount Cassia in northern Syria cassus empty, hollow, devoid cassubicus twisted, out of straight Cassytha Greek kasytas, name for Cuscuta cast- Latin castus, pure, virtuous. Castalia from Castalia, a spring on Parnassus sacred to the Muses, from Latin, from Greek Κασταλία, Kastalia, meaning a source of poetic inspiration. castane-, castanea, -castanea Latin castanea, castanea, the chestnut tree, a chestnut. Castanea (ka-STAN-ee-a) from the classical Latin name, from Greek kastanaion karuon, nut from Castania, a region of northern Greece famous for it trees, referring either to Kastanaia in Pontus or Castana in Thessaly. castaneifolius with leaves like Castanea, chestnut castaneus chestnut-colored, chest-nut brown, from................, and -aneus adjectival suffix indicating resemblance or material out of which something is made castanoides chestnut-brown Castela Caste'la (kas-TEE-la) castellanus relating to castles(?); of Castilian, Spanish origin castig- Latin castigare, to chastise, to reprove, to punish. castigo, castigare, castigavi, castigatus Latin verb, chastise or chasten, punish; correct, reprimand or dress down, castigate; neutralize. Castilleja Castille'ja (kas-til-AY-ha) for Professor Domingo Castillejo (1744-1793), Spanish botanist and instructor of botany at Cadiz, Spain; alternately New Latin, irregular, from Juan Castillo y López, with the influence of Spanish -eja, diminutive suffix. castor, -castor Latin castor, castoris, Greek κάστωρ, kastor, the beaver,probably a foreign word, cf. Sanskrit kastūrī. Castor fiber. castr- Latin castrare, to castrate, to deprive of generative power.

castratus gelded, without anthers castratus -a -um Latin adjective, castrated; (applied to seeds of apple); bolted, sifted, or selected grain. castrensis cut like battlements castro, castrare, castravi, castratus Latin verb, castrate, emasculate or unman; spay an animal; dock a tail; diminish, impair, weaken. castus -a -um Latin chaste, pure. castus -a -um, castior -or -us, castissimus -a -um Latin adjective, pure, moral; chaste, virtuous, pious; sacred; spotless; free from or untouched by. casu- Latin casus, fall; accident; opportunity, chance. casus, casus m. Latin fall, overthrow; chance or fortune; accident, emergency, calamity, plight. casuar- from Malayan kasuārī, or kasavārī, a cassowary. Casuarina Neo-Latin casuarius, cassowary, from resemblance of drooping branchlets to feathers of the cassowary. Casuarinaceae plants of the Casuarina family, including Swamp-Oak and She-Oak, from the genus name, Casuarina, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. casus belli the justification for making war cat-, cata-, cato- Greek κατά, kata, down from, down towards, down upon, down, downward. catabasi- Greek, καταβασις, katabasis, descent, way down; καταβατικός, katabatikos, affording an easy descent, from καταβαίνειν, katabainein, to go down. cataclito- Greek κατακλιτον, katakliton, a couch. cataclysm Greek κατακλυσµός, kataklysmos, a deluge, flood, disaster, from κατα-κλύζειν, kata-klyzein, to deluge, from κατά, kata, and κλύζ-ειν, kluz-ein, to wash, dash as a wave. cataclysmos, cataclysmi m, cataclysmus, cataclysmi Latin deluge, flood, inundation; (medical) washing diseased member, shower, douche. catacto- Greek κατακτος, kataktos, breakable. catacolobus, catacolobon with stiff lobes catactrio- Greek κατακτρια, kataktria, a spinner, particularly a woman. cataegis Greek καταιγις, kataigis, hurricane, whirlwind. cataegis, cataegidis f. Latin, a hurricane; violent wind storm; whirlwind. catagma, -catagma, catagmato Greek καταγµα, katagma, a fracture, a fragment, breakage, a piece of wool, a flock of wool. catalaunicus from the district of Châlons in France, in the Catalaunian plains. cataleps- Greek καταληψις, katalepsis, fit, seizure, seizing, assaulting. catalepsis, catalepsis f. Latin noun, catalepsy, seizure, sudden attack of sickness. catalinae catalin'ae (kat-a-LI-nee) catalinense catalinen'se (kat-a-li-NEN-see) Catalpa (ka-TAL-pa) from the Creek Indian (or the Indians of Carolina) name, kutuhlpa, “head with wings”, referring to the flower lobes or seeds. catalpifolius catalpa-leaved, with leaves like Catalpa, Bean-tree or Cigar Tree catalysi-, catalysis, -catalysis Greek καταλυσις, katalysis, a dissolving, dissolution, putting down. Catanache from Greek κατά ἀνάγκη, kata ananke (anagke), from necessity, as the plant must necessarily be admired! (Compositae) catant- Greek καταντα, katanta, downward, downhill, below. cataonicus from Cataonia (Kataonia) in Armenia cataphractus -a -um armored, clad in mail, covered with protection, Latin cataphractes, from Greek καταφράκτης, kataraphraktes, coat of mail, also Latin cataphractus, Greek κατάφρακτος, kataphraktos, clad in full armor. cataract- from Latin cataracta, from Greek καταρ(ρ)ακτης, katar(rh)aktes, falling down, down-rushing, a down-rushing bird, a portcullis, a floodgate. See the discussion in OED. cataracta, cataractae f., cataractes, cataractae m., catarhactes, catarhactae m. Latin cataract or rapid; waterfall; sluice, watergate, floodgate; portcullis, drawbridge; sea bird. The three variants are also spelled with double r. Catapultam habeo. Nisi pecuniam omnem mihi dabis, ad caput tuum saxum immane mittam. I have a catapult. Give me all the money, or I will fling an enormous rock at your head. catarato- Greek καταρατος, κατηρητος, kataratos, kateretos, cursed, abominable. catari Late Latin of a cat

catarius, cataria of cats (?) catarractae of waterfalls cataractarum waterfall catasetum modern Latin, from Greek κατά,  down,  and  Latin  seta,  bristle.     catast- Latin catasta, catastae, a scaffold. catasta, catastae f. Latin, a platform where slaves were exhibited for sale; late Latin stage, scaffold; scaffold for burning martyrs, heretics, criminals; stage for delivering lecture; from Greek κατάστασις, katastasis, settling, putting down, fixed state. catawbiensis of or from the Catawba River in North America catax Latin catax, catacis, limping, lame. catelliformis with the form of a chain, with the form of a puppy catella, catellae f. Latin a puppy (female), young or little bitch; lap dog; little, light, or ornamental chain. catellus, catelli m. Latin little, small, or young dog, a puppy; a term of endearment; little or light chain. catellus, catelli, catellum a little dog, puppy, or a catellus -i m. a little chain catelipho Greek κατηλιψ, κατηλιφος, katelips, kateliphos, ladder, staircase, roof beam, upper story. caten-, catena, -catena, catenari Latin catena, catenae, a chain, fetter, restraint. catena, catenae f. Latin a chain; series; fetter, bond, restraint; imprisonment, captivity; (chain mail). catenatus like a chain catenulatus chain-like catepho- Greek κατηφης, katephes, downcast, mute, dejected. catero- Greek κατηρης, furnished with. (suspiciously like English cater) cathamintha agria calamintha orthographic error. cathamma, -cathamma, cathammato Greek καθαµµα, kathamma, a knot. cathar-, catharo- Greek καθαρος, katharos, clean, pure, spotless. catharmato- Greek καθαρµα, katharma, refuse. catharmos, catharmi m. Latin noun, purification rites (pl.); title of poem by Empedocles. cathart-, catharti Greek καθαρτης, kathartes, cleansing, purifying. catharticum, cathartici n. Latin noun, a cathartic, purgative; means for purifying; purification. catharticus –a -um cathartic, purifying, purgative, of a purging effect. cathayensis, cathayanus of Cathay, or Catai, Marco Polo’s name for northern China, of or from China cathedr-, cathedra, -cathedra Greek καθεδρα, kathdra, a seat, chair, throne. cathedra, cathedrae f. Latin noun, an armchair, easy chair (for women); cushioned seat or stool; sedan; bishop's chair or throne/office; professor or teacher's chair or office, professorship. catherinae of or from the island of St. Catherine in Brazil cathep- Greek καθεψειν, kathepsein, to digest. cathet-, catheto Greek καθετηρ, katheter, hanging down, perpendicular; anything let down into, inserted. catheter, catheteris m. Latin catheter, instrument for drawing urine. cathetos, cathetos, catheton; cathetus -a -um Latin adjective perpendicular. cathism, cathismat-, cathismato- Greek καθισµα, kathisma, a seat, the part on which one sits, buttocks. cathod- Greek καθοδος, kathodos, a going down, descent, way down. catholic-, catholico Greek καθολικος, katholikos, universal, general. catholicum, catholici n. Latin noun, a general principle; universal truth; the universe (plural); general properties. catill-, catillo Greek κατιλλω, katillo, roll up, fold up, poop up, force into a narrow space. catillum, catilli n., catillus, catilli m. Latin a bowl, dish; ornament on sword sheath; upper millstone. catilliformis shaped like a saucer catillus of the form of a small basin or cup (?) catin-, catinus, -catinus Latin catinus, catini, a deep bowl or dish. catinum, catini n., catinus, catini m. Latin, a large bowl or plate; main chamber in forepump; smelting crucible; hollow in rock. cato- Greek κατω, kato, down, down from, downward; against. catocanthus with stiff thorns catocarpus bearing chain-like suspended fruit Catonis admodum scitum est, qui mirare se aiebat quod non rideret haruspex haruspicem vidisset. What astonishes me, is that when two diviners meet, they can keep from laughing at one another. (Cicero) catophorus chain forming, hanging down like chains

Catopsis from and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. catopt-, catoptos Greek κατοπτος, katoptos, visible, dried up, overbaked. catopt-, catopto- Greek conspicuous, visible, from κάτοπτος, katoptos, to be seen, visible. catoptero Greek κατοπτης, katoptes, scout, spy, overseer. catopterus with stiff or rigid wings (?) catoptr-, catoptro, catoptrum, -catoptrum Greek κατοπτρον, katoptron, a mirror. catorycto Greek κατορυκτος, katoryktos, buried deep. cattyo Greek καττυς, kattys, a piece of leather. catul-, catulus, -catulus Latin catulus, catuli, a puppy. catulus, catuli m. Latin a young dog, puppy, whelp; a dog of any age; young of any animal, pup, or cub; fetter. cau-, caum-, caus-, caust, caut- Greek καυµα, kauma, burn, burning; burning heat of the sun; fever hear; brand, embers. cauca Greek καυκος, kaukos, a type of cup. caucus, cauci m. Latin drinking vessel; cruet (Ecc). caucalias Greek καυκιαλης, kaukiales, a type of bird. caucalis, caucalidis f. Latin an umbelliferous plant. Caucalis, caucalis cauca'lis (kaw-KAY-lis) a genus name used by Linnaeus and specific epithet for some umbelliferous plants. caucasicus belonging to or from the Caucasus Mountains, in the former Soviet Union caud-, cauda Latin cauda, caudae, the tail caud-, caudex, -caudex, caudic Latin caudex, caudicis, (caudex = codex),the trunk of a tree, blockhead. caudatus -a -um (kaw-DAY-tus) caudate, tailed, with a tail, from the long tipped panicle, from cauda, caudae (coda, codae) f., the tail of an animal. caudatifolius with tail-like leaves caude- Latin caudeus -a -um, wooden, made of wood. caudecus -a -um; caudeus Latin adjective wooden, made of wood. caudescens becoming stem-like? (LHB?) I think this is an error in Bailey’s book for caulescens. It could be becoming tail-like, having a tail,or in the form of a tail, but it could go either way. caudex, caudicis m. Latin the trunk of tree; a piece or hunk of wood; blockhead; bound book; note or account book. caudiciformis stem-like or stalk-like caudiculatus with a small tail caudiformis shaped like or in the form of a tail caul-, cauli-, caulis, -caulis Latin caulis, caulis, a stem, a stalk, from Greek καυλος, kaulos, stem, stalk. caula- Latin caulae, a hole, opening, sheepfold, from caula, caulae f., railing (pl.), lattice barrier; holes, pores, apertures; fold, sheepfold (ecclesiastical usage). Caulanthus Caulan'thus (kaw-LAN-thus) caulo-, caulus, -caulus from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft.. -caul(...) referring to a stem, trunk, Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. caulescens having a stem, becoming stem-like; stalks, stalk producing, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and . caulialatus -a -um wing-stemmed, with winged stalks, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and . cauliculatus -a -um with a small stalk, from cauliculus, a small stalk, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and . cauliflorus stem flowering, stalk-flowering, bearing flowers on the stem, familiar?, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. caulinus -a -um of or on the stem, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft.

caulis, caulis m. Latin stalk or stem; stem of a cabbage or lettuce, etc; cabbage/lettuce; quill; penis; referring to a stem, from the stalk of a plant, especially of a cabbage. -caulis -stemmed, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. cauliuus with an erect stalk, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and . caulon a stem caulocarpus -a -um bearing fruit repeatedly, as on trees or shrubs (??), from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and . caulohybridus hybrid bush, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and . caulolepis -is -e with a scabby or scaly stalk, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. Caulophyllum stem-leaf, from καυλος-φυλλον, from Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant, usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and φυλλον phyllon, leaf. (Berberidaceae) caulopterus -a -um with a winged stalk, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. caulorrhizus -a -um with a stalk-like or stem-like root, from ῥίζα, rhiza, root, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. caum-, cauma Greek καυµα, kauma, burn, burning, burning heat, especially the heat of the sun, the heat of the day. cauma, caumatis n. Latin noun, heat. caunaco Greek καυνκης, kaunakes, a thick cloak. caupo Latin caupo, cauponis, shopkeeper, salesman, huckster; innkeeper, keeper of a tavern. caurinus from Latin caurinus -a -um, of or belonging to the northwest wind (Caurus). caus-, caust- Greek καυσις, kausis, burn, burning, smelting. causalido from Greek καυσαλις, kausalis, blister, burn. causia from Greek καυσια, kausia, a broad-brimmed felt hat. causticus -a -um caustic, biting, sharp, from causticus -a -um, Latin adjective, caustic, corrosive, burning. caut- Greek καυτηρ, kauter, a burner; burn, burning. cauter from Greek καυτηρ, kauter, a burner. cauter, cauteris m. Latin noun, a branding iron; wound produced by burning, brand. cautes a rough sharp rock, from Latin cautes, cautis, a rough pointed or detached rock, loose stone; rocks (plural), cliff, crag. cav-, cava, cave, cavi Latin cavus, cavi m., cavum, cavi n., a hollow, a hole, a cave. caval- French a horse cave canem beware of the dog Cave ne ante ullas catapultas ambules. If I were you, I wouldn't walk in front of any catapults. caveat warning, literally let him beware. Caveat emptor let the buyer beware cavern-, caverna, -caverna Latin a cave, chamber cavernae cav'ernae (KAV-er-nee) cavernarius growing in caves cavernosus full of cavities or hollows, hollowed cavicaulis -is -e with hollow stem, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. cavill-, cavilla, -cavilla Latin jest, jeer cavus hollow, cave, arched, cayennensis from Cayenne in French Guiana ceanoth-, ceanothus, -ceanothus Greek κεάνωθος, keanothos, a kind of thistle, the name for the corn thistle, Carduus arvensis. ceanothifolius with leaves like Ceanothus

Ceanothus Ceano'thus (classically kee-a-NO-thus, colloquially see-a-NO-thus) from the Greek κεάνωθος, keanothos, from Theophrastus, a name for a spiny shrub or a kind of thistle, the name for the corn thistle, Carduus arvensis. (Rhamnaceae) cearensis from Ceara in Minasgeraes, Brasil ceasm Greek a chip, splinter ceb-, cebo-, cebus, -cebus Greek κηβος, kebos, a long-tailed monkey, ?a mangabey. cebl-, cebla, -cebla, ceble-, -ceble, ceblo-, -ceblo Greek κεβλη, keble, the head ceblo-, -ceblo Greek κεβλος, keblos, a dog-faced baboon, ?Papio cyncochepala. cec- Latin blind, from caecus -a -um, blind, hidden, unseen, obscure, or dark. cecheno Greek κεχηνα, kechena, gaping, yawning. ceci-, cecido-, cecis, -cecis Greek κεκιδιον, kekidion, a gallnut; a little nut, an ink gall; juice; ink. cecibalo Greek κηκιβαλος, kekibalos, a kind of shellfish. cecidophorus bearing or producing galls ceco Greek a sea bird Cecrop-, cecropi- Greek κεκροψ, kekrops, a mythological king of Attica. cecryphalo Greek κεκρυφαλος, kekrophalos, a woman’s hairnet, the pouch or belly of a hunting net. cedemon, -cedemon Greek κηδεµον, kedemon, a mourner; a guardian, a protector. cedo- Greek κηδος, kedos, care, concern, anxiety, or grief. cedno- Greek κεδνος, kednos, careful, diligent, trusty. cedr-, cedro- cedrus, -cedrus Greek κεδρος, kedros, the cedar tree, Cedrus spp., cedar wood. cedroensis from the isle of Cedros in California cei Greek κει, kei, in that place. celad-, celado-, celadus, -celadus Greek κελαδος, kelados, a loud clear voice; shout; clamour; poetically the noise of moving wind or rushing water. celaeno- Greek κελαινος, kelainos, black, dark, murky. celastr-, celastrus, -celastrus Greek an evergreen tree Celastraceae Celastra'ceae (sel-as-TRAY-see-ee) plants of the Celastrus, Staff-tree family, from the genus name, Celastrus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. celastrifolius with leaves like Bittersweet, Celastrus celastrinus celastrus-like Celastrus (kel-A-strus) from Greek kelastros, a name for an evergreen tree. (Celastraceae) celat-, celatus Latin concealed, from the verb celo, celare, celavi, celatus, conceal, hide, keep secret; disguise; keep in dark or in ignorance; shield. celatocaulis -is -e with touching(?) stalks, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. cele Greek κηλη, kele, a rupture, hernia; a tumor. celebicus -a -um New Latin of or from the isle of Celebes in East India. celebo- Greek κελεβη, kelebe, cup or jar. celebr- Latin celeber, celebrated, famous. celeber, celebris -e, celebrior -or -us, celeberrimus -a -um Latin adjective, famous, celebrated, renowned; honored, distinguished; famed; notorious; oft repeated, frequent; busy, crowded, much used/frequented, populous; festive. celeo Greek κηλεω, keleo, charm, bewitch, beguile. celeo Greek κελεος, keleos, the green woodpecker, Picus viridis. celeonto- Greek κελεοντος, keleontos, the vertical beams of a loom. celepho- Greek κελεφος, kelephos, a leper. celer-, celeri- from Latin celer -is -e, swift, quick, rapid, often referring to rapid growth. celer, celeris -e, celerior -or -us, celerrimus -a -um Latin adjective, swift, quick, agile, rapid, speedy, fast; rash, hasty, hurried; lively; early. celeriter shortly, briefly, Latin adverb, celeriter, celerius, celerrime, quickly, rapidly, or speedily; hastily; soon, at once, early moment; in short period. celes, celetis m. Latin noun, a small or fast boat, yacht; (statue of) a race horse. celest-, celesti- heavenly, from caelestis, caeleste, caelestior -or -us, caelestissimus -a -um, or celestis, celeste, celestior -or -us, celestissimus -a -um, Latin adjectives, heavenly, of the heavens or sky, from heaven or sky; celestial; divine; of the Gods.

celet- hidden, from celo, celare, celavi, celatus, Latin verb, conceal, hide, keep secret; disguise; keep in dark/in ignorance; shield. celetico- Greek κηλητικος, keletikos, charming. celito- Greek κελης, keles, riding horse, fast sailing yatch. celeusmo- Greek κελευσµος, keleusmos, order, command. celeutho- Greek κελευθος, keleuthos, road, path, journey, voyage, walk, or gait. celi-, celia- Greek κοιλος, koilos, hollow, cavity; the abdominal cavity, ventricles. celi-, celido-, celis-, -celis Greek κηλις, kelis, a spot, stain, blemish; defilement. celib- Latin caelebs, unmarried. cell, cella, celli Latin a granary, storehouse; a small room, cell, garret, compartment. cellularis -is -e composed of cells, spongy cellulosus -a -um cellular or fibry -cellus -a -um, -cella Latin adjectival suffix used as a diminutive with adjectival bases (or nouns of any declinsion). cellu- Latin cellula, a small room. celo Greek a tumor; hollow; dry, parched celo- Greek κηλον, kelon, arrow shaft. celono- Greek κηλωνος, kelonos, a swing-beam for drawing water; a male ass. Celosia from Greek κήλεος, keleos, burning, from κηλός, dry, alluding to color and/or appearance of the inflorescence of Celosia cristata celosioides resembling Cocks-comb, Celosia cristata celsissimus exalted, lofty, sublime celsus high, from Latin high, raised, elevated, lifted, lofty celticus of Celtic origin, from French celtique or from Latin celtic-us of the Celts. celtidifolius with leaves like Celtis, hackberry or Nettle-tree celtis, -celtis Latin a kind of lotus Celtis Cel'tis (classically KEL-tis, colloquially SEL-tis) Greek name for a tree; or from Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world. celyph-, celypho, celyphus, -celyphus Greek a husk, rind, shelI cembra Italian name for Arolla pine, Pinus cembra, modern Latin, from German dialect zember, zimber, var. of zimmer, timber cembroides resembling the Russian Cedar or Swiss Stone-pine, Pinus cembra cemet- Greek a burial place. cen-, ceno Greek empty; recent; common. cenchr-, cenchro, cenchrus, -cenchrus Greek a kind of millet. Cenchrus New Latin, from Greek κενχρος, kenchros, millet, an ancient Greek name for Seteria italica; probably akin to Latin frendere to grind. (Gramineae) cenisius of Mount Cenis, France and Italy ceno-, cenos, cenot Greek evacuation. cenopleurus with hollowed, fluted ribs cent-, cente Greek pierce, spear. cent-, centen, centi Latin a hundred, or too many to count easily. centau-, centaur, -centaur Greek a piercer, spearman. Centaurea Centaur'ea (kent-OW-ree-a, or locally sen-TAW-ree-a, sen-TORE-ee-a) New Latin, genus name, Centaurea from Medieval Latin, from Greek, kentaurieon, kentaur, a centaur, half-man-half-horse, an ancient plant name associated with Chiron (Kheiron), a centaur famous for his knowledge of medicinal plants. Chiron is said to have discovered the medicinal uses of plants, and was the tutor of Achilles (Akhilleus), Asclepiaus, Hercules, Dionysus, and others. Chiron is also said to have used this plant to heal his foot when wounded by Hercules. Where native, some Centaurea species have a long history of medicinal use. (Compositae) Centaurium Centaur'ium (classically ken-TORE-ee-um, colloquially sen-TORE-ee-um) an old name, variously applied by herbalists, possibly from centum, hundred, and aurum gold or gold-piece, possibly alluding to priceless medicinal value; or German vernacular name Tsusendguldenkraut; or perhaps named for Chiron the centaur, who is attributed with discovering the plant (and discovering plant medicines). (Freckmann Herb) centauroides resembling Bachelor Button, or Flock flower, Centaurea. centes, centis, -centis Greek a puncture centesim- Latin the hundredth

centi- Latin a hundred centifolius -a -um hundred-leaved, multileaved or multipetalled(?) centr-, centri, centro-, centrum, -centrum Greek the center; a point, spur Centratherum from Latin centrum, center, and atherum, prickle or awn, possibly referring to spine-tipped middle phyllaries of the first described species centralis in the middle, pertaining to the center centranthifolius -a -um centranthifo'lius (sen-tran-thi-FO-lee-us) centranthus-leaved Centranthus, centranthus Centran'thus (sen-TRAN-thus) bearing spurred flowers, also red valerian centricirrhus with spiral or curled thorns centrifugalis developing flowers first at the apex of the spike and then downward centripetalis developing flowers first nearest the base of the spike then upwards centriterius with bristly thorns Centromadia Centroma'dia (sen-tro-MAD-ee-a) from Latin centron, prickle, and generic name Madia centropetalus developing towards the center from without Centrosema from Greek κέντρον, kentron, a spur, and σῆµα, sema, a standard, for the spurred vexillium. (Leguminosae) Centrostegia Centrostegia (sen-tro-STEE-jee-a) from Greek κέντρον, kentron, spur and stegion, roof, for the arched saccate spurs at base of involucre. Centunculus Centunc'ulus (sen-TUNK-yoo-lus) cep-, -cep(...) referring to a head cep-, cepa, -cepa, cepol- Latin an onion cepa onion, Alium cepa. cepa ascalonia (?) shallot Allium asacalonium (L.) cepa pallacana chive, (French: civette)(?) cepaceus onion-like, in smell and taste, from Latin cæpa, cēpa, onion cephal-, cephala, -cephala, cephalo Greek the head, κεφαλή, kephale. Cephalanthera Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head, and anthera, anther Cephalanthus, cephalanthus -a -um with flowers in a head from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head, and ἄνθος, anthos, flower, for the flowers in a headlike spike. (Rubiacee) cephalatus -a -um bearing heads, from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head, and . cephallenicus, cephalonicus from the Greek island of Cephallonia cephaloideus -a -um head-like, capitate, New Latin from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head, and -οειδης, -oeides, with the form of, for the headlike spike. cephalonicus for Cephalonia, an Ionian island cephalophorus -a -um (ke-FA-lo-for-us) forming (?bullshit) small heads of flowers from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head, and φορος, phoros, bearing, for the spikelets borne in heads. Cephalotaceae from the genus name, from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cephalotes head-like, from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head, and . cephalotus bearing large heads of flowers, from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head, and . -cephales -head, from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. cepifolius with onion-like leaves, from Latin cæpa, cēpa, onion cepiformis onion-shaped cepph-, cepphus, -cepphus Greek a petrel-like sea bird; a simpleton cep- Latin caepa, an onion. ceps, -ceps New Latin ceps, the head cepulla chibol Allium fistulosum (L.). cer, cer-, cera-, -cera, cere, ceri Latin wax, referring to wax (the genus Cereus, because of the wax-candle body shapes of most of the species) cera-, cerat, cerato Greek horn ceraceus waxy, wax-like, wax-colored, yellow, New Latin, from Latin, wax candle, from cera wax, probably from Greek kēros; akin to Lithuanian korys honeycomb ceram-, ceramo-, ceramus Greek clay; an earthen pot ceramicarpus bearing urn-shaped of vase-shaped fruits ceramicus ceramic, pottery-like; from Ceram or Serang, the second largest island of the Moluccas in the Malay Archipelago

cerambyc Greek a kind of beetle ceranthus with horny swellings ceras, ceras-, cerasus, -cerasus Latin a cherry, referring to a cherry (cherry-like) cerasia cherries. cerasifer, cerasiferus, cerasifera cerasus-bearing or cherry-bearing cerasiformis -is -e cerasifor'mis (ser-as-i-FOR-mis) cherry-formed, cherry-shaped or cherry-like cerasinus cherry-red, cherry colored cerasoides resembling a cherry tree cerast- Greek horny; horned cerastioides cerastium-like, like Cerastium, snow-in-summer Cerastium Ceras'tium (sir-AS-tee-um) Greek, κέρᾶς, keras, horn, alternately New Latin, from Greek kerastēs horned, and New Latin -ium, either alluding to horn-like shape of capsule of some species. (Caryophyllaceae) Cerasus, cerasus New Latin, cherry tree, from Late Latin ceresia, from Latin cerasus cherry tree, cherry, from Greek kerasos cherry; alternately from Cerasus, a town in Pontus, where the garden cherry originated. (Rosaceae) cerat, cerato Greek horn ceratiformis in the form of a horn ceratocarpus with horned fruit ceratocaulis -is -e having horned stalks, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. Ceratocephalus Ceratodon from Greek keratos, horn, and odon, tooth, referring to the peristome teeth being forked like a pair of goat horns ceratoides horn-like Ceratopteris Greek cerato-, ceratos, horn, horned, and pteris, fern, referring to the antlerlike fertile leaf Ceratophyllaceae Ceratophylla'ceae (kare-a-toe-fil-AY-see-ee) plants of the Hornwort family, from the genus name, , and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. ceratophyllus -a -um, Ceratopyhllum (ke-ra-to-FIL-lum) with horned leaves, from Greek keras, ceratos a horn, and phyllon, a leaf, for the resemblance of the leaves to antlers. ceratosanthus bearing horned or horny flowers Ceratoschoenus from Greek κέρας, -ατας, a horn, and σχοῖνος, skhoinos, rushm referring to the long, persistent style of the achenium. (Cyperaceae) ceratospermus bearing horned or horny seeds or spores ceraun-, cerauno-, ceraunus, -ceraunus Greek a thunderbolt cerc- referring to a tail cerc, cerci, cercis, -cercis Greek a rod; a kind of poplar cerc-, cerco, cercus, -cerus Greek the tail cerchne Greek a kind of hawk cercidifolius with leaves like Cercis Cercidium Cercid'ium (classically kir-kID-ee-um, or sir-SID-ee-um) Cercis Cer'cis (classically KER-kis, colloquially SIR-sis) New Latin, from the classical Greek κερκὶς, kerkis, the weaver's shuttle, also the name for Judas tree, a horn (?), perhaps from kerkos tail, from the movement of its leaves in the wind. (Leguminosae) Cercocarpus Cercocar'pus (kir-ko-KAR-pus) tailed fruit, the Mountain Mahogany genus, whose fruit (hips) have little tails. (Rosaceae) cercop-, cercopi, cercops, -cercops Greek a long-tailed monkey cerd-, cerdal Greek gain; cunning; a fox cere- Latin wax, from from cēra, wax; Mythology: the goddess of agriculture cereal New Latin grain cerealis -is -e related to farming or agriculture; grain bearing, pertaining to Ceres, the goddess of agriculture, daughter of Saturn and Vesta. cereb-, cerebell, cerebr, cerebro Latin the brain cerebellinus, cerebriform brain-shaped like the kernel of a walnut cerebriferus producing phosphorus cerefolius wax-leaved, with waxy-leaves cereiferus bearing or producing wax

Ceres Latin mythology, the goddess of agriculture. cereus -a -um cer'eus (KEER-ee-us, dumbdown to SEER-ee-us) waxy, resembling wax, Latin cēreus waxen, resembling wax, from cēra wax. Cereus from Greek and Latin for torch; Latin cēreus waxen, resembling wax, from cēra wax, an old genus name (Cactaceae) ceri wax, from Latin cēreus waxen, resembling wax, from cēra wax. ceriferus -a -um wax-bearing, producing wax ceriflorus with wax-like flowers cerin- Latin wax-colored, yellowish, from Latin cēra wax. cerinthoides cerinthe-like, resembling honey-wort, Cerinthe cerinus waxy, waxy yellow, the color of wax cerith- New Latin a shellfish cerma, -cerma, cermato Greek a slice; a small coin cernu, -cernu Latin nodding, drooping, bending cernuo, cernuare, cernuavi, cernuatus Latin verb, fall headfirst; dive; turn a somersault. cernuus, cernua, cernuum Latin adjective head foremost; falling headlong; face down, inclined, stooping, or bowing forwards. cernuus -a -um cer'nuus (properly KIR-nyew-us, locally SIR-nyew-us or SIR-nyoo-us) New Latin, drooping, nodding, downturned, like the flowers of Narcissus, from Latin cernuus -a -um, head foremost, face down, from cernuare, to fall headfirst, to somersalt. ceroides resembling wax cerom-, ceroma, -ceroma Greek ointment cerophyllus with wax-like leaves cerospermus bearing waxy seeds cerris Turkish Oak, Quercus cerris cert-, certa Latin struggle, contend; determined, certain certe at least “Certe, Toto, sentio nos in Kansate non iam adesse.” “You know, Toto, I have a feeling we're not in Kansas anymore.) Dorthy Gale certh-, certhi Greek a tree creeper certo certainly cerule Latin blue ceruminosus ceruminos'us (ser-oo-min-OH-sus) cerus referring to a horn, New Latin, from Greek -keros, from keras horn ceruss-, cerussa, -cerussa Latin white lead cerussatus of white lead color cerv-, cervus, -cervus Latin a deer cervaria Bittersweet or Woody Night Shade, Solanum dulcamara cervi-, cervic, cervix, -cervix Latin the neck cervianus cervia'nus (ser-vee-AY-nus) cervicarius sought after by deer, pertaining to deer cervicularis resembling crop or goitre cervini of or from the Matterhorn (Mount Cervin, Piemont) cervinus fawn-colored, the color of red deer, dark tawny cervispinus resembling antlers ceryl, cerylus, -cerylus Greek a kingfisher cesi- Latin bluish gray cespi- Latin turf, sod cespitose, cespitosus, caespitosus growing in tufts, tufted, clumped, clump-forming cess-, cessa Latin atop cest-, cesto Greek a girdle; embroidered cestr-, cestra, -cestra Greek a pickaxe; a kind of fish cestricus from Chester in Pennsylvania cet-, ceta, cetus, -cetus Greek a whale Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam. I also think Carthago should be destroyed. (Cato the Elder) cetero, ceterum, (caeterum) for the rest

cetr-, cetra, -cetra Latin a shield ceuth-, ceutho-, -ceutho Greek concealed, hidden cevennensis from the Cévennes in southern France ceylan-, ceylanicus, ceylonicus referring to or from Ceylon (Sri Lanka) cf. look. Originally an abbreviation for Latin confer, compare. chaem, chaeme Greek on the ground, low chaen-, chaeno Greek yawn, gape; open, split Chaenactis Chaenac'tis (kee-NAK-tis) from Greek khaino, to gape, and aktis, ray, alluding to enlarged peripheral corollas of type species. Chaenomeles from Greek for split fruit, from Greek khaen, yawn, gape; open, split, and -meles, referring to an apple, or any fruit. Listed as open-nose in one source, a transcriptional error, see next entry. Another source translates this as “wood-melon”. Chaenorrhinum from Greek for open-nose referring to the open throat corolla chaer-, chaeri, chaero Greek delight, rejoice; a young pig. chairo χαιρω, chairo, I rejoice, was in early ancient Greek χάρϳω, kharjo, with a ‘j’ or y as in ‘yes’ sound. The ‘j’ sound was present in very early Greek, but no symbol is known; the sound occurs in some γ, gamma, and ι, iota, utterances. chaerophylloides resembling Khaerophyllum, Chervil Chaerophyllum from Greek, χαιρω, chairo, I rejoice, and phyllon, a leaf. “It is thought to be called so because it delighteth to grow with many leaves; or rather that it causeth joy and gladness.” Gerard from Dodonaeus. Additionally, from Latin caerefolium, part translation of Greek khairephyllon, from chairein to take pleasure in, to rejoice, enjoy, and phyllon leaf, referring to the fragrance. (Umbelliferae) chaerophyllus tender leaved or soft leaved chaet-, chaeta-, -chaeta, chaeto Greek long flowing hair, mane; a bristle, referring to a hair or bristle, χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair, cf. Latin seta. Chaetadelpha Chaetadel'pha (kee-ta-DEL-fa) from Greek χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair, and adelphe, sister, referring to adnation of awns and bristles of pappi (adnate growing with one side adherent to a stem) chaetocarpus with very hairy fruits, bearing bristly fruit, from Greek χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair, and chaetocephalus bearing bristly heads, from Greek χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair, and chaetodentus with bristly teeth, from Greek χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair, and Chaetopappa Chaetopap'pa (kee-to-PAP-a) from Greek χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair, and Latin pappos, pappus. chaetophyllus -a -um bristle-like leaves, with bristly leaves, from Greek χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair, and chaetorrhachis with bristly ribs or corrugations, from Greek χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair, and chain-, chaino Greek yawn, gape; open Chairephýllon Greek Χαιρεφύλλον, Khairephyllon, Chervil, from phyllon, a leaf. Chaiturus from Greek χαιτη, chaite, bristle, long hair, and ὀυρά, oura, tail. (Lamiaceae or Labiatae) chaixii named for Dominique Chaix (1730-1799), French botanist chalar-, chalaro Greek loose, slack Crantzia honoring Prof. Crantz, who authored a monograph on the Umbelliferae. (Umbelliferae) chalaranthus bearing chain-like flowers chalast-, chalasto Greek loose, relaxed chalaz-, chalaza, -chalaza, chalazo Greek a hailstorm; a tubercle chalc-, chalceo Greek coppery chalc-, chalco Greek copper chalcedonicus of Chalcedon (Chalcedonia), on the Bosphorus, a part of Asia Minor, including Greece and Turkey chalci-, chalcid, chalcis, -chalcis Greek a fish; a lizard; a bird of prey chalepensis, halepensis from Aleppo in syria chalin-, chalino-, chalinus, -chalinus Greek a strap, bridle chalyb-, chalybi, chalybs, -chalybs Latin steel chalybëiformis steel-like, hard as steel chalybeius steel-blue or steel-grey cham-, chamae, -chame Greek on the ground, low-growing, from χαµαί, khamai, on the ground. cham-, chamo, chamus, -chamus Latin a rein, bridle chama Greek gape

chamae- dwarf, low-growing, on the ground, used in compound words, from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, Chamagrostis from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and agrostis, grass. Chamaebatia Chamaebat'ia (kam-ee-BAT-ee-a) Chamaebatiaria Chamaebatiar'ia (kam-ee-bat-ee-AIR-ee-a) Chamaechaenactis Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, creeping, low, and generic name Chaenactis Chamaecrista low crest, New Latin from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and Latin crista, cristae f., crest or comb of bird or beast; plume of a helmet; plant yellow-rattle; clitoris. (Caesalpiniaceae Leguminosae) Chamaecyparis Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, or dwarf, and cyparissos, cypress chamaecyparissus like Chamaecyparis, false cypress, from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, Chamaedaphne from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and Chamaedorea dwarf gift, from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and dorea, gift, in reference to small, low-growing palms of great beauty, referring to the fact that most species are of short stature and, therefore, their fruit (the gift) is found at relatively low heights chamaedrifolius, chamaedryfolius chamaedrys-leaved, with leaves like Wall or wild germander, Tenerium, from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and δρῦς, drys, oak, and -folium. chamaedryoides Germander-like, resembling Chamaedrys, from χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and δρῦς, drys, oak, and -oides. Chamaedrys ground oak, Theophrastis’ name χαµαίδρυς, khamaidrys, for a small oak-leaved plant, lit. ground oak, from χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and δρῦς, drys, oak. Chamaelirium from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and lirion, white lily chamaemelifolius with leaves like Chamaemelum, camomile, from χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and Chamaemelum from Latin chamomilla (Pliny), an altered form of chamæmēlon (Pliny, Palladius), from Greek χαµαίµηλον, khamainelon, earth apple, from χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, lowly, creeping, and µῇλον, melon, apple, for the apple-like scent of the blossoms; in one source as melon, orchard, alluding to common habitat. chamaerepes creeping along the ground, from χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and Chamaerops dwarf bush, from Greek χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and Chamaesyce Chamaesy'ce (kam-ee-SY-see) from χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and Chamerion Chame'rion (ka-MEER-ee-on) chamissoi cham'issoi (SHAM-i-soy) * unsure, derived from a foreign personal name. chamissonis chamisson'is (sham-i-SEW-nis) Chamomilla, chamomilla Chamomil'la (kam-oh-MIL-la) Camomile, Anthemis chamomilla or Anthemis nobilis champaniana chan-, chane, chano Greek yawn, gape; open chancr- French cancer chandleri chand'leri (CHAND-ler-eye) chao-, chaos, -chaos Greek an abyss, empty space Chaptalia for Jean-Antoine C. Chaptal (1756–1831 or 1832?), French chemist, who invented the winemaking process called chaptalization, the normalization of the composition of a wine before fermentation by adding a neutralizer if the must is too acid or by adding sugar if there is not enough to produce the desired alcohol level. Hip Hip Horray! char Greek graceful chara, -chara Latin cabbage chara-, charac, charax, -charax Greek a pointed stake; a sea fish Characeae plants of the Chara family, from the genus name, Chara, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. charact-, character, -character Greek something engraved charadri-, charadrus, -charadrus Greek a curlew charadro Greek full of gulleys characias chara'cias (kar-AY-see-us) chari-, charis, -charis, charist- Greek χαρις, χαριτος, charis, charitos, favor, -graceful, -pleasant. chari-, charito Greek graceful, favorable chart-, charta, -charta Latin a paper chartaceus paper-like or papery

chartostegius with a paper-like covering or sheathing chasei in reference to Aster chasei G.N. Jones, named for Dr. Virginicus H. Chase (1876-1966), professor at Bradley University, and the patron saint of Wady Petra botany chasma, -chasma, chasmato Greek a gaping Chasmanthe Chasman'the (kas-MAN-the) Greek chasme, gap, and anthos, flower, referring to the shape of the flower Chasmanthium from Greek chasma, yawn, gapping, and anthos, flower, for the gaping glumes that expose the grain chasmanthus with wide-open flowers chasmatocolëus open or gaping (?) chatamicus of Chatham Island New Zealand chathamicus from the Chatham Islands in the South Pacific chauliod Greek with projecting teeth cheil-, cheilo, cheilus, -cheilus, chil- Greek, a lip or margin, from χειλο-, lip, Latinized as chil-, chiloCheilanthes Cheilan'thes (ky-LAN-thees) lip-flowered, Greek cheilos, margin, and anthus, flower, referring to the marginal sporangia. cheilanthifolius cheilanthus-leaved cheilanthoides resembling Lip-fern cheilonthes(?) cheilanthus bearing lip flowers cheiloglyphys, cheiloglyphyus lip-shaped cheim-, cheimo Greek winter, from IndoEuropean *gheim- winter cheir, -cheir, cheiro- a hand from Greek kheir-, χειρο-, cheiro, hand, Latinized as chir-, chiro-, from P.I.E. root *ĝhes-, *ghes-, hand. cheiranthifolius -a -um, cheirifolius cheiranthifo'lius (ky-ran-thi-FO-lee-us) with leaves like Cheiranthus, Wallflower. cheiranthoides Cheiranthus (kay-RANTH-us) New Latin from Arabic khiri, kheyry, wallflower, a plant with red, very sweet-scented flowers. Modified from Arabic into the Greek khier, hand, and ἄνθος, anthos, flower, hand flower for their use in fragrant hand-held bouquets. (Cruciferae) cheirofolius with leaves shaped like a hand Cheiroglossa Greek cheir, hand, and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue; in reference to the palmately lobed trophophores and the linear sporophore cheirolepis hand-shaped and scaled, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. cheirophorus of hand and finger form (??) in one source. One would assume -phorum, –phorus, from Greek φορεω (φερω), phoros, bearing, from phoreo, to carry, bring, and a possible meaning of bearing a hand. cheirophyllus with hand-shaped leaves chel-, chelia, cheli Greek a claw, hoof chel-, chelon-, chelona, chely, chelys, -chelys Greek a tortoise, turtle χελώνη, tortoise. chelidon, -chelidon Greek a swallow chelidonioides chelindonium-like, resembling Chelidonium, Swallow-wort Chelidonium Greek cheilidon, swallow (bird), perhaps from lore reported by Aristotle and others that mother swallows bathe the eyes of their young with the sap; alternately from Latin chelīdonium, from Greek χελῑδόνιον, khelidonion, for the plant celandine, or Swallow-wort, from χελιδὼν, χελιδίον, khelidon, khelidion, swallow. The name for a flower that appeared at the time of the arrival of the swallows and perished with their departure. (Papaveraceae) chelidonurus of swallow tail form (?=) chelmëus from Mount Chelmos in Greece Chelone (ke-LO-nay) New Latin from Greek χελώνη, khelone, tortoise, the corolla is shaped like a turtle’s head. chelonoides resembling Turtlehead, or Balmony, Chelone chelydr-, chelydro, chelydrus, -chelydrus Greek a water serpent chem Greek juice; pour; a yawning chemo Greek gaping; chemistry chen, -chen, -chen, cheno Greek a goose, referring to a goose; yawn, open chenopodifolium -a -um chenopodiifo'lius (ken-o-pode-ee-i-FO-lee-us) with leaves like Chenopodium, goosefoot

Chenopodiaceae Chenopodia'ceae (ken-o-pode-ee-AY-see-ee) plants of the Chenopodium, Goosefoot family, from the genus name, Chenopodium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. chenopodioides resembling Chenopodium, Goosefoot Chenopodium Chenopod'ium (ken-o-PODE-ee-um, probably more correct as kay-no-PO-dee-um) goose-foot, from Greek χηνόπους, khenopous, and -ποδα, -poda, from χήν, khen, a goose, and ποδ-, πούς, ποδιον, pod-, pous, podion, a small foot, a base or pedestal, for the shape of the leaves. cheo Greek pour chern-, cherne, -cherne Greek a day laborer chernozem from Russian chernozëm black earth, from chërnȳĭ, black, and zemlyá earth, soil. cherokeensis from Cherokee Tsárăgĭ. chers-, cherso- Greek dry; dry land, from χέρσος, khersos, dry land. chersonsese peninsula, from Greek χερσόνησος, khersonesos. cheum-, cheuma, -cheuma Greek that which is poured -chi(...) referring to snow chias-, chiasm, chiast- Greek cross, mark cross, wise; diagonally arranged, Modern Latin from Greek χίασµα, khaisma, arrangement of two lines (sticks, etc.) crossed like the letter χ (χῖ), decussation; χιάζειν, khaixein, to mark with or like a chī (X, x) chicor- French chicory chil-, chilo, chilus, -chilus Greek a lip; fodder, from χεῖλος, kheilos, lip. childii child'ii (CHILD-ee-eye) childsii chilensis -is -e chilen'sis (chil-EN-sis) from Chile chili-, chilio Greek a thousand, from χίλιοι, khilioi, thouand. chiloensis from Chiloé, an island off the west coast of Chile Chilopsis Chilop'sis (chil-OP-sis) lip-like, like a lip, referring to the flaring, trumpet-shaped flowers, from and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. -chilus -lipped chima, -chima, chimato Greek winter, frost, from cheimon, χειµών, winter. Chimaphila Chimaph'ila (ky-MAF-i-la) New Latin, from Greek cheimon, χειµών, winter and New Latin -phila; akin to Greek cheimōn winter, Old Slavic zima, Sanskrit himā. (Pyrolaceae) chimborazensis from Chimborazo mountain in Ecuador chimer-, chimera Greek a goat; a monster Chimonanthus from Greek χειµών, cheimon, winter, and anthos, flower chinensis -is -e, sinensis, sinicus chinen'sis (chin-EN-sis) referring to China, of Chinese origin, see also sinensis Chiococca snow berry Chiogenes chion-, -chion, chiono Greek snow, from χιών, chion, snow. Chionanthus (kee-on-ANTH-us) snow-flower, with snow-white flowers, bearing flowers resembling snowflakes, from the Greek χιών, chion, snow, and anthos, a flower, for the white flowers chioneus, chionaeus snowy, as if snowed on Chionodoxa glory of the snow, from Greek χιών, chion, snow, and δόξα, doxa, glory or repute. chionophilus snow-loving, from Greek χιών, chion, snow, and . chionophyllus with snow-white leaves, from Greek χιών, chion, snow, and . chionosphaerus like snow flakes, from Greek χιών, chion, snow, and . (A questionable translation, this would appear to mean snowball) chir, -chir, chiro a hand, from Greek χειρο-, cheiro-, combining form of χείρ, cheir, hand. chiriquensis from Chiriqui in Panama chironom-, chironomus, -chironomus Greek one who moves the hands chirophyllus hand-leaved chit, chit-, chiton, -chiton of or referring to a covering, a cloak, from Greek a tunic or frock, from χιτών, chiton. chitoseyama Japanese cv. 1000-year-old-mountain chitra Hindustani speckled; a deer chius from the Isle of Chios (Khio, Skio, or Scio) in the Aegean Sea chlaen-, chlaena, -chlaena Greek a cloak chlaenopterus with cloak-like wings, or with covering wings

claire de lune French cv. moonlight chlamy-, chlamyd, chlamys, -chlamys Greek a cloak, from χλαµύδ-, χλαµύς, chlamyd-, chlamys, mantle. -chlamy(...) referring to clothes, a cloak or mantle. chlamydea clothed, covered, from Greek χλαµύδ-, χλαµύς, mantle. chlamydocarpus bearing cloaked fruit, from Greek χλαµύδ-, χλαµύς, chlamyd-, chlamys, mantle, cloak and . chlamydophorus enveloped, cloak-bearing, from Modern Latin chlamydophorus, incorrectly as chlamyphorus, from Greek χλαµύδ-, χλαµύς, chlamyd-, chlamys, mantle, cloak and -φορος, -phoros, bearing, wearing chlan-, chlana, -chlana Greek a cloak chlani-, chlanido, chlanis, -chlanis Greek a woolen garment chlo-, chloa, -chloa Greek a blade of grass chloanth Greek budding chloodes with freckle-like spots chlor-, chloro green, referring to the color green, from the combining form of Greek χλωρός, chloros, green, pale green. chloracanthus, Chloracantha with green thorns, from Greek χλωρός, chloros, green, and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. chloracrus with green points chloraefolius chlora-leaved Chloracantha Chloracan'tha (klor-a-KAN-tha) Chloranthaceae plants of the Chu-lan Tree family, from the genus name, Chloranthus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Chloranthus, chloranthus -a -um chloran'thus (klor-AN-thus) green-flowered, with green flowers, from Greek χλωρός, chloros, green, pale green, and ἄνθος, anthos, flower, where petals revert into green leaf-like organs. chlorion, -chlorion Greek a yellow bird chlorinus yellow green Chloris chloro- clear green chlorocarpum chlorocephalus with a green head, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. chlorochilus with green lips chlorocholin green-lipped chlorochrysus golden-green chloro-cyanus bluish-green Chlorogalum Chloro'galum (klor-OG-al-um) from Greek chloros, green, and γάλα, gala, milk, referring to the lather-producing juice of the bulbs chlorolepis with green scales, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. chloro-leucus greenish-white chlorolomus with a green border, or green edge chloronemus having green threads chloroneurus with green veins, or green nerves chloropetalus with green petals chlorophanus with a green sheen chlorophorus green staining (questionable translation) chlorophthalmus with green eyes chlorophyllus having green leaves chlorostictus green-spotted chloroticus -s -um chlorot'icus (klor-OT-i-kus) pale green chlorotrichus with green hairs chlorurus with green tails choan-, -choana, choano Greek a funnel, Modern Latin from Greek choane, χοανη, funnel. choem-, choeme Greek on the ground, low choer-, choero Greek a young pig chol-, chola, -chola, chole, cholo Greek bile; anger, from χολή, gall, bile. chol-, cholo Greek lame, maimed, from χωλος, lame, halting.

chola-, cholad, cholas, -cholas Greek the intestines, bowels, from choler-, cholera, -cholera Greek the cholera, from χολέρα, cholera, a name used by Hippocrates.. choli-, cholic, cholix, -cholix Greek the entrails cholo Greek bile; anger; lame, maimed chondr-, chondro, chondrus, -chondrus Greek a grain, corn; cartilage, in part from Greek χόνδρος, a grain, gristle. chondrill-, chondrilla, -chondrilla Greek a lump, from χόνδος, granule. Chondrilla Chondril'la (kon-DRIL-la) a name used by Dioscorides for plant that exudes milky juice or gum chondrophyllus with knotted (?) leaves chrondophyte a growth, tumour, or vegetation, arising from a cartilage, from ϕυτόν, plant. chonoticus from the island group of Chonos off the west coast of Chile chontalensis from Chontales in Nicaragua chor-, choro Latin a chorus; Greek: dance; a place. From Latin chorus, dance, a band of dancers and singers, and Greek χορος, dance, band of dancers, chorus, and in part from χώρα, country. chord, chorda, -chorda a string; the string of a musical instrument, from Latin chorda, from Greek χορδή, khorde, a string. chordatus, Chordatus string-like, modern Latin from Latin chorda, chord. chordeiles, -chordeiles Greek a stringed instrument chordeuma, -chordeuma Greek a sausage chordophyllus bearing stringlike or cordlike leaves chordorrhizus -a -um having stringlike or chordlike roots, from Greek chorde, a string, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root, for the older culms covered with stringy remnants of old leaves chore-, choreo Greek dancing-, go, withdraw choret-, chores, -chores Greek an inhabitant of the country, from χώρα, country. chori-, chorio, chorion, -chorion, chorium, -chorium Greek a skin, membrane chori-, chorist Greek asunder; separate, from χῶρι, χωρίς, asunder, apart. choriphyllus with circular leaves (questionable translation) Chorisiva from Greek choris-, separate, and Iva, a related genus; reference obscure, perhaps "separate from Iva" or to "scattered" from the arrangement of heads Chorispora chorizanthus -a -um, Chorizanthe Chorizan'the (kor-i-ZAN-the) Greek chorizo, to divide, and anthos, flower, alluding to tepals, in one source bearing circular flowers (questionable translation) choro Latin a chorus; Greek: dance; a place, see chor-, choro, and in part from χώρα, country. choroid Greek like a membrane, from chorion, χόριον, the outer membrane of a fetus, ?Latin corium, skin, hide, leather? chort-, chorto, chortus, -chortus Greek a feeding place chrema, -chrema, chremato Greek money, wealth Chréno Greek Χρένο, Horseradish. chres-, chresto Greek useful chrisma, -chrisma, chrismato Greek an ointment christ, christo Greek anointed chroa, -chroa Greek the skin chrom-, chroma, -chroma, chromato, chromo Greek color chrom, -chromus, -chrous realting to color, colored chromochaetus with yellow(?) bristles, from Greek and χαιτη, chaite, bristle, long hair. chromodentus with yellow(?) teeth Chromolaena chroma, color, and laina, cloak, evidently referring to the colored phyllaries of some species, including the type species chromolepis bearing colored scales, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. chron-, chroni, chrono, chronus, -chronus Greek time; a long time chrot-, chroto Greek the skin chrys-, chryso-, chrysus, -chrysus gold, golden, yellow, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold chrysacanthus with golden thorns, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. Chrysactinia from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and actinos, ray chrysaloideus wrapped up like a chrysalis, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and . chrysanthemifolius -a -um chrysanthemifo'lius (kris-an-the-mi-FO-lee-us)

Chrysanthemoides chrysanthemum-like, from the genus name Chrysanthemum and Latin -oides, resembling Chrysanthemum Chrysanth'emum (kris-AN-the-mum) golden-flower, Latin, from Greek chrysanthemon, from χρυσός, khrysos, gold, and ἀνθεµον, n. anthemon, flower; akin to Greek anthos flower. Date 1548. (Compositae) chrysanthicum golden-spined, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and . chyrsanthus -a -um chrysan'thus (kris-AN-thus) golden-flowered, with golden or yellow flowers, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, . chrysantherus with a golden spike or ear (as in ear of grain) chrysenterus having yellow flesh chryseus, chrysëus golden, golden-yellow Chrysobalanus from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and βάλανος, balanos, acorn. in reference to the yellor fruit. (Rosaceae) chrysobotryus, chrysobotrys with a yellow raceme, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and . chrysocarpus golden-fruited, bearing yellow fruit, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and karpos, fruit chrysocomus with golden hairs, with a tuft of golden hair, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and . Chrysogonum golden angle (star), from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and gonos, seed, apparently alluding to the bright yellow, hemispheric capitula or to the fertile cypselae from the cypsela-complexes of the ray florets. Alternately, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and γόνυ, gony, knee, for the golden flowers at the joints. (Compositae) chrysographes marked with gold, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and . chrysolectus with yellow ends, finishing yellow, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, . chrysolepis -is -e Chryso'lepis (kry-SOL-e-pis) golden-scaled, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale, referring to yellow glands on various organs of the plant. chrysoleucus gold and white, yellowish-white, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and . chrysolobos golden-lobed, from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and . Chrysoma from Greek χρυσὸς, khrysos, gold, and -ome, having the condition of; referring to predominantly yellow-gold heads and corymbs chrysomallus golden-haired from Greek chrysos, gold, and Latin mallus, malli, mallum, a lock of wool, from Greek mallos, a lock of wool, wool Chrysomēliá Greek Χρυσοµηλιά, meaning golden apple, the orange. chrysophyllus golden-leaved, with golden leaves Chrysopsis New Latin, from Greek χρυσός, khryos, gold and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view, referring to the yellow corollas. (Compositae) chrysopterus with golden wings chrysorrhacis with golden ribs or nerves Chrysosplenium from Greek χρυσός, khryos, gold, and σπλὴν, splen, the spleen, in reference to its medicinal properties. (Saxifragaceae) chrysostachys, chrysostachyus in one source listed as “with golden spots”(?), but correctly with golden spikes chrysostictus with golden spots chrysostomus with a golden throat Chrysothamnus Chrysotham'nus (kry-so-THAM-nus) Greek chryseos, golden, and thamnos, bush. chrysotomus golden-mouthed chrysotoxum golden-arched, according to some. Ironic a Latin term loosely translated to MacDonald’s restaurant contains the suffix “toxum”, although toxeuma is a root word for arrow, not arch. chrysotrichomus, chrysotrichus with golden hair chthon-, -chthon, chthono, chthonos chthonic, dwelling in or beneath the surface of the earth, from Greek, χθονος, χθόνιος, of, in or beneath the earth, ground, from χθών, χθονός, earth. One of four words in English starting with chth. chy-, chyl-, chylo, chym, chymo Greek juice; flavor; chyle, from Latin chȳlus, from Greek χῡλός, juice (of plants, animals, decoctions), chyle, ; a Greek-Latin form chylus, chilus. Chylismia Chylis'mia (chy-LIS-mee-a) Chylismiella Chylismiel'la (chy-lis-mee-EL-la) chyt-, chytlo, chyto Greek fluid; shed chytr-, chyrta, -chytra, chytro Greek an earthen pot chytradenius having grooved veins or nerves(?) chytraphorus having the form of a vase or urn

cib-, cibar Latin food; edible cibarius eatable, edible, from Latin cibārius, from cibus food. cibori-, ciborium, -ciborium a drinking cup, from medieval Latin cibōrium, ‘a drinking-cup’, from Greek κιβώριον, a cup made from or resembling the cup-shaped seed-vessel or fleshy receptacle of the Egyptian water-lily, Nelumbium speciosum. cicad-, cicada Latin a cicada, tree cricket cicatr-, cicatric, cicatrix, -cicatrix Latin a scar cicatricatus scarred, with scar-like marks cicatricosus with scars where leaves have separated Cicer classical Latin name for chickpea, from cicer, ciceris n., chick pea, probably Cicer aristinum; or cicera, cicerae f., chickling vetch; possibly a Lathyrus. (Leguminosae) cicer, ciceris n. Latin noun, chick pea, probably Cicer aristinum; as a common food; rudely testicles, penis. cicera, cicerae f. Latin noun chickling vetch; possibly a Lathyrus. cichl-, cichla, -cichla Greek a thrush cichori- cichorium, -cichorium Greek chicory Cichoriaceae plants of the Chicory tribe, from the genus name, Cichorium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cichoriaceus -a -um cichoria'ceus (ki-kor-ee-AY-see-us) cichorium-like Cichorium Cichor'ium (classically ki-KO-ree-um, or si-KORE-ee-um) from Theophrastus, from Latin cichorium, cichorēum, from Greek κιχωρή, κίχορα, κιχόρεια, kikhore, kichora, kichoreia, succory, endive, from an ancient Arabic name chikouryeh, or Egyptian kouryeh. English succory is derived from κιχωρή, kikhore. According to Pliny, in Egypt, wild endive was known as cichorium, cultivated endive was seris. Meaning unknown. Date: 15th century. (Compositae) cicindel-, cicindela Latin a glowworm. cicinn-, cicinno, -cicinnus, -cicinnus Greek a curl of hair ciconi, ciconia, -ciconia Latin a stork ciconius with a long bill, as a crane’s-bill cicut-, cicῡta Latin the poison hemlock Cicuta New Latin, from Latin, the hemlock given as poison, probably Conium maculatum; a Latin name used by Virgil (Ecl. 2nd and 5th), but of unknown application. (Umbelliferae) cicutaefolius cicuta-leaved cicutarius -a -um cicutar'ius (sik-yoo-TARE-ee-us, or kik-yoo-TARE-ee-us) of or like Cicuta, resembling Waterhemlock or Cowbane -cid(...) referring to the act (or art) of killing cidar-, cidari, cidaris, -cidaris Greek a turban cide, -cide Latin kill cienegensis -is -e cienegen'sis (see-en-e-GEN-sis) cili-, cilia, cilio, cilium, -cilium Latin an eyelid, eyelash, small hair, from cilium, cilii n., Latin noun, upper eyelid; edge of upper eyelid; eyelid, lower eyelid. cili- ciliate, hairy cilianensis -is -e from Cilicia, Turkey. ciliaris -is -e (kil-ee-AY-ris, kil-ee-AY-ree) ciliate, with marginal hairs, fringed with hairs like an eyelash or eyelid ciliatiflorus bearing fringed flowers ciliatifolius -a -um bearing fringed leaves ciliatus -a -um cilia'tus (ki-lee-AH-tus, or casually sil-ee-AY-tus) New Latin for ciliate, with marginal hairs, fringed with hairs like an eyelash or eyelid, from cilium, cilii n., Latin noun, upper eyelid; edge of upper eyelid; eyelid, lower eyelid. cilicicus, ciliciensis from Cilicica(?), or Cilicia, an old name for an area in southern Asia Minor, in the area of Seleucia and Tarsus, north of the island of Cyprus. cilinode ciliolaris -is -e secondarily ciliate ciliolatus -a -um ciliola'tus (kil-ee-oh-LAY-tus, or casually sil-ee-oh-LAY-tus) finely fringed ciliolosus -a -um finely fringed ciliosus cilio'sus (kil-ee-OH-sus, or casualy sil-ee-OH-sus) fringed, eyelash-like, ciliate cilium egg yolk, from Soran(?)

cill-, cilla, -cilla, cillo Latin the tail -cillus -a -um Latin little, small, adjectival diminutive suffix used with adjectival bases (or nouns of any declinsion). cim-, cimex, cimic Latin a bug cimae ci'mae (SEE-mee) cimbia Latin a girdle cimeli-, cimelium, -cimelium Greek a treasure Cimicifuga (kee-mi-ki-FEW-ga) This is sometimes placed in the genus Actaea. New Latin, from Latin cimex, a bug, and -i- and fugo, fugare, to drive away, to repel, an allusion to the offensive odor of some species. C. foetida has been used a an insect repellent. (Ranunculaceae) cimicinus bug-like, smelling like bugs cimiciphorus bug forming or bug bearing cimoli-, cimolia, -cimolia Greek a white clay cincinn Latin a curl, curl of hair cincinnatus curly, curled cincl-, cinclo, cinclus, -cinclus Greek the wagtail cinclidocarpus bearing latticed or grilled fruit cinct-, cinctus Latin girdled, girded cinctus, cinctutus surrounded, hemmed, seamed cine-, cinema, cinemato, cines, cinet Greek move; motion, movement ciner-, cinerar, cinere, cineri Latin ashes, referring to ashes (or ash-colored) Cineraria ash-colored, from Latin cinereus -a -um, ash-colored, for the soft, white down. (Compositae) cinerariaefolius cineraria-leaved cinerascens cineras'cens (sin-er-AS-ens) cineraceus -a -um with ashen-grey shadings, ashy-grey colored, like ashes cinereus -a -us ciner'eus (sin-AIR-ee-us) ash-colored, ashen-grey, like ashes, from Latin cinerāceus, ashy cingens surrounded, girthed cingul-, cingulum, -cingulum a girdle, belt, from Latin cingulum girdle cini-, cinis, -cinis Latin ashes Cinna of uncertain origin, a Greek name used by Dioscorides for a kind of grass, cf. Latin Cinna, -ae, colleague of Marius, poet friend of Catullus. Name unexplained (Gray) (Gramineae) cinnabar Greek red, vermilion; or from Latin cinnabaris, from Greek kinnabari, of non-Indo-European origin; akin to Arabic zinjafr cinnabar. cinnabarinus vermilion red, cinnabar-red, a reddish mineral cinnamochrous cinnamon colored cinnamomeus -a -um, cinnamomëus kin-a-MO-mee-us cinnamon-brown, resembling cinnanom, light brown with red and yellow cinnamomifolius cinnamon-leaved, with leaves like the cinnamon tree, Cinnamomum Cinnamomum Greek kinnamomon, cinnamon cinnamomum, -i, n. cinnamon, from Ovid, Cassell. cinnamum, -i, n. cinnamon, from Ovid, Cassell cinnus, cinni a mixed drink; cocktail? A. Souter, p. 50, from cinnus, cinni m., a drink of mixed spelt-grain and wine. cinnyr-, cinnyris Greek a small bird cinocardamon 'nasturtium'. cinocefalion calf's-snout cinoplasmus facial paralysis; corruption for cynicus spasmus (?) cinygm-, cinygma, -cinygma, cinygmato Greek a floating body, phantom cion, -cion, ciono Greek a pillar; the uvula cipit Latin the head circ-, circa, circe mythology Circe, the enchantress circ-, circi, circin, circul- Latin a ring, circle circ-, circus, -circus Greek a hawk that wheels or circles Circaea New Latin, from Latin, feminine of Circaeus, of Circe, from Circe, sorceress deity who transformed men into beasts, from Greek Κίρκη, Kirkē, who was supposed to have used the plants in her sorcery. (Onagraceae)

circaezans enchanting, having the property of the enchantress Circe, Kirkē, Κίρκη; alternately, resembling Circaea, Enchanter’s Nightshade in some fashion (the latter is more properly a translation of circaeoides (Gledhill 1985)). circellaris grille or lattice shaped circin- coiled, from circino, to circle through circinalis, circinatus circinate, coiled, circular, curled like a snail circinans curled like the young frond of a fern circinatus rolled circularly circum Latin around circumnatus growing round a central stalk or stem circumscissus -a -um circumscis'sus (sir-kum-SIS-sus) cut all around or bearing loose fibre all around circumtextus webbed all around circumvagus -a -um circumva'gus (sir-kum-VAY-gus) ciris Greek mythology a bunting cirr, cirrus, -cirrus Latin a curl of hair cirratus, cirrhatus, cirrhosus tendrilled, with tendrils, with curled or forked tendrils cirrh-, cirrho Greek tawny, orange colored cirrhiferous bearing tendrils cirrhiflorus bearing flowers on tendrils cirrhifolius with tendril-like leaves cirrhipes with tendril-like stems Cirrhopetalum tendril-like petals of an orchid species cirs-, cirso, cirsus, -cirsus Greek a mated vein cirsi-, cirsium, -cirsium Greek a kind of thistle cirsioides resembling Cirsium, thistle, Horse Thistle Cirsium Cir'sium (properly KIR-see-um, sloppily SIR-see-um) New Latin, from Greek kirsion, a kind of thistle, probably from κίρσος, kirsos, a swollen vein or welt, from the use of thistles in antiquity in the treatment of swollen veins. (Compositae) cis, cis- Latin preposition, often used as a prefix meaning on this side of, as opposed to trans or ultra, across, beyond, as in the Cis-Rocky Mountain west, or the Great Plains. cisandinus on this side of the Andes Mountains in South America cisatlantica on this side of the Atlantic Ocean cismontanus -a -um cismonta'nus (sis-mon-TAY-nus) on this side of the mountain cisplatinus on this side of the La Plata River ciss-, cisso-, cissus, -cissus Greek ivy, referring to an ivy (Cissus) Cissampelos Greek pertaining to ivy or vine (bogus) cissifolium with leaves like Cissus, a vine-like climber cissoides resembling Cissus acida, Sorrel Vine Cissus (KIS-sus) Latin cissos, cissi, from Greek κισσός, kissos, ivy. (Vitaceae) cist-, cista, -cista Greek a box, chest, from Latin cista box, basket, from Greek kistē, basket, hamper; perhaps akin to Old Irish cess, ciss basket; a shrub, Cistaceae Cista'ceae (kis-TAY-see-ee) plants of the Rock-rose family, from the genus name, Cistus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Cistanthe Cistan'the (kis-TAN-the) generic name Cistus (rockrose) and Greek anthos, flower, in reference to similarity of the flowers cistifolius cistus-leaved Cistus Cis'tus (KIS-tus) modern Latin cistus (in Pliny cisthos), from Greek κίστος, κίσθος, kistos, kisthos, a redflowered shrub, probably a cistus cito cit-, citi Latin swift cithar-, cithara Greek a lyre; a kind of fish cithara Latin cithara, Greek κιθάρα, kithara, an ancient triangular-shaped stringed instrument, akin to cither, guitar, zither, and sitar. citr-, citrin, citro Greek a lemon, referring to citrus citratus -a -um citra'tus (si-TRAY-tus) citrus-like citrellus somewhat yellow, yellowish

citrëus-rinus lemon colored citrifolius citrus-leaved, having leaves like Citrus, the lemon tree, or leaves having a citrus-like odor citriformis lemon like citrinus citron-colored, or citron-like; lemon-yellow citriodorus -a -um (kit-ree-o-DO-rus) with a lemon smell, lemon-scented. citroides citrus-like, like-Citrus citrullifolius with leaves like Citrullus, water melon citrulliformis shaped like Citrullus, a water melon citrullinus resembling water melon Citrullus from Latin citrus, an orange, the water melon. (Cucurbitaceae) Citrus from Greek κίτριον, kitrion, the citron, the fruit of one of the species. (Aurantiaceae) citta-, -citta Greek a chattering bird; a jay civilis capable of cultivation or improvement clad-, cladi, clado, cladus, -cladus Greek κλάδος, klados, a young branch, a young shoot, sprout, referring to a branch Cladanthus branch-flowered, possibly Greek κλάδος, klados, branch, and anthos, flower, alluding to branching of stems at bases of sessile heads in original species cladar-, cladaro Greek fragile, brittle Cladium Greek κλάδ-ος, klados, a young branch, referring to the highly branched inflorescences. (Cyperaceae) cladocalyx club-calyx(?) cladoleptus with thin twigs cladophora branch-bearing cladotrichus with a hairy stalk Cladrastus (kla-DRAS-tis) From the Greek klados, κλάδ-ος, a young shoot or branch, and thraustos, fragile for the brittle shoots. (Leguminosae) clam-, clama, clamor Latin cry out clamb-, clambo Greek mutilated, deficient clandestin- Latin secretly clandestinus -a -um clandesti'nus (klan-des-TIE-nus) concealed, hidden; often referring to hidden, invisible flowers. clandonensis for Clandon Park, Surrey, UK clangul-, clangula New Latin a clang, sound Clappia for "Dr. Asahel Clapp, of New Albany, Indiana, one of the most zealous botanists of our Western States…." Quoted from protologue. (fna) clar-, clara, clari Latin clear Clarkia Clar'kia (KLAR-kee-a) clarkei for C.B. Clarke (1832-1906), superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic Gardens clas-, clasi-, clasm, clast Greek break; broken; a fragment claster-, clasteri, clasterium, -clasterium Greek a knife clathr- Latin a lattice clathratus like a lattice or trellis, latticed like a grating or pierced with apertures claud-, claudi Latin limp, lame; shut claudens closing claudus closing claus-, clausus Latin an enclosed place; closed clausus -a -um shut, closed, New Latin from Latin claustrum, noun, a means of closing or shutting in; bolt, bar; an enclosure, prison, den; a barricade, dam, fortress. claustr- Latin a lock, bar, door clathratus like a lattice or trellis clav-, clava, -clava, clavi- Latin a club, referring to a club, from clāva, f. a club (a doubtful Latin use), probably from Latin, clāvus, a nail. The similar clāvis is Latin for a key, and is the basis for clavicle, the collarbone or a tendril. clavatus -a -um clava'tus (kla-VAY-tus) club-like, from clava for knotty stick or club; club-like. clavatus, claviformis club-shaped, thickened towards the apex clavellatus slightly club-shaped, like a small club

clavicul-, clavicula, -clavicula Latin a key claviculatus, clavellatus shaped like a small club or nail; with forked tendrils, from clāvicula, a small key, tendril, bar or bolt of a door, diminutive of Latin clāvis, key clavifolius with club-like leaves claviformis -is -e clavifor'mis (kla-vi-FOR-mis) club-shaped, from clāva, f. a club (a doubtful Latin use) clavigerus bearing clubs clavipes with club-like stalks, club footed clavunculus feeler like clavus, -clavus Latin a band on a tunic; a swelling, wart clavus club, from Latin clāva, f. a club Claydonia Claytonia, claytonii Clayton'ia (klay-TONE-ee-a, or klay-TON-ee-ah) (klay-TON-ee-eye) New Latin, from John Clayton (1686-1773) one of the earliest Virginia botanists and a physician and New Latin -ia. (Portulacaceae) cleid-, cleido, cleidus, -cleidus Greek a key; the clavicle cleis-, cleisis, cleist-, cleisto Greek close; closing; closed Cleistes Greek kleistos, closed, referring to lip and petals that diverge only near apex, forming tube for most of their length, the flower thus appearing closed Cleistocactus closed cactus Cleistocarpidium from Greek kleistos, unopened, and karpos, fruit, referring to the indehiscent capsule without operculum cleistogamus with closed flowers (with closed fertilization) Cleisostoma closed mouth, referring to the flower shape cleithr-, cleithrum, -cleithrum Greek a bar, key, bolt clelandii for Ralph Erskine Cleland, 1892-1971, American botanist who studied Oenothera genetics. clem-, clema-, -clema, clemat-, clematis, -clematis Greek a vine cutting, twig, brushwood clematideus, clematidëus like clematis, resembling Clematis Clematis Clem'atis (KLEM-at-is or KLEM-a-tis A frequent mispronunciation is cleˈmātis.) New Latin, from Latin, Clēmatis, periwinkle, from Greek κληµατίς, klematis, a name for a climbing or trailing plant, possibly periwinkle, brushwood, long, lithe branches, clematis, from klemat-, klema twig; or κλὴµα, κλῆµα, klema, a vinebranch or tendril; akin to Greek klan to break, similar to Greek klados sprout, twig, branch. (Ranunculaceae) clemen-, clemens, -clemens, clement Latin tranquil clementinus -a -um clementi'nus (klem-en-TIE-nus) clemma, -clemma, clemmato Greek a theft, trick clemmy-, clemmys Greek a turtle cleo-, cleoto Greek glory; news Cleome Cleo'me (klay-O-mee, or klee-OH-me) Derivation uncertain, possibly from Greek kleos, glory or from the ancient name of some mustard-like plant. (Capparaceae formerly Capparidaceae) Cleomella Cleomel'la (klee-oh-MEL-la) clep-, cleps, clept Greek steal; a thief clepsydr-, clepsydra Greek a water clock cler-, cleri, clero, clerus, -clerus Greek a lot, portion; a kind of insect -cles m. Greek suffix indicating honor or renown, the abundance of a particular quality used with a noun or adjectival base. Often part of a personal name, as Pericles, Heracles. clethr-, clethrum Greek a key, bar, bolt clethra Greek the alder Clethra (KLETH-ra) from the Greek klethra, alder. Clethraceae plants of the White-Alder family, from the genus name, Clethra, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. clethroides clethra-like clevelandii cleve'landii (KLEEV-land-ee-eye) clid-, clido, clidus, -clidus Greek a key clima-, climac, climax, -climax Greek a ladder clima-, -clima, climato Greek a region; the climate; a slope clin-, clina, -clina, clini, clino Greek a bed clin, clino Greek bend, slope, from κλιν-, klin-, sloping, inclining clin- inclined

clinophyllus with limp leaves clinopoda clinopodioides resembling Calamintha clinopodium, Basil-weed Clinopodium, clinopodium Clinopo'dium (kly-no-PO-dee-um) bed-foot, from Greek, in reference to the flowers resemblance to bed casters. Clinostigma with an inclined stigma Clintonia New Latin, from DeWitt Clinton, (1769-1828), American statesman and several times Govenor of New York, originator of the Erie Canal, and writer on American science, and New Latin –ia clintoniana clintonii clio-, clioto Greek glory; news clipe-, clipeo, clipeus, -clipeus Latin a shield clipeatus -a -um armed with a shield, shield-shaped, from clipeatus. clis-, cliseo, clisi Greek a bedroom; an inclination clist-, clisto Greek closed clitell- Latin a pack saddle clithr-, clithrum, -clithrum Greek a key, bar, bolt Clitandra inclined(?) anthers from κλιτυς-ανδρος, klitus-andros. clito-, clitor Greek close Clitopilus smoothed-down felt, (the cap of the miller fungus has a kid leather-like texture.) Clitoria from Greek κλειτορις, kleitoris, clitoris, by analogy with the young legume in the persistent flowerparts. (Leguminosae) cliv-, clivus Latin a slope, from clivus, clivi. Clivia for Lady Charlotte Clive, wife of Robert Clive (1725-1774), of India (kaffir lilies); or for Duchess of Northumberland d. 1866), nee Clive. clivorum of the hills, of slopes, from clivus, clivi. cloac-, cloaca, -cloaca Latin a sewer cloiphorus -a -um carrying a strong collar, from κλοιος-φορεω, kloios-phoreo. clokeyi clo'keyi (KLO-kee-eye) clon- Greek a branch, twig, from κλωνclon-, clonus, -clonus Greek a violent motion, a tumult Clonostylis branched style, from Greek κλων-στυλος, klon-stylos. clope Greek robbery, fraud clost-, closter, clostri Greek thread, yarn clost-, closto Greek spun, coiled closterius -a -um spindle-shaped, from Greek κλωσοτηρ, klysoter. closterostyles having a spindle-shaped style, From Greek κλωσοτηρ-στυλος, klosoter-stylos, Latin clostrumstylus. Clostridium little-spindle, diminutive of κλωσοτηρ, klosoter, a pathogenic bacteria. Clowesia for Reverand John Clowes (1777-1846), orchid grower of Manchester, England. clu-, clud, clus Latin close clunis, clunis c. Latin noun, buttock, haunch, hindquarters (vertebrate animals, also insects/arachnids). clupe-, clupeus, -clupeus Latin a shield; a river fish clur-, clurin Latin an ape Clusia, clusii, clusianus New Latin for Carolus Clusius (1526-1609), Flemish renaissance botanist and author of Rariorum plantarum historia, from Clusius (Charles de l’Ecluse), and -anus adjectival suffix indicating position, conection, or possession by. (Clusiaceae = Guttiferae) Clusiaceae from the genus name, Clusia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. clusiifolius -a -umi having leaves resembling those of Clusii. Clutia (Cluytia) for Outgers Cluyt (Clutius) 1590-1650), of Leyden. clydon, -clydon, clydono Greek a wave clymenus -a -um from an ancient Greek name, Dioscorides name, περικλυµενον, periklymenon, for a twining plant. clype-, clypeo, clypeus, -clypeus Latin a shield clypeatus -a -um, clypeolus -a -um having structures shaped like a Roman shield, with or like a shield, shield or buckler shaped, like a clypeus, clipei (also clupeus, clypeus), a small circular shield used by the Romans

Clypeola (Clipeola) shield, diminutive of clypeus, clipei, for the shape of the fruit. clypeolatus -a -um somewhat shield-shaped, like a small, circular shield, escutcheon shaped, like a clipeus (also clupeus, clypeus), a small circular shield used by the Romans, diminutive of clypeus. An escutcheon is a shield or shield-shaped surface on which a coat of arms is depicted (OED). clys, clysis, clysm Greek wash, drench clyst, clyster,-clyster, clystero Greek a syringe clyt-, clyto, -clyto Greek famous, beautiful, marvelous Clytostoma beautiful mouth, from κλυτος-στοµα, klytos-stoma, referring to the flaring, trumpet-shaped flowers of this genus. cnec-, cneco-, cnecus, -cnecus Greek pale yellow; a thistle cnem-, cnemi-, cnema, cnemis, -cnemis, cnemido- -covering, from Greek κνηµις, knemis, for a legging, a greave, leg armor. cnema Greek κνἠµη, cneme, the tibia. cnemidophorus -a -um wearing greaves, with a sheathed stem, Greek κνηµιδο-φορος, knemido-phoros. -cnemius --calf-of-the-leg, the part of the leg between the knee and the ankle; internodes, from ancient Greek κνηµο, cnemo. cnemo of wooded valleys, from κνηµος, knemos. -cnemum the internode, a name from Theophrastusm κναµα, κνηµη, knama, kneme, tibia, for the part of the stem between the joints. cneo Greek scrape, scratch, from κναω, knao. Cneoraceae from the genus name, Cneorum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names (Rutaceae?). Cneoridium Cneorid'ium (nee-oh-RID-ee-um) Cneorum, cneorum of garlands, from the Greek name, κνεορον, kneoron, for an olive-like shrub. (Cneoraceae) cnepha-, cnephato Greek dark, darkness Cnestis, cnest-, cnesti Greek a rasp, scraper, from κναω, knao, for the hair covering the fruit. cneth-, cnetho Greek scratch Cnicus, cnic-, cnicus, -cnicus Cni'cus (NYE-kus) from the Greek κνηκος, knekos, a thistle-like plant used in dyeing. cnicus safflower, Bastard Saffron, Carthamus tinctorius (L.), from the eastern Mediterranean. cnid-, cnida, cnido Greek a nettle cnidioides resembling Cnidium, nettle cnip-, cnipo, cnips, -cnips Greek an insect living under bark cnism-, cnismma, -cnismma, cnismato Greek an itching co-, col-, com-, con- Latin together with-, together-, firmly-. coacervatus -a -um in clusters, accumulated, in clumps, from Latin co-acervatio, co-acervationis. coactus felted coactillis -is -e growing densely, crowded, from Latin cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum. coadenius -a -um with united glands, botanical Latin from Latin com- and Greek αδην, aden. coadnatus -a -um, united, held-together, joined into one, from Latin co- (adnascor, adnasci, adnatus). coadunatus -a -um growing together, gathered into one, united, held-together, joined into one, from Latin co(adnascor, adnasci, adnatus). coaetaneus -a -um, coaetanëus contemporary, being of the same age, ageing together, from co-(aetas, aetatis), as in the leaves and flowers both senesce together. coagul- Latin drive together; curdle coagulans with a trough-like channel(?); thickening, curdling, from coagulum (rennet). coahuilensis -is -e from the Coahuila area of Mexico. coalifolius -a -um with joined leaves, from Latin (coalesco, coalescere, coaliu, coalitum) and folium. coalitus united, combined (as in combined petals) coarct- Latin pressed together coarctatus -a -um crowded together, compact, pressed closely together, bunched, contracted, from Latin verb coarto, coartare, coartavi, coartatum. Cobaea, (Coboea), cobaea New Latin, irregular from Father Bernabé Cobo (1572-1657), Spanish Jesuit and naturalist in Mexico and Peru (cup and saucer vine). cobaltinus cobalt blue

cobanensis -is -e from Coban, Guatemala. cobbe from the Singhalese vernacular name, kobbae. cobit-, cobiti Greek a gudgeon-like fish Coburgia for Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, later King of Belgium. coca the name used by the South American Indians of Peru. cocc-, cocci, cocco, coccus, -coccus Greek κοκκος, kokkos, a berry, referring to a seed or berry coccifer, cocciferus -a -um, coccigerus -a -um bearing berries, bearing scarlet berries(?), from Latin coccum, berry, and -fer, -ger, bearing’ scarlet-bearing, from coccum-fero, coccum-gero,from Greek κοκκος, kokkos, a berry. Quercus coccifera is the host of the kermes insect, Kermes illicis, from which a red dye was prepared. coccin- Latin scarlet, red Coccinea scarlet, from κοκκινος, kokkineus, for the fruit color. coccinelliferus -a -um bearing the cochineal scale insect, Dactylobius coccus. coccinellus -a -um light scarlet, diminutive of coccineus. coccineus -a -um (cochineus) coccin'eus (ko-SIN-ee-us) Latin crimson, scarlet, red, deep red, deep carmine red, from Latin coccineus -a -um, died scarlet, scarlet dye; scarlet, of scarlet color, for the dye produced from galls on Quercus coccifera. cocciniliferus yielding cochineal coccinoides scarlet-like or red-like coccioides resembling coccinea, Crataegus coccinea. Coccocypselum fruit-vase, from Greek κοκκος-κυψελη, kokkos-kypsele, for the shape of the fruit. Coccoloba berry-pod, from Greek, κοκκος-λοβος, κοκκος, kokkos, seed or berry, and lobos, capsule or pod, alluding to fleshy hypanthium surrounding fruit; sea grape is a Polygalaceae with succulent fruit. (Originally published as Coccolobis) coccolobifolius with leaves like Coccoloba, the seaside Grape-plant. coccoloboides resembling Coccoloba, from Greek κοκκος-λοβος-οειδες, kokkos-lobos-oeides coccos scarlet-berried, from Greek κοκκος, kokkos. coccospermus -a -um having cochineal-insect-like scarlet-seeds, from Greek κοκκος-σπερµα, kokkossperma. Coccothrinax from Greek κοκκος, kokkos, berry, and thrinax, trident or winnowing fork cocculoides resembling Cocculus, from Cocculus-oides. Cocculus, cocculus -a -um small-berry, diminutive of Greek κοκκος, kokkos, or diminutive of Latin coccum, cocci, berry; or from coccum, for the scarlet fruit. (Menispermaceae) coccum scarlet, from Greek κοκκος, kokkos, Latin coccum, cocci. coccum, cocci n. Latin noun, berry (with Cnidium) of spurge-flax or nettle (Daphne gnidium); berry of scarlet oak; insect (Coccus ilicis) used for dye; scarlet dye or color; scarlet cloth or wool. coccus, cocci m. Latin noun, insect, Coccus ilicis, used for dye; scarlet dye or color; scarlet cloth or wool. -coccus -a -um scarlet berried, from Greek κοκκος, kokkos. “In botany the derived Latin suffix, -coccus, is used for spherical bodies, cocci, of many sorts, as in fruits, algae, fungal spores, bacteria.” (Gledhill) coccy-, coccyg, coccyx, -coccyx, coccyg Greek a cuckoo, from the Latin noun coccyx, coccygis m., cuckoo. cochenillifera cochineal-bearing cochinchinensis -is -e from Cochin, China; from Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, formerly French Cochinchina. cochisensis -is -e cochisen'sis (ko-chi-SEN-sis) vide supra. cochl-, cochlea, -cochlea Latin a snail, snail shell; spiral; a spoon cochl- referring to a spoon, a spade cochlea-, coclea snail, from cochlea, cochleae; spoon, from cocleare, coclearis. Cochlearia spoon-shaped leaves, spoon, from cochlea, cochlearis, via German Löffelkraut, cochlear, for the shape of horseradish’s basal leaves (Dodoens described its use as an antiscorbutic, scurvy-grass). cochlearifolius with spoon-shaped leaves, from Cochlearia-folium. cochlearis -is -e spoon-like, spoon-shaped, from cocleare, coclearis. cochlearispathus -a -um spoon-spathed, with a shell-like or spoon-like sheath, having spathes resembling the bowl of a spoon, from cocleare, coclearis. cochleatus -a -um twisted like a snail shell, shaped in a spiral like a snail-shell, cochleate, shell-shaped, from coclea, cocleae; cochlea, cochleae; spoon-like. cochli-, cochlio-, cochlo- referring to a spiral, spiral-, twisted-, from Greek κοχλιας, κοχλος, kochlias, kochlos. Cochlioda small snail, from κοχλιας, kochlias, for the callus shape.

cochliodes, cochlioides resembling Cochlioda, κοχλιας-ωδης, kochlias-odes. Cochliostema spiral stamens Cockburnianus named for the Cockburn family, who lived in China cociferus bearing cocos. coco- referring to a monkey from Portuguese cocoides coconut-like, Cocos-like, from Cocos-oides. cocoinus -a -um from the Cocos islands, resembling a coconut in smell or color. Cocos from the Portuguese, coco, for bogeyman, for the facial features of the end of the coconut’s shell; or derivation of name uncertain. Cocos nucifera the coconut palm, whose nut (fruit) with its three eyes looks like a monkey's face cod-, coda, -coda Latin the tail cod-, codex, -codex, codic Latin writing, a manuscript codex a manuscript, originally from caudex, tree trunk, later a book of wooden tablets with words inscribed into a block of inlaid wax. codia Greek the head Codiaeum from a Malayan vernacular name, kodiho or codebo. codiophyllus with leaves covered with wooly pubescence, possibly from the diminutive of Italian coda, from Latin cauda, tail, history obscure (OED). -codium -fleeced, from κωδιον, κωας, kodion, koas, -headed, from κωδειον, kodeion, poppy-headed, from κοδεια, kodeia. codon, -codon Greek -mouth, -bell, referring to a bell, from κωδων, kodon. Codonanthe (Codonanthe) bell-flower, from κωδων-ανθος, kodon-anthos (Gesneriaceae). Codonanthus, codonanthus -s -um bell-flower, κωδων-ανθος, kodon-anthos (= Calycobolos, Convolvulaceae) Codonatanthus the composite name for hybrids between Codonanthe and Nematanthus. Codonoprasum bell-shaped leek, from κωδωνος-πρασον, kodonos-prason. codonopsifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Codonopsis. Codonopsis bell-like, from κωδων-οψσις, (?) kodon-,bell, and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view, for the flower shape. Codriophorus from distorted Greek κωδων, kodon, bell, and phoras, bearing, referring to capsules with bellshaped calyptrae coec Latin blind; also a name used by Pliny for a kind of date, the doum palm coel-, coeli, coelo Greek hollow Coelachyrum hollow-chaff, from κοιλο-αχυρον, koilo-achyron, for the hollow shape of the grain. coeles-, coelest Latin the sky, heavens coelia, -coelia Greek the abdominal cavity coelo Greek hollow coelebo- unmarried, from κοιλεβς, koilebs, for the pistillate flower. coelestinus -a -um koy-les-TEEN-us celestial, sky-blue, from Latin coelestis, from caelestis, belonging to heaven, heavenly, celestial, belonging to the gods, and -inus, belonging to or resembling, sky blue for the flowers; or from caeulm, caeli; coelum, coeli. coelestis is -e, coelestus -a -um sky-blue, heavenly, from caeulm, caeli; coelum, coeli. coeli- sky-blue, heavenly, from caeulm, caeli; coelum, coeli. coelicus -a -um heavenly, somewhat blue, from coelum. coeli-rosa rose of heaven, from coeli-rosa. coelo- hollow, from κοιλος, κοιλο-, koilos, koilo-. Coleocaryon hollow nut, from Greek κοιλο-καρυον, koilo-karyon, for the cavity in the seed. Coeloglossum hollow tongue, from Greek κοιλο-, κοιλος, koilo-, koilos, hollow, and γλωσσα, glossa, tongue. Coelogyne hollow female-part, hollow woman, from Greek κοιλος-γυνη, for the hollow style of the pistil. Coelonema hollow threads, from Greek κοιλος-νηµα, koilos-nema. coemema Greek sleep coen-, coeno Greek: common; Latin: dirt coereb Brazilian a kind of bird coerule Latin blue coeruleus -a -um, caeruleus -a -um (kie-RU-lee-a) heavenly blue, from Latin coeruleus, coerule, from caeruleus, dark-colored, dark blue, cerulean, azure, sea-colored, sea-green.

coet-, coeto Greek bed, sleep Cogito, ergo doleo. I think, therefore I am depressed. Cogito, ergo sum. I think, therefore I am. cognatus –a -um cogna'tus (kog-NAY-tus) related to, from Latin cognātus, from co- together and gnātus born, from the root gn-, gen-, gon- to produce. cognitus known, well known, understood coggygria cohaerens cleaving to, adherent coilopodius with a hollow stem Coincya coit-, coitus, -coitus Latin coitus, -us m. noun, a meeting, a coming together. coitus interruptus self explanatory Coix (Gramineae) col Latin: with, together; Greek: the colon; a limb col, -cola, coli Latin dwell colapt-, colapto Greek chisel, peck, cut colchicus -a -um, Colchicum, colchis of Colchis, an ancient region of Georgia, near the northeastern Black Sea, in the Caucasus cole-, coleo Greek a sheath Coleogyne Coleo'gyne (kol-ee-O-gin-ee, or casually kol-ee-O-jin-ee) coleophyllus with leaves, covering the succeeding leaves in a sheath-like manner colic-, colico Greek affecting the bowels coliformis resembling distaff colinus, -colinus Mexican the bobwhite coli-, colio, colius, -colius Greek a woodpecker coll, colla Greek glue coll, colli Latin the neck; a hill Collaboratio maximi momenti est, quia eis alterum scopum praebet. Teamwork is essential, it gives them someone else to shoot at. collapsus collapsed collari Latin of the collar collat Latin brought together collectio Latin a collecting together, from colligere, to gather together, and -io, suffix indicating the abstract or general result of an action collet Greek glued together colli-, collis Latin a hill collicul Latin a little hill colliculosus covered with little hillocks collig-, colligat Latin bound together collin- Latin found on a hill, referring to a hill (habitat) collinit-, collinitus Latin smudges, besmeared collinus hilly, relating to a hill, of hills, growing on hills Collinsia Collin'sia (kol-IN-see-a) New Latin, from Zaccheus Collins 1764-1831 American mineralogist and botanist, and New Latin -ia. Collins was a member of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences and corresponded with the cosmographer Von Humboldt, and the riffraff Nuttall, Torrey, and Rafinesque (a nutjob). collinsii In reference to Carex collinsii Nuttall, probably in honor of Zaccheus Collins 1764-1831 American mineralogist and botanist, and New Latin -ia. Collinsonia named for Peter Collinson (1694-1768), an early English botanist, a friend of Benjamin Franklin, and financier of John Bartram. collinus -a -um colli'nus (kol-EYE-nus) collod- Greek glue-like Collomia Collo'mia (kol-OH-mee-a) collum-, -collum Latin the neck collyr-, collyra Latin: macaroni (Borror); Greek: a small cake, from κολλύρα, kollyra, a roll of coarse bread.

collyrium, collyriumi n. Latin eye-salve, from Greek κολλύριον, kollyrion, from κολλύρα, kollyra, a roll of coarse bread. colo Greek the colon; a limb; maimed, curtailed colob-, colobo- Greek shortened, mutilated, from Greek κολόβιον, kolobion, from κολοβός, kolobos, curtailed. Colobus is a genus of African monkeys distinguished by the absence or rudimentary development of the thumb (OED). colobodus colobodon with blunt teeth Colocasia classical Greek name derived from an old Middle Eastern name colcas or culcas colocynth-, colocyntha, -colocyntha the Bitter Apple, Citrullus colocynthis, a widely culivated fruit about the size of an orange, from Latin colocynthis, from Greek κολοκυνθίς, kolokynthis, a pumpkin, a name used by Dioscorides. The fruit contains a well known purgative drug. Its the Great Colocynthis, Charlie Brown. colombinus like a dove colon-, colono Greek shorten; the colon colonum colophon Greek the summit, end color, colori Latin color coloradoensis -is -e coloraden'sis (kol-or-a-DEN-sis) of or from Colorado colorans dyed, colored, stained coloratus colored coloss-, collosso Greek gigantic colloseus, collosus large, gigantic -colous Latin inhabiting colp-, colpo, colpus, -colpus Greek the bosom; the womb; the vagina. colpodes sheath, spathe-like colpophilus colub-, coluber, -coluber, colubr Latin a serpent, snake, from Latin coluber, a snake. colubriae, -ae f. edderwort. colubrinus like a snake, snake-like, from Latin coluber, a snake. columb, columba, -columba Latin a dove, pigeon. columbus a pigeon. columbariae columbar'iae (kol-um-BAR-ee-ee) columbarius -a -um dove-like Columbiadoria from the Columbia River, and doria, an early name for goldenrods columbianus, columbianum Columbian, of western North America; from British Columbia, or the Columbia River in northwestern North America; of Columbia columbinus like a dove, dove colored columellaris pertaining to a small pillar or pedestal, like a small pillar, (of spore cases of mosses) from columella, a little column column-, columna Latin a pillar columnaris -is -e, columnarius columnar'is (ko-lum-NARE-is) columnar, column-like, when stamens and styles are grown together columnifera columnar, bearing or with columns. -colus Latin inhabiting Colutea Colu'tea (ko-LOO-tee-a) (Leguminosae) colymb, colymbi, colymbo Greek a diver, a diving bird com Latin with, together com- -com(...) referring to a hair coma-, -coma, comato Latin: hair; Greek: a deep sleep coma, comae f. Latinof the hair of the head; or by transference leaves, rays of light. comacum possibly nutmeg (?) comanchicus of the Indian tribe Comanches of Texas Comandra New Latin, literally hair male, from Latin coma hair, or Greek kome, hair, and New Latin –andra from Greek ander, man; from the hairy calyx lobes that are attached to the anthers, or the hairy attachment of the stamens, or the anthers to the sepals.

comans hairy, with hair, leafy, tufted comanthus with tufted flowers Comarostaphylis Comarostaph'ylis (ko-mar-oh-STAF-i-lis) Comarum Greek name of the Arbutus having a similar fruit, from Greek κόµαρος, komaros, the strawberry tree which this plant resembles. (Rosaceae) comatus -a -um from Latin comātus having long hair, from Latin coma, from Greek κόµη, kome, hair of the head, also applied to foliage, etc., and to the tail of a comet. Combretaceae plants of the Caffer-butter family, from the genus name, Combretum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. comedens consuming, eating up (as by a parasite) comi-, comid Greek care, attention comm-, commo, commus, -commus Greek ornamentation; lamentation comma Greek a short clause; a stamp, coin Commelina Commelin'a (kom-el-EYE-na) for the two Dutch botanists Jan and Kaspar Commelijn, because of the two showy petals. Commelinaceae Commelina'ceae (kom-el-in-AY-see-ee) plants of the Day-flower family, from the genus name, Commelina, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. commersus immersed together Commicarpus Greek kommi, gum, and karpos, fruit, in reference to gummy-glandular fruit commis Latin united commiscens intermingling commissura a joint or seam, the joint of carpels in Umbellliferae commixtus mixed together, mingled, intermingeled commonsianum commun- Latin common; in common communis -is -e commu'nis (KOM-yoo-nis) from Latin communis, common, universal, general; growing in a society or community, for its colonial habit. commus, -commus Greek ornamentation; lamentation commutatus -a -um changed or changing, altered, alteration; close to another species comorensis from Comoro, a group of voncanic islands between Africa and Madagascar. comos Latin with long hair comosus -a -um como'sus (ko-MO-sus) with long hair, hairy, with hairy tufts, comate, from Latin coma, hair and -osus, full of, prone to, from the hairy appearance, or in reference to some plants, leafy, or tufted. comp-, copmo Greek make a noise, clash; a noise compactus -a -um compac'tus (kom-PAK-tus) compact, dense, close together, from compactio, joining together compar related compitalis with veins intersecting like cross roads complanatus -a -um Latin adjective flattened, flat, compressed, from complano, to level, raze complectens to clasp, take hold of, contain, comprise completus complete, in all parts to the type complexus complex, encircled, embraced, connection, interwoven, entangled complicatus complicate, complex, folded upon itself, from complico, to fold together, confused, intricate, Compositae plants of the Daisy family, with composite “heads” of flowers compositus -a -um compos'itus (kom-POS-it-us) compound, compound constructed, put together; arranged in order, settled, a combination of parts to form a whole, from compono, to put together. compressicaulis -is -e with a flattened stalk, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. compressus -a -um Latin compressed, flattened, pressed together. comps-, compso Greek neat, elegant compt- Latin an ornament Comptonia (komp-TON-ee-a) After Rev. Henry Compton (1632-1713), Bishop of London (or Oxford) and amateur horticulturist. comptonogonus with intermittent zigzag cuts comptus ornamented, beautified, from Latin adorned, ornamented, formed, framed, neat, from como, to put together comtus with thick stalks or stems

con Latin with, together con, coni, cono, conus, -conus Greek a cone; a pine cone con- with (having) Conare nullius momenti videri fortasse missilibus careant. Try to look unimportant, they may be low on ammo. conario Greek the pineal gland concatenatus linked together, chain-like, joined as links in a chain concavus hollowed out, cupped concentricus combined in a common center conch-, concha, -concha, concho Greek a shell conchaefolius shell-leaved conchatus shell-like conchiferus shell-bearing conchifolius with shell-like leaves conchiformis shaped like a shell of a bivalve concholobus with lobes like sea-shells conchyli-, conchylio, conchylium, -conchylium Greek a shellfish concinnatum, concinnus -a -um concin'nus (kon-SIN-us) well made, well put together, well arranged, pleasing, pretty, elegant, neat, especially of style. Adverb concinne, elegantly concinnoides concinnus, elegant, and –oides, with the form of concolor, concolorus con'color (KON-ko-lor) colored similarly, of uniform tint, the same color all over, of the same color. condensatus -a -um, condensus condensa'tus (kon-den-SAY-tus) crowded, condensed, thick, closely packed, closely or thickly leaved or unusually crowded together. condit- Latin hidden; polished conditus -a -um preserved, stored conduplicatus -a -um dobled, duplicated condyl-, condylo, condylus, -condylus Greek a knuckle, knob condylocarpus -a -um bearing fruit at the joints, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. condylodes gnarled, knotted confertiflorus -a -um confertiflor'us (kon-fer-ti-FLOR-us) crowded flowers, closely set with bloom confertifolius -a -um confertifo'lius (kon-fer-ti-FO-lee-us) crowded leaves, closely set with leaves. confertus -a -um confer'tus (kon-FERT-us) crowded, closely crowded together, compressed, compact, dense, from confercio, to press close together confervoides resembling marsh-thread or Water flannel, Conferva confinis -is -e confin'is (kon-FINE-is) related, adjoining, neighboring conflates -a -um united, fused together confluens flowing, blending into one, as compond fruit conformis -is -e similar in shape or otherwise, of the same shape, conforming to, being of equal form confragosus -a -um uneven, of rough surface confusus -a -um confu'sus (kon-FEW-sus) confused, uncertain, easily mistaken, mingled, changed, entangled cong-, conger, -conger, congr Latin an eel congener related, of the same tribe congenitus -a -um of the same origin congensis, congolanus, congolensis, congoensis from the river Congo congestiflorus -a -um with closely packed flowers, closely set with flowers congestus -a -um conges'tus (kon-JES-tus) congested, crowded, pressed, brought together, closely packed together, literally a heaping together. congoensis -is -e of the Congo, Congolese, from the river Congo conglobatus -a -um close together in ball form conglomeratus -a -um conglomera'tus (kon-glom-er-AY-tus) conglomerate, crowded together, clustered, pressed together in a dense mass conglutinatus stuck together as with glue congolanus, congolensis of the Congo, Congolese, from the river Congo congregatus collected, assembled together congruus similar, of the same type

coni-, conico, conio, conium, -conium Greek a cone; a pine cone; pine, hemlock coni-, conidi, conio, conis, -conis Greek dust coniat-, coniato Greek plastered, white washed Conicosia Greek konikos, cone-shaped, in reference to the capsule conicus having the fugure of a true cone, cone-shaped, conical, cone-like, of mitre form conifer, coniferus cone-bearing Coniferae plants of the Pine, Fir, etc., family coniflorus bearing cone flowers conigenus, conigonus forming a cone coniifolius with leaves like Conium, Hemlock or Herb Bennet conioneurus with dust covered nerves or veins Conioselinum New Latin, from conio-, from Conium, (see below) and Selinum, the genus name formerly used for what is now called Conioselinum, from Late Latin selinon celery. (Umbelliferae) Conium Co'nium (KO-nee-um) New Latin, from Late Latin, conīum, hemlock, from Greek κώνειον, kōneion, hemlock, perhaps from κῶνος, kōnos cone, or a top, in reference to the plant causing dizziness. (Umbelliferae) conjug- Latin joined together conjugatus connected, joined together, joined in twos, paired, as a pinnate leaf of two leaflets conjugialis connected, joined together, joined in twos conjugens con'jugens (KON-ju-gens) conjunctus -a -um, conjuncta united, bound together, from Latin conjunctus, united, coupled, for the aggradated spikelets. connar-, connarus, -connarus Greek an evergreen tree Connaraceae plants of the Zebrawood family, from the genus name, Connarus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. connatus -a -um conna'tus (kon-AY-tus) born at the same time, united, joined; connate, twin, united congenitally or subsequently, united in pairs at the base, from Latin connāt-us born together, twin, past participle of connāscī, to be born together, from con- together, and nāscī to be born. connectilis fastened together connexus jointed, hanging together conniv Latin wink connivens bending together, towards each other cono- a cone; a pine cone, from Greek κῶνος, konos, cone, Conobea conocarpus bearing fruit on a cone, as the strawberry, from Greek κῶνος, konos, cone, and καρπός, karpos, fruit. Conoclinium from Greek κῶνος, konos, cone, and κλίνη, kline, bed or receptacle, referring to conic receptacles. (Compositae) conoideus -a -um cone-like, resembling a conical figure, but not truly one, from Greek κῶνος, konos, a cone, and οειδηος, –oeides, with the form of, like, resemble. conop-, conops Greek a gnat conopeus like a net of fine gauze conophalloides resembling Conophallus, Giant Arum, from Greek κῶνος, konos, cone, and Conopholis from Greek κῶνος, konos, cone, and φολιδ-, φολίς, pholid-, pholis, scale. conopseus canopied; cone-like, from Greek κῶνος, konos, cone, and as in the flowers of Orchis conopsea conorrhizus with a cone-like root, from Greek κῶνος, konos, cone, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. conostalix with fly-like markings Conringia New Latin, from Herman Conring died 1681, German scholar, and New Latin -ia consanguineus related, close of kin consimilis -is -e consim'ilis (kon-SIM-i-lis) similar in every way, very similar, completely alike consistens remaining unaltered consobrinus antidote for snake bites Consolea for Michelangelo Console (1812-1897), of Palermo Botanic Garden, Italy Consolida Latin consolidatus, to become solid or firm, from reputed ability to heal wounds. See also Solidago. consolidus consolidated, very firm, hard (not hollow)

conspergo, conspergere, conspersi, conspersus Latin verb, sprinkle, strew, or spatter, cover with small drops or particles; diversify or intersperse. conspersio, conspersionis f. Latin noun, scattering, strewing, sprinkling, sprinkle; paste, dough. conspers- Latin spotted, speckled, from the past participle of the Latin verb conspergere, to sprinkle, to spatter. conspersus -a -um scattered, sprinkled over, thickly covered, from the past participle of the Latin verb conspergere, to sprinkle, to spatter. conspicuo conspicuously conspicuus conspicuous, easily to be seed, remarkable conspurcatus dotted, spotted Constancea Constancea (kon-STAN-see-a) for Lincoln Constance (1909–2001), Californian botanist. constans steadfast, constant, always present constantinopolitanus from Istanbul (Constantinople), Turkey constrictus -a -um constric'tus (kon-STRIK-tus) constricted, constrained, bound together cont-, conto, contus, -contus Greek a pole; short contabesc Latin waste away contactus in contact, bound together contaminans, contaminatus contaminated, impure; spotted, stained conterminus having a common boundary, of equal boundaries contextus woven together contigu- Latin adjoining contiguous -a -um, contiguous contig'uus (kon-TIG-yoo-us) near together, adjoining, touching each other, adhering together continentalis -is -e continen'talis (kon-tin-EN-tal-is) continental continuus continuous, uninterrupted contortae plants with turning or twisted flowers contortu-plicatus folded into each other contortus -a -um contor'tus (kon-TOR-tus) twisted, contorted contra Latin against, opposite contractus contracted, twisted back upon itself, narrowed or shortened controversus controversial, questionable, disputed; turned against, lying opposite contumac Latin stubborn, haughty conul Latin a little cone conus, -conus Greek a cone, a pine cone convall-, covallis, -convallis Latin a valley Convallaria from Latin convallis, valley convallariifolia with leaves like Convallaria, Lily of the Valley convallarioides convallario'ides (kon-val-ar-ee-OH-i-dees) convallaria-like, resembling Lily of the Valley convallatus walled around, surrounded convergens converging, bending together (said of veins in leaves) convexus convex, domed, with a rounded surface convolutus, convoluta rolled round, rolled up lengthwise, rolled together like a paper bag convolv- Latin roll together; a bind weed Convolvulaceae Convolvula'ceae (kon-volve-yu-LAY-see-ee) plants of the Bindweed family, from the genus name, Convolvulus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. convolvulaceus convolvulus-like, like Convolvulus, bindweed convolvuloides resembling Convolvulus Convolvulus Convol'vulus (kon-VOL-vew-lus) curling itself together, New Latin, from Latin, bindweed, from convolvo, convolvere, to twine around, to enfold, enwrap. (Convolvulaceae) Conyza Cony'za (kon-EYE-za) from an ancient name used by Pliny for fleabane; possibly from Greek κώνωψ, konops, a gnat or flea, in reference to the plants supposed ability to expel gnats and fleas, or konis, dust, referring to the powdered dry plant being used to repel insects. (Compositae) conyzoides conzya-like, resembling Conyza Cookianum for Captain James Cook (1728-1779), English navigator cooperi coo'peri (KOO-per-eye) cop-, copa, cope, copi Greek an oar, handle

cop-, copo Greek pain, suffering copal Mexican blunt copalinus yielding Copal gum copallina gummy, resinous, New Latin? from Sp. copal (F. copal, copale), ad. Mexican copalli incense (Molina (1571), a fragrant translucent white resin which distils from a tree, thence called copalquahuitl, and by extension any similar resin coph-, copho Greek deaf; dumb; blunt copholepis with hard scales, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. copi Greek an oar, handle copid Greek a cleaver copios Latin abundant copo Greek pain, suffering copr-, copro-, coprus, -coprus Greek κοπρος, dung, excrement Coprinus of dung, from Greek κοπρος. Coprinus comatus is the coprophilous shaggy-cap fungus. coprophilus dung-loving, coprophilous, from κοπρος, copros, dung, and φιλος, philos. Coprosma dung-smelling, with the odor of feces, from κοπρος, copros, feces and οσµα, osma, odor, for the odor of the bruised leaves. copt-, copto Greek cut; strike copticus from ancient Coptos, in Egypt, now Kuft Coptis New Latin, irregular from Greek koptein, to cut off, from κόπτω, kopto, to cut; fererring to the divided leaves, similar to a capon having something cut off. (Ranunculaceae) coptonogonus intermittently serrated or toothed copul-, copula-, -copula Latin a link, bond copulatus connected, united, coupled coquimbanus from Coquimbo in Chile cora-, corac, coraco-, corax, -corax Greek a crow, raven. coracanus -a -um in the form of a raven’s beak; from Cape Koraka in Asia Minor coracinus -a -um, corvinus crow black, black as a raven, shiny black coraeensis from Korea coral- coral, red corall-, coralli-, corallium Greek coral. coralliflorus coral-flowered corallinus coral-like, coral-red, coral-colored coralloides like coral, resembling coral (said of roots) Corallorhiza, corallorrhizus -a -um Corallorhi'za (kor-al-oh-RIE-za) with roots like coral, New Latin, from Latin corallum, corallium, from Greek korallion, coral and ῥίζα, rhiza, root, referring to the coral-like appearance of the root. coranicus concerning the Koran corb-, corbi-, corbis, -corbis Latin a basket. corcovadensis from the Gulf of Corcovado, the west coast of South America corchor-, corchorus, -corchorus Greek chickweed. Corchorus (Tiliaceae) corcyraeus, corcyrensis from Corfu, the largest of the Ionian islands in the Mediterranean cord-, cordi- Latin the heart, referring to a heart cordatus -a -um corda'tus (kor-DAY-tus, or kor-DAH-tus) heart-shaped, as with leaves having the stalk at the notched end cordifolius -a -um cordifo'lius (kor-di-FO-lee-us) from Latin with the heart-shaped leaf. cordiformis (kor-di-FORM-is) cordiformis, heart-shaped, with the form of a heart, as with leaves having the stalk at the notched end, or a heart-shaped nut. cordigerus bearing heart-shaped organs cordillerarum from the Cordillera, the Spanish name for the Andes Mountain chain in Peru, Ecuador,and Bolivia cordofanus from Kordofan (Kurdufan, Sudan) in Africa, formerly a province of the Egyptian Soudan (Sudan) cordovensis from Cordova, a Spanish province cordul-, cordule, corduli Greek a club; a swelling.

cordulatus -a -um cordula'tus (kord-yoo-LAY-tus) cordyl-, cordyle, cordyli Greek a club; a swelling Cordylanthus Cordylan'thus (kor-di-LAN-thus) core Greek the pupil of the eye; a maiden. core-, corei-, coreo Greek κόρις, κορε-, koris, kore-, a bug; sweep. core- referring to an insect coreanus, koreanus, koraiensis from Korea corem-, corema, -corema Greek a broom; refuse. Coreocarpus Greek κόρις, κορε-, koris, kore-, a bug, tick, and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit, referring to pectinately winged cypselae of original species. Coreopsis Coreop'sis (ko-ree-OP-sis) looking like a bug, New Latin, from Greek κόρις, κορε-, koris, kore-, a bug, tick, or bedbug, and Greek -ὄψις, opsis, an appearance, a seeing, indicating a resemblance, for the resemblance of the concavo-convex, 2-horned achenia (cypsela) of the first described species to ticks; akin to Greek keirin, to cut. The common name tickseed is also from the resemblance of the seed of some species to a tick, especially that of C. lanceolata. (Compositae) corethr-, corethrum, -corethrum Greek a broom Corethrogyne Corethro'gyne (kore-eh-THRAH-jin-ee) Greek korethron, broom, and gyne, female, for the stylebranch appendages cori-, coria, coricum Latin leather, skin. cori-, coris, -coris Greek a bug; a kind of fish. coriāceus -a -um coria'ceus (kor-ee-AY-see-us) leathery, leather-like, from Latin coriāceus leathern, from corium skin, hide, leather, and -aceus an adjectival suffix indicating a resemblance. coriandrifolius with leaves like Coriandrum, common Coriander Coriandrum from Latin coriandrum, from Greek κορίαννον, koriannon, (apparently a foreign word); alternately κόρισ, koris, a bug, in reference to the smell of the leaves. (Umbelliferae) coriandrum coriander Coriandrum sativum. coriarius, coriaria leathery, leather-like coriaria the Myrtle-leaved Tanner’s-tree Coriariaceae plants of the N2-fixing Tanner’s-tree family, from the genus name, Coriaria, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. coriarius tanner, used for tanning coridifolius, corifolius, coriophyllus coris-leaved corifolius with leathery leaves coriifolius, coridifolius with leaves like Coris corinthiacus, corinthius, corinthiensis of or from Corinth in Greece coriophorus -a -um bug-bearing coriophyllus -a -um with leathery leaves Corispermum Greek coris, bug, and spermum, seed corm-, cormo-, cormus, -cormus a bulb-like stem or base of a stem, sometimes called a solid bulb, modern Latin from Willdenow, (ca. 1800), from Greek κορµός, kormos, a log, a tree trunk with the boughs lopped off, from κείρ-ειν, keir-ein, to cut, poll, lop. cormophyllus -a -um with leaves from the corm or subterranean stem cormosus -a -um stem-like, or with a bulb-like fleshy stem corn-, corne Latin horn; horny. Cornaceae Corna'ceae (kor-NAY-see-ee) plants of the Dog-wood family, from the genus name, Cornus, and aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cornelius-mulleri cornel'ius-mul'leri (kor-NEEL-ee-us -- MUL-er-eye) corneus horned corneolus horny, horn-like in texture corni-, cornic, cornix, -cornix Latin a crow cornicinus -a -um having a horny sheath corniculatus -a -um cornicula'tus (kor-nik-yoo-LAY-tus) kor-nik-ew-LAH-tus) with small horns, horned, having horn-like fruit in one source. corniculum a small horn corniferus, cornifera, corniger, cornigera horn-bearing, with a horn, bearing horn-like protuberances cornifolius with leaves like Cornus, Dogwood

corniformis horn-shaped cornigerous bearing horns or horn-like organs -cornis -horned cornubiensis from Cornwall, UK Cornucopia the horn of plenty. From the legend of Amalthea, the goat that suckled the infant Zeus. Zeus gave the goat the power to produce whatever it wanted from out of its horns. Cornucopiae cornucopioides resembling Cornucopia, Horn of Plenty Cornus Cor'nus (KOR-nus) from the Latin name for Cornus mas; from Latin cornu, a horn referring to the hardness of the wood of some species. (Cornaceae) cornut- Latin horned cornutus -a -um cornu'tus (kor-NOO-tus) horned, spurred, bearing horns or spurs, usually referring to flowers, occasionally the fruit, from Latin cornu, horn, and -utus adjectival suffix indicating possession cornuviensis of or from Cornwall in the UK, Cornish coro Greek the pupil of the eye coroll-, corolla a little crown, the inner perianth of petals, whether free or united, from Latin a little crown or wreath corollaceus with the texture and color of the corolla (usually said of a calyx) corollarius corolla-like corollatus, corollaris possessing a corolla, corolla-like(?) corolliferus corolla-bearing corolliflorus having the calyx petals and the ovary on the disk and the stamens on the corolla corollinus seated on a corolla coromandelianus of Coromandel, India, of the Coromandel coast, a name for the major part of the eastern coast of Madras coron-, corona Latin a crown, referring to a crown. coron-, corona Greek a raven. corona a crown-like body between the corolla and the stamens coronans crowning, seated on the apex coronarius -a -um coronar'ium (kor-on-AIR-ee-um, or ko-ro-NAH-ree-us) used in or belonging to garlands and wreaths, of crowns, crown-like or wreath-like coronatus -a -um corona'tum (kor-on-AY-tum) crowned or wreathed, having a corona or crown, from Latin corōnātus, past participle of corōnāre, to crown. coroniferous crown-bearing or wreath-bearing Coronilla (ko-ro-NIL-la) New Latin, irregular from Latin diminutive of corona crown, garland, wreath, from Greek korone anything curved, tip of a bow, stem of a ship, kind of crown, from koronos ed; akin to Latin curvus curved, Greek skairein to dance; in reference to the flower clusters. (Leguminosae) coronillifolius with leaves like Coronilla, Crown-vetch coronopifolius -a -um coronopifo'lius (kor-on-oh-pi-FO-lee-us) with leaves like Coronopus, the creeping Crowfoot, or Lesser Swine-cress Coronopus Corono'pus (kor-on-OH-pus) from Greek korone, crown, and pous, foot, from the deeply cleft leaves like the points of a crown. corp-, corpor, corpu- Latin a body. corpulentus broad, strong, robust corpus iuris body of law corpusc Latin a little body. correctus improved Corrigiola Latin corrigia, shoelace, perhaps alluding to the slender stems corrugat- Latin wrinkled corrugatus -a -um corruga'tus (kor-oo-GAY-tus) corrugated, wrinkled, furrowed corrugus wrinkled, corrugated corrupt- Latin marred, spoiled corsicus Corsican, from the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean cort-, cortex, -cortex, cortic, cortico Latin the bark, shell. Cortaderia Cortader'ia (kor-ta-DEER-ee-a) cortex bark or rind

corthyl-, corthylus, -corthylus Greek a crested bird. corticalis covered with bark or growing on bark corticatus bark-like corticeus bark-like corticolus living on or inhabiting bark corticosus -a -um heavily furnished with bark, with thick bark cortin-, cortina, -cortina Latin a kettle; a curtain, from cortina, cortinae f., noun, cauldron, (of the Delphi oracle), kettle; water-organ; vault or arch; curtain. cortinatus curtain-like, with weblike texture cortusifolius with leaves like Cortusa, Alpine Sanicle cortusoides cortusa-like, resembling Cortusa, Alpine Sanicle corusca referring to vibration, shaking, glittering; to thrust with horns(?) coruscus sparkling, shining coruscum, corusci n. Latin noun, lightening. coruscus -a -um Latin adjective, vibrating, waving, tremulous, shaking; flashing, twinkling; brilliant. coruscus, coruscus m. Latin noun, lightening; (2 Ezra 6:2) coruscans sparkling, shining corv-, corvus, -corvus Latin a crow, raven. corvinus, corvina, corvinum Latin adjective, raven-, of, belonging, or pertaining to a raven; crow black, shiny black, pertaining to the raven. corvus, corvi n. Latin noun, raven; cormorant (with aquaticus); kind of sea fish; constellation Corvus (Raven); military engine; grappling iron; surgical instrument; fellator (rude). cory-, coryd, corys, -corys Greek a helmet. coryandrus helmet-shaped coryc-, coryco, corycus, -corycus Greek a sack. coryd-, corydo, corydus, -corydus Greek the crested lark. corydal-, corydalis, -corydalis, corydalus, -corydalus Greek a lark; larkspur. Corydalis (ko-RI-da-lis) New Latin, from Greek name korydallis crested lark, for the similarity of the spur of the flower to that of the lark; akin to Latin cornu horn; alternately from the Greek name for Fumitory, from which the genus was taken. (Fumariaceae) coryl-, coryli, corylus, -corylus Latin the hazel tree corylifolius corylus-leaved, with leaves like Corylus, Hazel Corylopsis from Greek korylos, hazel, and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view. Corylus (KO-ril-us) from Latin corylus, hazel from the classic Greek name, korylos, from Greek korus, helmet, for shape and hardness of nut shells, or in reference to the involucre. corymb-, corymbus, -corymbus Greek the top, summit a cluster of flowers, referring to a corymb, a broad, or flat-topped flower cluster. corymbiferus, corymbifera corymb-bearing, (convex clusters of flowers, etc.) corymbiflorus corymb-flowered, with flowers arranged in a corymb, flowering in a convex cluster corymbosus -a -um corymbo'sus (kor-im-BO-sus) corymbose, arranged in corymbs, with flowers in corymbs corymbulosus -a -um arranged in small corymbs or in small clusters corymbus the corymb, or cluster (e.g. Iberis, with a flat top?) coryn-, coryna, -coryna, corynet Greek a club, referring to a club shape. corynacanthus with club-like thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. Corynephorus bearing clubs corynocarpus bearing club-like fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. corynocalyx with a club-shaped calyx corynodes with a club-like spike(?) coryph-, corypha, -corypha Greek the head, top, referring to the top or apex of an entity. Corypha a palm genus whose immense members produce flowers only once, in a huge panicle at the very tip of the trunk, and then the tree dies Coryphantha Coryphantha (kor-ee-FAN-tha) Greek coryph, head, helmet, or crown, and Greek anthos, flower, referring to the apical location of flowers in contrast with the ring of lateral flowers in the related genus Mammillaria. (Cactaceae) corys-, -corys Greek a helmet, referring to a helmet. Corysanthus

coryst-, corystes, -corystes Greek a warrior. coryz-, coryza, -coryza Greek a running at the nose. coscin-, coscini, cosinum, -coscinum Greek a sieve. Coscinodon from Greek koskinon, sieve, and odon, tooth, alluding to peristome cosm-, cosmo Greek order; the world, universe. cosmet Greek well ordered, adorned. cosmophyllus cosmos-leaved, with beautiful leaves Cosmos Cos'mos (KOS-mos) Cosmos plural Cosmos or Cosmoses beautiful, New Latin from German kosmos, from Greek, Greek κόσµος, kosmos, ornament, beautiful, in reference from its elegant foliage; also order, a harmoniously ordered universe. (Compositae) cost-, costa, -costa Latin a rib. cost-, costum, -costum Latin an aromatic plant. costalis fluted, ribbed costaricensis from Costa Rica in Central America costatus -a -um costa'tus (ko-STAY-tus) costate, ribbed, fluted costulatus with fine ribs or veins (said of leaves) cosyrensis from Pantellaria (formerly Cosyra), a small island between Sicily and North Africa Cota Possibly from the pre-Linnaean generic name used as epithet in Anthemis cota Linnaeus cothurn-, cothurnus, -corthurnus Greek a high shoe, boot. cotin-, cotinus, -cotinus Greek oleaster, wild olive. cotinifolius cotinus-leaved, the Smoke Tree; alternately with leaves like Sumach, Rhus-cotinus cotinoides resembling Sumach, Rhus-cotinus Cotinus New Latin, from Latin cotinus, a kind of shrub furnishing a purple color cotonea New Latin Quince, from cotonea, cotonia, Cotoneaster New Latin, from Latin cotoneum, cydoneum, or cotonea, cotonia, quince, and New Latin -aster, a reference to an inferior or wild sort or type, or an incomplete resemblance, meaning quincelike, a possible reference to the leaves or the small, seedy fruit. cott-, cottus, -cottus Greek a kind of fish; a cock; a horse. cotticus from the Cottian Alps, between France and Italy Cotula Cot'ula (KOT-yoo-la) Greek kotule, small cup cotuliferus yielding alkalies (?) cotuloides resembling Cotula, Mayweed coturni-, coturnic, coturnix, -coturnix Latin a quail. cotyl-, cotyled, cotylo- Greek a cup, socket, cavity. cotyl-, -cotyl(...) referring to a cup, as in Cotyledon, a genus of succulents whose leaves are usually concave. cotyledon seed lobe or seed leaf in higher plants, referring to the often spoon- or bowl-shape of the seed leaves, New Latin from Linnaeus, from Latin cotylēdon, the succulent plant navelwort or pennywort, from Greek κοτυληδών, kotyledon, from κοτύλη, kotyle, in Latin form cotyla, a hollow thing, a small vessel, a small liquid measure of about half a pint; a cup-shaped cavity, the sucker of an octopus, an acetabulum. cotyliformis dish shaped or wheel shaped cotyloides hollowed coulteri coul'teri (KOLE-ter-eye) for Thomas Coulter (1793-1843), Irish botanist and plant collector coulterianum coulterian'um (kole-ter-ee-AY-num) coum- from the Greek island of Κῶς, Kos, now Stanchio, in the Ægean. See cous. counter Latin opposite, against. cous from the Turkish island Cos or Kos in the Mediterranean. See coum. covesii coves'ii (KOVES-ee-eye) covillei covil'lei (ko-VIL-ee-eye) cox-, coxa, -coxa, coxo Latin the hip. crabro-, -crabron, crabron Latin a hornet. cracc-, cracca, -cracca Latin cracca, craccae f., kind of wild vetch, from Latin name applied by Rivinius to Vicia cracca, the Italian name Cracca and French name Vesce craque. cracen-, cracent Latin slender, from cracens, (gen.), cracentis adjective, slender; neat, graceful. cracoviensis from Cracow or Krakau in Galacia, Austria-Hungary cracy, -cracy Greek rule; strength. cramb-, crambo Latin: cabbage; Greek: parched

cramboides resembling Crambe, Seakale, from Latin crambē, from Greek κράµβη, krambe, a kind of cabbage cran-, crano, cranus, -cranus Greek a helmet. crang-, crango, crangon, -crangon Greek a shrimp. crani-, crania, cranio-, cranium, -cranium Greek the skull. Cranichis Greek kranos, helmet, for helmetlike appearance of lip cranter Greek a performer. crapul-, crapula, -crapula Latin intoxication. cras-, crasi Greek mix, blend. crasped- craspedo Greek a border craspedosorus surrounded with rows of veins crass- Latin thick. crasse thickly, from Latin adverb crasse, crassius, crassissime, dimly orindistinctly, without detail; coarsely or inartistically; with a thick layer, or thickly. crassicarpus -a -um New Latin from Latin and Greek for thick pod or thick-fruited, from Latin crassus -a um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. crassicaulis -is -e crassicau'lis (kras-i-KAW-lis) thick-stemmed, with a thick stalk, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. crassidens with large teeth, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . crassifolius -a -um crassifo'lius (kras-i-FO-lee-us) thick-leaved, with thick leaves, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . crassiglumis -is -e thick husked or glumed, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and gluma, noun f. a hull or husk, and -is adjectival suffix. crassior thicker, or fleshier, Latin comparative adjective. crassinervis -is -e, crassinervius -a -um with thick nerves or veins, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . crassinodus -a -um with thick knots, from Latin crassus -a -um, thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . crassipes, crassipedes thick-footed or thick-stalked, with a thick stem, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . crassisepalus -a -um with thick, fleshy sepals, from Latin crassus -a -um, thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . crassispinus -a -um with thick spines, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . crassities thickness, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and -ities suffix indicating the abstract or general result of an action. crassiusculus -a -um somewhat thick, slightly thickened, from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . Crassulaceae Crassula'ceae (krass-yu-LAY-see-ee) plants of the Orpine family, a whole family of succulent (thick- stemmed and fleshy-leaved) plants, from the genus name, Crassula, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names; from Latin crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, and . Crassula Cras'sula (KRAS-yoo-la) crassus -a -um thick, fleshy; solid, fat, dense, from Latin crassus -a -um. crassus -a -um, crassior -or -us, crassissimus -a -um Latin adjective thickor deep; thick coated, with ablative; turbid or muddy, of a rive); dense, concentrated, and solid fat, or stout; rude, coarse, rough, harsh, heavy, gross; stupid, crass or insensitive. crastin- Latin tomorrow, from crastino, adverb tomorrow, or crastinum, crastini n., noun tomorrow. crat-, cratero, crati-, crato-, cratus, -cratus Greek strength, power. crataeg-, crataegus, -crataegus Greek a kind of thorn. crataegifolius -a -um crataegus-leaved, with leaves like Crataegus, hawthorn Crataegus, Crataegus -a -um (kra-TIE-gus) from the Greek κράτος, kratos, strength and firmness for the hard wood, also in reference to crataeg-, Greek for thorn, for the many thorny species. crater-, cratera, -cratera Latin a bowl. crateriformis -is -e cup-shaped or goblet-shaped crateroides resembling shallow cups crati- Latin: wickerwork; Greek: strength, power. crato- Greek strength, power. crawei for Ithamar Bingham Crawe (1792-1847 New York physician, who discovered Carex crawei.

crawfordii for Ethan Allan Crawford, early settler in the White Mountains of New Hampshire cre-, creas-, -creas, creat-, creo- Greek flesh, meat. creber, crebra, crebrum close together, pressed closely together, crowded crebifo'lius (????) crebifo'lius (kreb-i-FO-lee-us) crebr- Latin frequent, close. crebre Latin adverb closely, compactly, from creber, thick, close, repeated. crebrispinus with strong(?) thorns crebriter Latin adverb repeatedly, from creber, thick, close, repeated. crebro Latin adverb repeatedly, closely, from creber, thick, close, repeated. crebrus, crebra close, frequent, repeated crecisc- Latin a rail-like bird. Credo Elvem etiam vivere. I believe Elvis lives. Credo Elvem ipsum etian vivere. I think that Elvis is still alive. crem-, crema Latin burn. crem-, crema, cremo Greek hang. cremaster, -cremaster Greek a suspender. cremnophilus rain-loving, moisture-loving cremocarpus with drooping fruit or suspended fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. cremophyllus with drooping leaves cren-, crena, -crena, creno Greek a spring. cren-, crena, crenul Latin a notch. cren- scalloped, crenulate crenatiflorus with scalloped or crenulate flowers, bearing flowers scalloped at the edge crenato-dentatus with rounded notched teeth crenato-serratus with rounded saw teeth crenatus crenate, scalloped, with rounded teeth, having a scalloped-toothed or notched edge crenophilus spring-loving crenulatus -a -um crenula'tus (kren-yoo-LAY-tus) crenulate, somewhat scalloped, with small rounded teeth, finely notched with rounded teeth or grena(?) creo Greek flesh, meat. crepi-, crepido, crepis, -crepis Greek a boot, sandal. crepidatus slippered, or sandal crepidifolius with leaves like Crepis, Hawkbeard Crepis Cre'pis (KREP-is) New Latin, from Latin, a plant, from Greek krēpis, literally, boot, slipper or sandal, for the shape of the cypselae, a name of a plant used by Theophrastus crepit- Latin creak, rattle. crepitans crackling, rustling, rattling crepitus, crepitus m. Latin noun, rattling, rustling, crash of thunder; chattering of teeth; snap of the fingers; fart; crepo, crepare, crepui, crepitus Latin verb, rattle, rustle, clatter; jingle, tinkle; snap of the fingers; harp on, grumble at; fart; crack; burst asunder; resound. crepuscul- Latin twilight. crepuscularia referring to twilight cresc- Latin grow, increase. crescens growing Cressa Cres'sa (KRES-sa) cret-, creta, -creta Latin: chalk; separated; Greek: Crete. cretaceous -a -um dull white, chalky white, referring to chalk cretensis, creticus, cretis, cretaeus cret'icus (KRET-i-kus) of or from the island Crete in the Mediterranean crethmos f. samphire, rock fennel, Crithmum maritimum (L.) Creticum see also phu, a nard, Pontic nard, Valeriana dioscoridis (?); 'another wild nard', Valeriana phu (L.). crex-, -crex Greek a rail. crib-, cribell, cribr- Latin a sieve. cribatus having holes or perforations (such as in leaves, etc.) crinrosus seive-like cric-, crico-, cricus, -cricus Greek a ring, circle.

crin-, crino, crinum, -crinum Greek a lily, from Latin crinon, crini, n., a variety of lily; separate. crinalis New Latin ? hairy, (meaning the same as hirsute?) crinalis -is -e Latin adjective, worn in the hair; covered with hair-like filaments; of/pertaining to hair. crini-, crinis, -crinis Latin the hair. crinibulbis, crinibulbon with onion shaped hair cushion crinicaulis -is -e with a long-haired, mane-like stalk, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. crininus -a -um Latin adjective, lily-, made of lilies. crinio, crinire, -, crinitus Latin verb, deck, cover, or provide with hair. crinipes with a hairy stem crinit- Latin bearded. crinitus -a -um provided with long haired, covered with long hair, mane-like, hairy, from Latin crinitus -a um, from crinis, crinis, m., hair and –itis, provided with, adjective (or past participle of crinio), with long hair, for a hairy appearance; in Carex crinita for a hairy appearrance of the awned spreading scales. crinis, crinis m. Latin noun, hair; lock of hair, tress, plait; plume of a helmet; tail of a comet. crinon, crini n., crinum, crini n. Latin noun, variety of lily; a kind of ointment/unguent (plural). crunulosus with a short mane Crinum from Greek krinon, a lily crio Greek a ram. crisi-, crisis, -crisis Greek a judgment, a choosing. crisp-, crispus -a um Latin curled. crispatulus finely curled crispatus, crispus crisped, curled, crinkled crispatus curled or curling closely crispiflorus having curled flowers crispifolius with curled leaves crispulus curly-haired crispus -a -um cris'pus (KRIS-pus) curled closely, crested (said of fern fronds, etc.) crissa-, crissal- modern Latin crissālis, pertaining to the crissum, the anal region of a bird under the tail, the under tail coverts. crisso, crissare, crissavi, crissatus Latin verb, move the haunches as in copulation (women) (rude). crissum modern Latin, from crissāre ‘clunem movere’. crist-, crista, -crista Latin a crest, referring to a crest. crista a comb, a crest, a terminal tuft, as in crista-galli, Cockscomb crista, cristae f. Latin noun, crest or comb of bird or beast; plume of a helmet; plant yellow-rattle; clitoris. crista-galli literally, crest of a cock, or cock's comb, a cockerel’s comb cristatellus -a -um with a small tuft, a small comb, or a small crest, from Latin cristatus -a -um, tufted, crested, and –ellus -a -um, diminutive suffix. cristatus -a -um crista'tus (kris-TAH-tus) crested, comb-like, from Latin adjective cristatus -a -um, tufted, crested; having a comb or tuft on head; plumed; [cristatus ales => cock]. In Iris cristata, a reference to the crested ridges along the central yellow or white purple striped band on the sepals. cristatus, cristati m. Latin noun, one who wears a plumed helmet, alternately the head of the penis. crith-, critha, -critha Greek barley, from κρῑθή, kritha, barley-corn, the smallest weight. crithmifolius crithmum-leaved, with leaves like Crithmum, Peters-cress or Sea-fennel crithmoides like Crithmum, rock samphire crithoides barley-like criti-, critic Greek chosen, select. croaticus from Croatia croc-, croce Greek a pebble; a thread. croc-*, croc-, croco Greek the crocus; saffron, orange-colored, referring to the crocus (yellow). crocatus saffron-like Crocus from Greek krokos, saffron crocus, -i m., also crocum, -i n. saffron, used in medicines, as a spice and in perfumes, from Celsus, Ovid. crocatus -a -um croca'tus (kro-KAY-tus) saffron-yellow crocid Greek the nap on cloth. Crocidium Greek krokis, downy fibers of woolen cloth, and -idium, diminutive, for the to axillary tomentum

croceo-lanatus with yellow wool or pubescence croceus -a -um from Latin saffron, saffron-colored, saffron-yellow, yellow, dark orange-yellow croceus -a -um cro'ceus (KRO-see-us) Latin adjective, yellow, golden; saffron-colored; of saffron or its oil, saffron-; scarlet in Ecclestical references. crocidatus wooly, fluffly crociflorus with crocus (saffron) like flowers crocodil-, crocodilus, -crocodilus Greek a lizard, crocodile. crocosmaeflorus crocosma-flowered Crocosmia “Greek krokos, crocus, and osme, scent, because the dried flowers boiled in water smell like the spice saffron obtained from that plant” (fna) crocut-, crocuta, -crocuta Latin a hyena. cromy-, cromyo-, cromyum, -cromyum Greek an onion. Croptilon Greek kropion, scythe, and ptilon, wing or feather, perhaps alluding to perceived winglike or featherlike appearance of curved, pinnately toothed leaves, the allusion to "feather" explicit by Rafinesque, "col. feather," but not explained cross-, crosso Greek a tassel, fringe. crossopetalus having fringed petals Crossosoma Crossoso'ma (kraw-so-SO-ma) Crossosomataceae Crossosomata'ceae (kros-o-so-ma-TAY-see-ee) from the genus name, Crossosoma, and aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. crotal-, crotal-, crotalum, -crotalum Greek a rattle, castanet, referring to rattles (Crotalaria, a papilionaceus genus whose dry seed pods rattle like castanets). crotaph-, crotaphus, -crotaphus Greek the temples. croto- Greek rattle; a tick. Crotolaria New Latin, from Latin crotalum, from Greek κρόταλον, krotalon, a rattle, a bell, castanet, used to accompany wanton dances, and New Latin -aria; from the rattling of the ripe seeds in the horny pod when shaken. (Leguminosae) crotalariae crotalar'iae (kro-ta-LARE-ee-ee) Croton, croton Cro'ton (KRO-ton) Greek κροτών, krotōn, a tick; the castor oil plant Ricinus communis. crotonifolius croton-leaved cruc- referring to a cross cruci- Latin a cross; torture. cruciatus -a -um cross-like, cross-shaped, crosswise, as the flowers of Cruciferae; with leaves if alternate pairs in right angles to the pair below; an instrument of torture, torture, misfortune, from crucio, cruciare, cruciavi, cruciatum (fiercely armed with thorns set crosswise). See also decussatus. crucifera cross-bearing the Cruciferae, a genus including mustards and cabbage-types, the whose 4-petals form a cross Cruciferae plants of the Wall-flower family. the petals, etc., make a cross. cruciferus cross-bearing, having flowers with four petals in the form of a cross cruciformis cross-shaped, in the form of a cross crucigerus cross bearing crudesc- Latin becoming raw. cruent-, cruentus Latin bleeding, bloody. cruentatus blood-red, dull-red crumentatus pocket-shaped, pouch-shaped Crupina pre-Linnaean generic name of unknown derivation cruor Latin blood. crur-, crura Latin the leg, shank, from crus, cruris, n. cruralis somewhat leg-shaped crurigerus leg-shaped, from crus, the leg crus, -crus Latin the leg, shank, from crus, cruris n., leg; shank; shin; main stem of shrub, stock; upright support of a bridge. crus-corvi Latin crus, leg or thigh, and corvus, raven, for the spurred appearance crusgalli, crus-galli kroos-GA-lee, a cock’s spur or cockerel’s spur crusi-, crusis, crusis Greek a stroke on a stringed instrument. crust-, crusta, -crusta Latin a crust, rind.

crustaceus brittle, bark-like crustatus -a -um encrusted, incrusted, covered with a crust, from a Latinization of Herschel Shmoikel Pinkus Yerucham Krustofski, better known as Krusty the Clown; alternately form Latin crustātus, crusted, incrusted, from the past participle of crusto, crustare, to encrust, to cover. crux, -crux Latin a cross. cry-, crymo-, cryo- Greek cold, frost. crymophilus ice loving or cold loving crybel-, crybelo Greek hidden. cryph- Greek hidden. cryps- Greek secret. Crypsis from Greek κρύψις, krypsis, concealment, for the inflorescence partially concealed by the subtending sheaths. (Gramineae) crypt-, crypto- hidden, concealed, hidden, not obvious, Latin crypta, from Greek κρύπτη, krypte, vault, from κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, concealed. cryptanthus -a -um, Cryptantha Cryptan'tha (kryp-TAN-tha) hidden flower, from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, and . cryptandrus with hidden stamens or anthers, Latin crypta, from Greek κρύπτη, krypte, vault, from κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, concealed and modern Latin -andrus, from Greek -ανδρος -andros, adjective ending, from ἀνδρ-, andr-, stem of ἀνήρ, aner, man. cryptatherus with a concealed spike or hidden spike, from crypto, to conceal cryptocarpus bearing concealed fruit, from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, and καρπός, karpos, fruit. cryptocerus in distinctly horned, from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, and cryptogamea plants destitute of stamens, pistil, and true seeds cryptogamus multiplying by spores, from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, and Cryptogramma Cryptogram'ma (kryp-toe-GRAM-ma) Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, and gramme, line, referring to the ± marginal soral bands hidden or protected by revolute margins. cryptolepis concealed scale, from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, and λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale, flake, small plate, capsule. Cryptomeria from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, to conceal, hide, and meris, a part cryptophilus growing in caves or secret places, from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, and Cryptotaenia from crypto hidden, concealed, hidden, not obvious, Latin crypta, from Greek κρύπτη, krypte, vault, from κρυπτός, kryptos, hidden, concealed, and Latin taenia, from Greek ταινια, tainia, a band, ribbon, fillet, (or wreath, border) a reference to the concealed oil-tubes, or a reference to the obsolete border of the calyx (Wood 1873). (Umbelliferae) cryst-, crystallo Greek ice, crystal. crystallinus -a -um crystalli'nus (kri-stal-EYE-nus) crystalline, clear like crystal cserei cten-, ctenidi-, cteniz, cteno- the combining form Greek κτείς, κτενός, kteis, ktenos, a comb. Ctenitis Greek κτείς, kteis, comb ctenochlaenus in a comb-like enclosure ctenoides comb-like Ctenium from Greek κτενίον, ktenion, a small comb, for the resemblance of the spike. (Gramineae) cton-, ctono Greek kill. cub- Latin: lie down; New Latin: Cuba; Greek: a cube. cubensis from the island of Cuba cubicus in the form of a cube, dice-shaped cubit-, cubitum, -cubitum Latin the elbow. cubo- Greek a cube. cucubaloides resembling the berry bearing Campion, Cucubalis. cucubalus the berry bearing Campion, Cucubalis; cf. the Latin noun cucubalus, cucubali f., plant; strychnon; of the nightshade family; also called strumus. cucuj- Brazilian a kind of beetle cucul-, cuculi, cuculus, -cuculus Latin a cuckoo, from cuculus, cuculi m., Latin noun, cuckoo bird; fool, ninny; cuckold; bastard. cucul-, cucull-, cucullus, -cucullus Latin a hood, referring to a hood, from cuculla, cucullae f., cucullus, cuculli m., hood, cowl; covering for the head; cap; conical wrapper or case for goods.

cucullarius, cucullaria kuk-ew-LAH-ree-a hood-like, like a hood, for the flowers. cucullatus -a -um hooded, hood-like, cap-shaped or hood-shaped, from the Latin adjective cucullatus -a um, hooded, having a hood. cucum-, cucumer, cucumis, -cucumis Latin a cucumber. cucumerinus cucumber-like, resembling Cucumis, cucumber cucumerodes resembling Cucumis, cucumber Cucumis Latin for cucumber, cucumer-um, cucumis; alternately Celtic cuce, a hollow vessel? (Cucurbitaceae) cucurbit-, curcurbita, -curcurbita Latin a gourd. Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita'ceae (kyu-kur-bi-TAY-see-ee) plants of the gourd family, from the genus name, Cucurbita, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cucurbitaceus resembling the Gourd, Cucurbita Cucurbita Cucur'bita (kew-KUR-bi-ta) from the Latin name for a gourd; alternately a Latin word for a vessel, referring to the shape of the fruit. (Cucurbitaceae) cucurbitinus Gourd-like Cui bono? Who benefits? (Cicero) (Augustin motto) cujabensis from Cujaba in Brazil cul-, -cula, -culum, -culus -a -um Latin little, small, adjectival diminutive suffix used with adjectival bases (or nouns of any declinsion). culcitiformis cushion-shaped cule-, culeus, -culeus Latin a sack. culex, -culex, culic Latin a gnat. culin-, culina, -culina Latin a kitchen. culinaris culm, culmus, -culmus Latin a stalk. culmus a stalk or straw of grain or grasses culm, culmen, -culmen, culmin Latin a ridge, summit. culp-, culpa, -culpa Latin crime, fault, blame cult- Latin cultivate, plow, till cultorum of the cultivators and gardeners, of cultivated land such as gardens cultr- Latin a knife, from Latin cultrātus, from culter, cultr-, knife, or share, as in plow share, English coulter, colter. cultratus knife-shaped, in the shape of a knife blade cultriformis shaped like a broad knife blade, in the shape of a knife blade -culu, -culus, -cula, -culum Latin little, a diminutive suffix used with nouns of the Third and Fourth Declinsion, as in fasci-culus little fascis or little bundle, auri-cula little ear, opus-culum small work, also as in calculus, Ranunculus, curriculum, operculum, vasculum, vinculum. cum-, cuma-, cumato- Greek a wave. Cum catapultae proscriptae erunt tum soli proscript catapultas habebunt. When catapults are outlawed, only outlaws will have catapults. cum laude with praise cumanensis -is -e (koo-man-EN-sis) from Cumaná in Venezuela’s Sucre State, the oldest city on mainland America; alternately of or from the Eurasian steppe area inhabited by the Cumans, who ahd an 11th and 12th century confederacy stretching from todays Ukraine to Kazakstan. cumanensis, cumanus from Cumáans in Venezuela cumb Latin lie down. cuminoides resembling Cuminum cyminum, Cummin-plant. cumul-, cumulo Latin a heap, mass; form a heap. cumulatus -a -um heaped, massed, from Latin cumulatus, heaped up, from cumulus, a heap cumuliflorus flowering in masses, bearing dense masses of flowers cun-, cuna, -cuna Latin a cradle. cunabul-, cunabula,- cunabula Latin a cradle. cundinamarcensis from Cundinamarca in Columbia -cundus -a -um Latin adjectival suffix indicating an aptitude or constant tendency. cune-, cune-, cunei, cuneus, -cuneus Latin a wedge, referring to a wedge shape.

cuneatus -a -um cunea'tus (kew-nee-AY-tus) cuneate, wedge shaped, pointed from Latin cuneatus, adjective, pointed, wedge shaped. cuneifolius -a -um, cunëifolius cuneifo'lius (kew-nee-i-FO-lee-us) wedge-leaved, with wedge-shaped leaves cuneiformis, cunëiformis cuneate, wedge-formed cunicul-, cuniculus, -cuniculus Latin a rabbit; a burrow, an underground passage. cuniculatus with a hollow spur like the peduncle of Tropaeolum Cuniculotinus from Latin cuniculus, rabbit, and tinus, shrub, rabbit brush, a commonly used name for species of Chrysothamnus in the broad sense cunil-, cunila -ae f. Latin a kind of plant, a name used for Satureja and Origanum species, from κονίλη. cunilago a kind of cunila, a name used for Satureja montana. cunn-, cunnus, -cunnus Latin the vulva, from cunnus, female pudenda. Cunoniaceae plants of the Red Alder family, from the genus name, Cunonia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cup-, cupa, -cupa Latin a tub. cupianus named for Francesco Cupani (1657-1711), Italian monk cupedi Latin dainty, from cupedia, cupediae f., noun, gourmandism, a fondness for dainties ; daintiness, delicacies (pl.). Cuphea New Latin, irregular from Greek κυφός, kyphos curved or gibbous, hump; from the protuberance on the calyx tube, or in reference to the capsule; akin to Old English hūfe hood, Greek kyptein to bend forward, stoop, Sanskrit kakubha high, eminent. (Lythraceae) cupid- Latin desire; eager. cupr-, cupri-, cupro-, cuprum, -cuprum Latin copper. cupr- referring to a copper color cuprarius cupreus, copper colored cupreatus coppery, or copper color cupress- referring to a cypress Cupressaceae Cupressa'ceae (koo-press-AY-see-ee), from the genus name, Cupressus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cupressiformis -is -e cypress-form, resembling Cupressus cupressinus cypress-like, resembling Cupressus cupressoides cypress-like, like Cupressus, cypress Cupressus Cupres'sus (koo-PRES-us) Latin name of Cupressus sempervirens cupreus coppery, from Late Latin cupreus, from cuprum copper, cupreous, containing or resembling copper cupul-, cupula, -cupula Latin a cup, cask. cupularis bowl-shaped, as the cup of the acorn cupulatus -a -um cupula'tus (kup-yoo-LAY-tus) having small cups cupuliformis bowl, basin, or lid shaped currassavicus -a -um curassavi'cus (ku-ra-SAH-vi-kus, or koor-ass-a-VI-kus) of or from Curaçao, in the West Indies in the Caribbean. curcu Arabic orange-colored, possibly from Arabic, kurkum, saffron, turmeric curculio, -curculio, curculion Latin a weevil curculigoides resembling Curculigo, Weevil-plant Curcuma the name of a genus of Zingiberaceae in some East Indian language; alternately from medieval or modern Latin, from Arabic, kurkum, saffron, turmeric curr-, curren Latin run; running. curriculum vitae a resume, literally the course of your life. curso-, cursor Latin run; a runner. curt-, curti Latin short. curt-, curto Greek curved. curtatus shortened curtipendulus -a -um hanging down somewhat, or short-hanging, from Latin curti-, short, and pendulus, hanging. The seeds are borne in two rows on one side of the seed stalk, hence sideoats. curtipes cur'tipes (KUR-ti-pees) with shortened feet or stalks, from Latin curti- short, and -pes, referring to a foot or stalk curtulus somewhat short curtus -a -um cur'tus (KUR-tus) shortened

curussavicus ku-ra-SAH-vi-kus of or from Curaçao, in the West Indies in the Caribbean. curv-, curvi- Latin curved. curvans curving, bending curvatus curved, bent, bowed, from Latin adjective curvātus, past participle of curvāre, to curve curvicaulis -is -e with a bent or curved stalk, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. curvicornis with curved horns curvidentatus with bent curved teeth curviflorus with curved flowers curvifolius leaves curved, with curved leaves curvipes cur'vipes (KUR-vi-pees) curvirostris with a curved beak curvisiliqua curvisili'qua (kur-vi-si-LI-kwa) curvispinus having short curved thorns curvistylis with a curved style curvulus, curvula slightly curved, with a short, sharp curve curvus curved, bent, crooked cuscuta, -cuscuta Arabic dodder. Cuscuta Cuscu'ta (koos-KOO-ta) New Latin, from Medieval Latin, dodder, from Arabic kushuth, kashuta, kashutha. Cuscutaceae Cuscuta'ceae (koos-ku-TAY-see-ee) the dodder family, from the genus name, Cuscuta, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cuscutaeformis -is -e cuscuta-like Cusickiella Cusickiel'la (koo-sik-ee-EL-la) cusickii after William Conklin Cusick (1842-1922), Illinois-born botanist who collected in the Blue and cuspi- cuspid-, cuspis, -cuspis Latin a point, from cuspis, cuspidis f., noun, point or tip of a spear, pointed end; spit, stake; blade; javelin, spear, lance, sting. cuspidatus -a -um cuspida'tus (kus-pi-DAY-tus) cuspidate, with a cusp or sharp, stiff, or rigid point, tipped with a sharp rigid point or cusp, from the past participle of the Latin verb, cuspido, cuspidare, cuspidavi, cuspidatus, tip, provide with a point; make pointed. cuspidifolius leaves cuspidate Wallowa Mountains of Oregon. custod- Latin guard. cut-, cutane-, cuti-, cutic- Latin skin, from cuticula, cuticulae f., noun, skin; cuticle; or cutis, cutis f., skin; external appearance, surface. cutaneus -a -um Latin relating to the skin, from cutis, skin, and -aneus, adjectival suffix indicating resemblance or the material out of which something is made. cuticula Latin cuticle, from cutis, skin and -ula, the diminutive suffix. cuticularis with a loose membrane covering or bark. cutispongius with a spongy membrane cyam-, cyamo-, cyamus Greek a bean, from cyamos, (cyamus) cyami m., Latin noun for the Egyptian bean, Nelumbium speciosum, also called colocasia. cyan-, cyane-, cyani-, cyano- from Greek dark blue, or referring to the color blue cyananthus blue-flowered, bearing blue flowers cyanus, cyaneus -a -um cyan'eus (sy-AN-ee-us) dark blue, (or clear, bright blue in one source), from Latin cyanus, blue colored from cyaneus, blue steel, azure, dark blue, for the flowers. cyanocarpus blue-fruited, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. cyanochilus having blue-lips cyanochrous on the color of a cornflower cyanoides resembling Centaurea cyanus, cornflower cyanophyllus with blue leaves Cyanthillium origin uncertain; probably Greek cyanos, blue, and anthyllion, little flower, referring to corollas cyath-, cyathus, -cyathus Greek a cup, referring to a cup. Cyatheaceae plants of the Cup or Tree-fern family, from the genus name, Cyathea, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cyatheoides cyathoidea-like, resembling Cup or Tree-fern, Cyathea

cyatheiformis resembling Cup or Tree-fern, Cyathea cyathiformis, cyathiforme cup-shaped, shaped like a drinking cup cyathiphorum cup-bearing cyathophorus bearing cup-like organs cybe Greek the head of a mushroom. cybern- Greek steer, guide. cybister, -cybister Greek a diver. cybo- Greek a cube. cyca-, cycad Greek a kind of palm Cycadaceae plants of the Sago Palm family, from the genus name, Cycas, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cycadifolius with leaves (fronds) like the Sago-Palm cycadinus resembling Cycas, Sago-Palm Cycas cycl-, cyclo-, cyclus, -cyclus Greek a circle, wheel, referring to a circle. Cyclachaena from Greek cyclo-, circular, and Latin achenium, achene; allusion uncertain, perhaps to the ring of cypselae in each fruiting head Cycladenia Cycladen'ia (sik-la-DEEN-ee-a) Cyclamen from Greek kyklos, a circle cyclamineus cyclamen-like Cyclanthaceae plants of the Climbing Cucumber family, from the genus name, Cyclanthera, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Cyclanthera circle of anthers cyclocarpus fruit rolled up circularly, bearing circular fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. cyclodontis with round teeth cycloglossus -a -um with tongues arranged in circles, from , and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue. Cycloloma Greek cyclos, ring, circle, and loma, border cyclophyllus with leaves in a circle, with round leaves cyclops cyclopean, gigantic; circular, one-eyed Cyclopogon Greek cyclo, circular, and from ancient Greek pōgōn, πώγων, beard, possibly in reference to pubescent bases of sepals of the type species cyclopterus with circular wings cyclosorus -a -um cyclosor'us (sik-lo-SOR-us) cycn-, cycno, cygn-, cyn- referring to a swan from Latin cycnēus, cygnēus, from cycnus, cygnus, a swan, from Greek, κύκνειος, kykneios, a swan. cydn-, cydno- Greek splendid, noble, famous. cydon- cydoni- Greek the quince. Cydonia named for the town of Cydonia, Crete, where the quince originated. (Rosaceae) cydoniifolius with leaves like Cydonia, Quince cydonioides resembling Quince cyem- cyema-, cyemato-, cyemi- Greek an embryo. cyesi-, cyeso-, cyesis, -cyesis Greek pregnancy. cygn-, cygnus, -cygnus a swan from Latin cycnus, cygnus, a swan, from Greek, κύκνειος, kykneios, a swan, cygneus from the Swan River in Australia; referring to a swan from Latin cycnēus, cygnēus, from cycnus, cygnus, a swan, from Greek, κύκνειος, kykneios, a swan. cygniformis with the form of a swan cygnorum swan-like, from Cygnus, a swan cyl- referring to a cylinder cylichn-, cylichna, -cylincha Greek a small cup. cylind-, cylindro- modern Latin cylindric-, from Greek a roll, cylinder, from κυλινδρικός, kylindrokos, from κύλινδρος, kylindros, cylinder. cylindraceus -a -um cylindra'ceus (sil-in-DRAY-see-us) cylindric, of cylindrical form cylindricus -a -um cylin'dricus (sil-IN-dri-kus) cylindrical (of stalks), modern Latin cylindric-, from Greek a roll, cylinder, from κυλινδρικός, kylindrokos, from κύλινδρος, kylindros, cylinder. cylindriatus, cylindriata

Cylindropuntia Cylindropun'tia (sil-in-dro-PUN-tee-a) Latin cylindrus, cylinder, and Opuntia, the genus from which this genus was removed cylindrostachys, cylindrosytachyus with cylindrical spikes cyll-, cyllo- Greek lame, crippled. cylleneus from Mount Cyliene, now Zyria, in Greece cym-, cyma, -cyma, cymo- Greek a wave; an embryo. cym- referring to a cyme, a broad, flat-topped flower cluster cyma turnip-tops, from Celsus. cymb-, cymba, -cymba, cymbi, cymbo Greek a hollow vessel, referring to a boat or the shape of a boat. New Latin, from Latin, boat, from Greek kymbe boat, bowl, cup cymba a woody durable boat-shaped spathe or cover around the flower and fruit cluster of certain palms. Cymba, cumba, κυµβα, means boat, vessel, or Charon’s boat for the dead. κυµβίον is a small cup. I have no secondary sources stating “boot”. Note the following. Cymbalaria cymbalar'ia (sim-bal-AIR-ee-a) from Linaria cymbalaria, Toadflax cymbarius boot-like, from cymba, a boot (?typo from boat?). Cymba, cumba, κυµβα, means boat, vessel, or Charon’s boat for the dead cymbicarpus bearing boot-like(boat?) fruit (bad translation), from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. cymbidoides resembling Cymbidoides cymbidifolius having boot-shaped(boat?) leaves (bad translation). Vallesia cymbifolia. cymbiformis boat-shaped, with the from of a boat or bowl, boot-shaped(?) cymigerus bearing flower clusters of the centrifugal type as in cabbage cyminum the cumin or cummin plant, Cuminum cyminum cymochilus having thick lips Cymodoceaceae Cymodocea'ceae (sy-mo-doe-see-AY-see-ee), the manatee grass family, from the genus name, Cymodocea, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Cymophyllus Greek kyma, wave, billow and phyll, leaf, in reference to the undulate-margined leaves Cymopterus Cymop'terus (sy-MOP-ter-us) cymosus -a -um cymo'sus (sy-MO-sus) cymuliger with a diminutve cyme or a portion of one cyn-, cyno- Greek a dog, referring to a dog, from Latin, from Greek from kyn-, kyon dog: Middle English cyno-. The equivalent Latin is cani-, but the root cyno- was retained as a prefix for many Latin words. cynanchoides cynancho'ides (sy-nan-KO-i-dees) cynanchum-like, resembling Montpelier or Scam-money plant, Cynanchum. Cynanchum, cynanchicus -a -um dog-strangler, New Latin, from Greek kynanchon, dogbane, Marsdenia erecta, from κυον, κυνο-, kyon, kyno-, a dog, and -anchon, from anchein to choke; alternately dog-strangler κυν-αγχω, kyn-agcho, kyn-ancho. Some are poisonous, Squinancy-wort, Asperula cynanchica was used for squinancy, tonsillitis, cognate with quinsy. Cynara Cynar'a (sy-NAR-a) Modern Latin from Greek κυνάρα, κινάρα, kynara, kinara, artichoke, from κύων, kyon, a dog, in reference to the stif, hard spines of the involucre resembling the teeth of a dog. (Compositae) cynapioides resembling Fools-parsley, Aethusa cynapium. cynapium cynaroides cynara-like, resembling Cynara, artichokes cynip-, cynips Greek a kind of insect. cynosbati in one source as dogberry, but better as dog’s thorn, or dog’s thorn bush, from Greek κυον, kyon, κυνο-, kyno-, a dog, and βατι, bati, thorn. Cynodon Cy'nodon (SY-no-don) New Latin, from Greek kynodōn canine tooth, from κυων, κυν-, kuon, kyn-, a dog, and ὄδος, odos, odōn tooth. (Gramineae) Cynodontium Greek κυνος, kynos, dog, odon, tooth, and -ium, diminutive, referring to the peristome Cynoglossum (classically ki-no-GLOS-um, or dumbed-down si-no-GLOS-um) hounds-tongue, from Greek κυον, kyon, κυνο-, kyno-, a dog, and γλωσσα, glossa, a tongue, from Dioscorides’ name κυνογλωσσον, kynoglosson, for the rough leave texture or the leaves resemblance to a dog’s tongue. One would assume this was pronounced with a K sound, but not according to some authors. cynophallophorus bearing a long curved seedpod (one source says like a dog’s tail, bad translation). cynops dog’s head

cynorrhizus -a -um literally dog-root, or like a dog’s snout in one bullshit (putting it mildly) source (like a dog’s tail in one source, also crap), perhaps meaning the roots are like Dog’s-tail, Cynosurus, from , and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. Cynosciadium dog shade, from Greek κυνος, kynos, dog, Greek σκιά, skia shadow, and -ium. cynosuroides resembling Cynosurus, Dog’s-tail or Dog’s-Grass. Cynthia from Greek mythology, one of the names of Diana, “fancifully applied to this genus”. (Compositae) cyo- Greek the foetus. cyon, -cyon Greek a dog. cypar-, cyparis Greek the cypress. cyparissias like cypress cyper-, cyperus, -cyperus from Latin cypērus, -os a rush, sedge, from Greek κύπειρος, κύπερος, kypeiros, kyperos, from Herodotus, a name for an aromatic marsh-plant. Cyperaceae Cypera'ceae (sy-per-AY-see-ee) plants of the Sedge family, from the genus name, Cyperus, and aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. cyperifolius with leaves like Cyperus, Umbrella sedge cyperinus, cyperinus similar to a Cyperus cyperoides resembling Cyperus, Unbrella sedge, Galingale Cyperus Cy'perus (ki-PEER-us, or colloquially SY-per-us, si-PEER-us) New Latin, from Latin cypērus, cypēros a kind of rush, from Greek κύπειρος, κύπερος, kypeiros, kyperos (kuperos), an ancient name for an aromatic marsh plant from Herodotus or sedge, the Eurasian Cyperus longus L., probably of Semitic origin; akin to Hebrew koper, a resin. (Cyperaceae) cyph-, cypho- Greek bent. cyphacanthus having curved thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. cyphanthus bearing curved flowers cyphell-, cyphella, -cyphella Greek the hollow of the ear cypho- from Greek, referring to a hump, a tumor, a wart, a DOT RE. Cyphomeris Greek, kyphos, bent, humped, and meris, part, in reference to the gibbous fruit cyphoplectus hump-like deformed cypr-, cyprae-, cypri-, cypro- Latin Venus; love. cypr- referring to copper, cypreus or a slipper as in Cypripedium, the Lady-Slipper cypreus copper-like cypriacus, cyprius from the isle of Cyprus cyprid- Greek lovely. cyprin-, cyprino, cyprinus, -cyprinus Greek a carp. Cypripedium (kip-ree-PEE-dee-um) from Greek Kypris Aphrodite, Venus and pedilon a slipper, (or Latin pes, foot, perhaps an orthographic error for Greek pedilon, slipper (fna)) referring to the shape of the flowers. (Orchidaceae) cyprius of or from Cyprus Cyrillaceae plants of the Swamp Titi family, from the genus name, Cyrilla, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Cyrtomium Greek cyrtoma, arch, for the arched veins cypsel- a hollow structure; a swift; a beehive from Greek κυψέλη, kypsela, a hollow vessel, chest or box. A dry one-seeded fruit, as the achene with an adnate calyx as in the Compositae. Cypselea Greek kypsele, a hollow box or chest, such as a beehive, which the capsule is thought to resemble cyrenaicus from Cyrenaica, a region of Libya cyri-, cyrio- Greek master of; critical; authentic. cyrt-, cyrt-, cyrto- curved, convex from Greek κυρτο-, kyrto-, from κυρτος, kurtos, curved or arched, referring to a curve cyrtanthoides resembling Cyrtanthus cyrtolobus having arched lobes Cyrtopodium Greek kyrtos, curved swelling, and podium, foot, probably referring to conspicuous column foot cyrtopodus with bent stalks, from and Greek πους, ποδος, pous, podos. Cyrtostachys a curved spike of flowers crytopterus with bent wings cyst, cyst-, cystis, -cystis, cysto- Greek κύστις, kystis, the bladder; a bag, referring to a cyst or bladder.

Cystacanthus bladder thorn, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. cystocarpus having bladder-like fruits, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. Cystopteris Cystop'teris (sis-TOP-ter-is) Greek kystos, cystis, bladder, and pteris, fern, alluding to the indusium, which is inflated when young. cystopteroides resembling Cystopteris, Blader-fern cystostegius with a bladder-like covering cyt-, cyt-e, cyto-, cytus Greek a hollow place; a cell cytisoides broom-like, resembling Cytisus, Milk Trefoil or Tree-trefoil, from cystius, from Greek κυτισος, kutisos, a Greek name for Medicago arborea, used by Linnaeus, and oides, -οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble. Lespedeza cytisoides. Cytisus Cy'tisus (SI-ti-sus) cytisus-like, from cystius, from Greek κυτισος, kytisos, a Greek name used by Linnaeus, for Medicago arborea. Claret is the liquor for boys; port for men; but he who aspires to be a hero must drink brandy." – Samuel Johnson Da mihi sis crustum Etruscum cum omnibus in eo. I'll have a pizza with everything on it. dacn- Greek bite, sting dacry-, dacrym-, dacryo- Greek tears, weeping. dacrydioides dacrydium-like, resembling Dacryioides cypressinum, Red Pine or Spruce, from and oides, οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble. dacyroideus in drop form, tear-like, pear-shaped dactyl-, dactylo-, dactyus, -dactylus Greek a finger or toe, referring to a finger, from δακτυλος, daktylos, finger, toe, or an obsolete meaning is the fruit of the date-palm. dactylifer, dactyliferus, dactylifera finger-bearing; date-bearing(?) dactylinus finger-like, divided like fingers Dactylis Dac'tylis (DAK-til-is) Greek δάκτυλος, daktylos, meaning finger, for the stiff, finger-like branches of the panicle. (Gramineae) Dactyloctenium from Greek δάκτυλος, daktylos, finger, and κτενίον, ktenion, a small comb, for the digitate and pectinate spikes. (Gramineae) dactyloides finger-like, or resembling Dactylis, ORCHARD GRASS, COCK’S-FOOT GRASS, DEW GRASS; from Greek δακτυλος, daktylos, meaning finger, and -οειδες, -oeides, a suffix for nouns meaning like or resemble, perhaps because of leaf shape or for resemblance of the male flowers to the inflorescence of Dactylis, orchard grass. dactylon dac'tylon (DAK-ti-lon) Dactylorhiza the forking of roots, from Greek δακτυλος, daktylos, finger, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root, in reference to the fingerlike tuberoids of the more primitive species dactylothelis with finger-like warts dactylus -a -um peony, from Dioscorides. daedal- Latin adorn; adorned daedaleus -a -um entangled, intricate daemon- referring to a spirit, a demon Daemonorops demon shrub, a palm with spines daenensis -is -e from Daena in South Persia Dáfnē, dáphnē Greek δάφνη, daphne, Laurel, and a hearty Bay leaf. dáfnē karaïbikēs Greek δάφνη καραϊβικης, daphne karaibikes, allspice. daghestanicus -a -m from Daghestan in the eastern Caucasus. daguensis -is -e from the river Dagua in Columbia Dahlia for Dr. Anders (Andrew?) Dahl (1751-1789), Swedish botanist, student of Linnaeus. (Compositae) dahliiflorus with Dahlia-like flowers, from Dahlia and Dalea Da'lea (DAY-lee-a) named after Samuel Dale (1659-1739), an English physician, botanist, botanical collector, and gardener; authored several botanical works and a treatise on medicinal plants. He was an associate of several major botanical figures in England. Thomas Dale in one source. (Leguminosae) dahuricus, dauricus, davuricus of Dahuria (Dauria, Dahuri), Siberia or Mongolia

daict- Greek butcher Dalibardia named by Linnaeus, in honor of Dalibard, a French botanist. (Rosaceae) dalmaticus -a -um Dalmatian, from Dalmatia in Austria-Hungary dama, -dama Latin a deer damascenus of Damascus, Syria Damasonium according to Pliny, an ancient Greek name sometimes used for Alisma. dammeri for Carl Dammer (1860-1920), German botanist danicus -a -um of Danish origin Danthonia New Latin, irregular from Étienne Danthoine, (or M. Danthione) of Marseilles, France, 19th century botanist and New Latin –ia. (Gramineae) daped-, dapedum, -dapedum Greek a level surface; plains. daphn-, daphna, -daphna Greek the laurel or bay tree daphnoides daphne-like, resembling Daphne, from and oides, -οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble. dapi-, dapido-, dapis, -dapis Greek a carpet dapsil- Greek plentiful dapt-, daptes Greek devour; an eater. dart-, darto- Greek flayed, skinned darwasicus from Darwaz or Darvaz in Central Asia darwinii for Charles Darwin (1809-1882), British naturalist, traveler, and the author of Origin of Species das-, dasi-, dasy- Greek hairy, shaggy dasci-, dascio- Greek much shaded. dascyll- Greek a kind of fish Dasiphora (Rosaceae) Dasistoma from Greek words δασυς, dasys, hairy or shaggy and stoma, a mouth. dasy- from Greek δασυς, dasys, variously translated as thick, dense, rough, hairy, hairy, bushy, thick grown. thick (or shaggy, hairy?) dasyacanthus thick-spined, from Greek δασυς, dasys, hairy, bushy, thick grown and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. dasyanthus thick-flowered, bearing woolly flowers, Greek δασυς, dasys, hairy, bushy, thick grown, and dasyblastus with rough shoots or sprouts dasycarpus -a -um dasycar'pus (das-ee-KAR-pus) thick-fruited, having rough, woolly fruit, from Greek δασυς, dasys, hairy, bushy, thick grown and καρπός, karpos, fruit. dasyclados thick-branched, with rough boughs or twigs dasycladus with hairy branches Dasylirion Modern Latin, thick lily, Greek δασυς, dasys, thick or dense, and lirion, white lily, referring to the compact arrangement of flowers in the inflorescence dasyphyllus with thick leaves; with hairy or woolly leaves; or closely leaved dasypleurus hairy at the sides Dasyproctus modern Latin, from Greek δασύπρωκτ-ος, dasyproktos, having hairy buttocks, from, δασύ-ς, dasys, hairy, and πρωκτός, proktos, buttocks. Agoutis, a South and Central American genus of rodents. dasypygal modern, from Greek δασύπῡγ-ος, dasypygos, from δασύ-ς, dasy-s, hairy, and πῡγή, pyge, rump, buttocks. dasystachys, dasystachyus -a -um thick spike of flowers; with rough woolly spikes dasystemon thick-stamened dasystylus with a rough woolly style Datisca Datis'ca (da-TIS-ka) Datiscaceae Datisca'ceae (da-tis-KAY-see-ee) plants of the Cretan Hemp-plant, Datisca cannabina, family, from the genus name, Datisca, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. dato- Greek divide, distribute Datura Datur'a (da-TOOR-a, or da-TEWR-ra) from a Native American name, or New Latin, from Hindi dhatura a name for Jimsonweed, from Sanskrit dhattu daturoides resembling Datura, Jimsonweed, from and oides, -οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble daucoides daucus-like, resembling Daucus carota, Wild Carrot, from and oides, -οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble. daucus, -daucus Greek the carrot, from Dioscorides.

Daucus Dau'cus (DAW-kus, or DOW-kus) New Latin, from Latin daucus, daucum, a kind of parsnip or wild carrot, from Greek δαῦκος, daukos, or from Greek daio, I burn; perhaps akin to Greek daiein to ignite, burn; from the sharp taste or from the combustible sap some species exude; or a reference to the warming effect on the body from the plants medicinal use. Beware of flaming carrots, new meaning for a warm salad. (Umbelliferae) daul-, daulo- Greek shaggy davallioides resembling Davallia, Hare’s-foot Fern, from and oides, -οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble. davidii, davidianum for Abbé Jean Pierre Armand David (1826-1900), French missionary and plant collector davidsonii davidson'ii (day-vid-SONE-ee-eye) davisiae davis'iae (day-VIS-ee-ee) davisii named for Emerson Davis (1798-1866), Massachusetts educator and caricologist davyi da'vyi (DAY-vee-eye) davurica de, de- Latin from, down, out, out of, off de facto in fact, in reality De gustibus non est disputandum literally “It is not to be dusputed about tastes.” de gratia by favor de iure according to the law. De mortuis nihil nisi bonum Speak nothing but good of the dead. de omni re scibili et quibusdam aliis "about every knowable thing, and even certain other things.” De profundis From the depths, Psalm 130 dealbat- Latin whitewashed. dealbatus whitened, powdery white, covered with white dust or powder, whitish, whitewashed deamii honoring Charles Clemon Deam, (1865-1953), Indiana botanist, forester conservationist, surveyor, pharmacist, small business owner, and author. deanei dean'ei (DEEN-ee-eye) debil-, debili-, debilis weak, frail, small, from Latin debilis, disabled, weak, frail debiliformis weak form debilispinus with weak thorns or weak spines deca, deca- Greek δεκα, deka, ten, referring to the number ten decagynous having ten styles decandrus ten-stamened, having ten anthers decapetalus -a -um ten petaled, with ten petals, from Greek δεκα, deka, ten, adjective, and πεταλον, petalon, leaf, tablet, noun, Modern Latin petal, and –us adjective a Latinizing suffix decaphyllus ten-leaved, with ten leaves or leavelets decasepalus with ten sepals decem Latin ten, from Greek δεκα, deka. decemfidus with ten divisions, with ten clefts (said of roots) decemflorus, decemflora with ten flowers decemlocularis having ten chambers (said of ovaries) decen-, decent Latin decent, proper. decid-, decidu- Latin falling off. deciduus deciduous, soon falling off, having falling leaves, from Latin decidere, to fall down, and -uus adjectival suffix indicating possibility or result of action decim- Latin one-tenth; ten decipiens deceptive, deceiving, misleading, where one plant is easily mistaken for another; in one source falling, drooping?(probably miscopied from the definition of declinatus). decis- Latin cutoff; settled. declinatus bent downward, declined, drooping, turn aside declivi-, declivis Latin sloping downward, bent down, oblique Decodon Greek δεκα, deka, ten and οδους, οδοντος, odous, odontos, tooth, for the summit of the calyx. decolor discolored, faded decolorans discoloring, staining, faded decolorus discolored, faded decoloratus, decoloratio colorless, unstained decompositus, decomposita decompound, decompounded, more than once divided

decor, decor- Latin elegant, beautiful, decorative, from Latin decorare decorans adorning, decorative decoratus decorative, decorated, beautified decorticans, decorticatus with peeling bark, stripped of bark, from Latin meaning off and skin or bark, by inference, peeling bark. From Latin corium skin, hide akin to Middle Irish curach skin boat, Latin cortic-, cortex bark, cork, Sanskrit ktti hide, Greek keirein to cut decorticans decor'ticans (de-KOR-ti-kans) peeling, barking decorticatus deprived of bark decorus -a -um decor'us (de-KOR-us) elegant, comely, becoming, beautiful, decorative. decorus, decora -um, decorior -or -us, decorissimus -a -um Latin adjective, beautiful or good looking, handsome, or comely; adorned; graceful or elegant (non-visual); honorable, noble; glorious, decorated; decorous, proper, decent, fitting. decrescens decreasing in size from the base upwards dect-, decto- Greek received; bite, sting. decumanus very large, imposing Decumaria from Latin decem, ten, for the 10-merous flowers. (Saxifragaceae) decumbens decum'bens (de-KUM-bens) decumbent, reclining with the summit ascending, prostrate but with upright tips, decurrrens decur'rens (de-KERR-ens) decurrent, literally running downwards, or running down the stem, running towards, usually meaning that the leaf runs down, or extends down the stem as two ridges, as in Boltonia decurrans or Helenium autumnale. decursivus running down, as when leaves are prolonged beyond their insertion and thus hang(?) decursive-pinnate seemingly pinnate(?) decurvatus, decurvus decurved decurtatus shortened, cut-short decuss-, decussi- Latin the number "ten" (X); a crossing decussate decussate, arranged on the stem in successive pairs, the directions of which cross each other at right angles, so that the alternate pairs are parallel, from adjective Latin decussāt-us, past participle of decussāre, to divide crosswise in pairs alternately at right angles, or in the form of an X decussatus -a -um divided crosswise, at right angles, decussate, from decusso, decussare, as when the leaves are in two alternating ranks. See cruciatus. decussus -a -um decussate, with alternating pairs of opposed leaves, from de- and cusso, cussare. dedal- Latin adorn; adorned Dedeckera Dedeck'era (de-DEK-er-a) for Mary Caroline DeDecker (1909-2000), noted California conservationist. Deeringothamnus For Charles Deering, frequent sponsor of J. K. Small in his botanical explorations deficiens missing, falling off definatus precise defixus immersed, grown into (said of leaves) deflectens bent aside, bent abruptly downwards or outwards deflexus -a -um deflex'us (de-FLEX-us) bent downwards, bent abruptly downwards; bent outward, opposite to inflexus. defloratus with withered flowers, past the flowering state defoliatus defolia'tus (de-fo-lee-AY-tum) leafless, having cast its leaves deformis misshapen, disfigured, deformed degeneratus degenerate, become unlike the type degluptus, deglyptus peeled off, chafed degma-, -degma, degmato Greek a bite, sting dehisc Latin split dehiscens dehiscent, opening spontaneously when ripe, or splitting in definite parts dei Latin a god, dei gratia By the grace of God. deil-, deile Greek evening. dein-, deino Greek terrible deinacanthus with strong thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. Deinandra Deinan'dra (dee-in-AN-dra) no etymology stated in protologue; meaning uncertain

deinde thereafter, next deipn-, deipno Greek a meal, dinner. Deiregyne from Greek deire, neck, and gyne, pistil or woman, referring to sepals that sit on top of the ovary and form a necklike extension dejectus prostate, debased del-, dele, delo Greek visible delagoensis from the Delago Bay in South Africa Delairea Delair'ea (del-AIR-ee-a) honoring or "Dom. Delaire," who sent a specimen to Lemaire from a garden in the Orléans district of France delapsus fallen away delavayi, delavayanus for Jean Marie Delavay (1834-1895), French botanist and missionary dele-, delet- Latin destroy delect- Latin charming; a selection delectus chosen, desirable, tasty Delenda est Carthago “Carthage must be destroyed”, from Cato, during the Third Punic War. delic-, delicat-, delicio- Latin pleasing, alluring. delicatissimus very delicate delicatulus of goodish flavor delicatus delicate, tender, delicious deliciosus delicious, of good flavor deliquesc- Latin liquify deliquescens melting away, when a stem looses itself by branching delirium tremens literally trembling delirium delessertiana delir- Latin crazy delo- Greek visible Delosperma Greek delos, visible, and σπερµα, sperma, seed, in reference to the seeds being exposed as the fruits dehisce delph-, delphi, delphy Greek the womb, uterus delph- referring to the dolphin delpha-, delphac, delphax, -delphax Greek a little pig. delphi-, delphin, delphis, -delphis Latin delphīn, delphīnus, Greek δελφίν, delphin, a dolphin. delphicus from Delphi, Greece, of the southern slope of Mount Parnassus, home of the sanctuary and oracle of Apollo. delphinacius of larkpur; of dolphin flower. delphini-, delphinium, -delphinium Greek larkspur delphinensis, delphiniensis, delphinalis from Dauphiné, an old French province delphinifolius delphinium-leaved, with leaves like Delphinium. Delphinium Delphin'ium (del-FIN-ee-um) New or botanical Latin Delphīnium, from Greek δελφίνιον, delphinion, larkspur, diminutive of δέλφίν, delphin, a dolphin, from the shape of the nectary, or the fancied resemblance of some species to classical sculptures of dolphins. (Ranunculaceae) delphy-, delphys, -delphys Greek the womb, uterus delt- like Greek the letter "delta" Δ; triangular deltodus, deltodon with three-cornered teeth deltodontus with three-cornered teeth deltoides -is -e delto'ides (del-TOE-i-dees) in the form of an equilateral triangle, triangular, like Greek the letter "delta" Δ, from delta, and oides, -οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble. deltoides from and oides, -οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble deltoideus -a -um deltoi'deus (del-TOI-dee-us) triangular, like Greek the letter "delta" Δ, from -ĕus -ĕua -ĕum Latin adjectival suffix used to impart the characteristics of material or color or resemblance in quality, used as a noun base. delteus in the form of a long triangle dem-, demo-, demus, -demus Greek people; fat. demas Greek a living body. demersus -a -um (day-MER-sus) growing under water, plunged under, submerged, from Latin dēmersus, past participle of dēmergĕre.

demissus -a -um demis'sus (deh-MIS-sus, classically day-MIS-sus) low, weak; hanging down, drooping, lowered, from Latin dēmissus, let down, lowered, sunken, downcast, past participle of dēmittĕre, to demit. demn Greek a bed demono Latin an evil spirit demum at length dendr-, dendro, dendron, dendrum, -dendron Greek a tree, referring to a tree, from δένδρον, dendron. dendricolus tree-loving Dendrobium Modern Latin from Greek δένδρον, dendron, tree, and βίος, bios, life, in reference to this orchid genus being an arboreal epiphyte. Dendrocalamus tree and reed, the great giant tropical bamboo genus dendroideus -a -um dendroid'eus (den-dro-ID-ee-us) tree- or shrub-like Dendrolíbano, dentrolíbano Greek δενδρολίβανο, δεντρολίβανο, dendronlibano, dentrolibano, rosemary. Dendromecon Dendrome'con (den-dro-MEE-kon) Greek dendron, tree, and mekon, poppy dendromorphus in the form of a tree Dendrophylax Greek dendro, tree, and phylax, epiphyte or guardian, in reference to the epiphytic habit denigratus blackened deni by tens, ten together denique lastly Dennstaedtia Dennstae'dtia (denn-staad' tee-ah) honoring after A. W. Dennstaedt (1776-1826), German botanist. Dennstaedtiaceae Dennstaedtia'ceae (denn-staad' tee-, den-staad-tee-AY-see-ee, or den-steed-tee-AY-see-ee), from the genus name, Dennstaedtia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. dens Latin thick; a tooth (used in compound words) dens-canis dog’s tooth densatus -a -um dense, compact densicomis -is -e densely tufted, crested(?) densiflorus -a -um densiflor'us (den-si-FLOR-us) densely flowered, densely covered with flowers densifolius -is -e densifo'lius (den-si-FO-lee-us) densely leaved, densely covered with leaves dense thickly, closely densus -a -um den'sus (DEN-sus) dense, crowded together. dent-, denti, dento Latin a tooth, referring to a tooth dentat- Latin toothed Dentaria feminine singular of Latin dentarius, pertaining to the teeth, from dens, a tooth, referring to the tooth-like scales or projections on the roots of the plant. Cardamine is sometimes lumped into this genus, as this is sometimes lumped into Cardamine. (Cruciferae) dentatus -a -um toothed, toothed like saw teeth, from Latin adjective dentātus, toothed. denticulatus -a -um denticula'tus (den-tik-yoo-LAY-tus) toothed, minutely or slightly toothed, with small teeth denticulosus toothed, minutely toothed dentiferus, dentifera tooth-bearing dentosus toothed denudatus -a -um denuda'tus (den-yoo-DAY-tus check this one!) naked, stripped, bare, denuded, as in stripped of leaves deo Latin a god Deo volente God willing. Deodara God’s tree, the Sacred fig-tree, Ficus religiosa. deon-, deonto Greek necessity, duty deorsum downward (opposite to sursum) Deparia Greek depas, saucer, referring to the saucer-like indusium or covering of the type species, Deparia prolifera, which is aberrant in the genus depas-, -depas, depastr- Greek a cup, goblet, beaker depastus as if eaten off depauperatus -a -um depaupera'tus (de-paw-per-AY-tus) starved, dwarfed, impoverished as if starved, sparsely blooming dependens hanging down deph-, depho- Greek knead depilatus hairless

depilosus hairless deplanatus Latin leveled, flattened, expanded depluens dripping off, as water off leaves depressus -a -um depres'sus (de-PRES-us) flattened, pressed down as if flattened, lying down flat, depressed der-, dero Greek the neck; the hide; old; flay. derasus bare, worn derm, -derm(…), derma-, -derma, dermato-, dermo- Greek skin, referring to skin, or bark derma skin, bark, rind dertr-, dertrum-, -dertrum Greek the membrane containing the bowels dertrum Modern Latin, the extremity of the upper bill of a bird, adopted from Greek δέρτρον, dertron, beak. descendens tending gradually downward Deschampsia Deschamp'sia (deh-SHOMP-see-a) named for Jean Louis Auguste Loiscleur-Deslongchamps, a French botanist (1774-1846 (1849?). (Gramineae) Descurainia Descurain'ia (des-kur-AY-nee-a) New Latin, from François Déscourian died 1740 French botanist and New Latin -ia desert Latin solitary, lonely. deserti deser'ti (des-ERT-eye) of the desert deserticolus -a -um desertico'lus (des-ert-i-KO-lus) deserticus -a -um desert'icus (des-ERT-i-kus) desertorum desertor'um (des-er-TOR-um) growing in the desert designat- Latin marked. desis Greek a binding. desm-, desma-, -desma, desmi, desmio, desmo Greek a band, bond, ligament, referring to a bond, or band desma- from Greek δέσµα, desma, plural δέσµατα, desmata, bond, fetter, head-band, from δειν, dein, to bind. Desmanthus flowering in bundles, New Latin, from Greek δεσµὴ, desmè bundle, from dein to bind akin to Albanian dua sheaf, Sanskrit daman rope, and New Latin –anthus, flower, from Greek ἄνθος, anthos. (Leguminosae) desmo- combining form of Greek δεσµός, desmos, bond, fastening, chain, ligature. desmocephalus woolly headed (?bad translation), from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. Desmodium long branch or chain, New Latin, probably irregular from Greek δεσµὸς, desmos band, bond, from dein to bind and New Latin –ium, bond is in reference to the slightly connected joints of the loment. Long branch is not a reference to Miss Kitty’s bar on the western series Gunsmoke. Alternately from Greek desmos, a chain, for the jointed stamen (?by some authors), but one would think it is for the resemblance of segmented fruit to a chain and the fruits attaching ti fur and clothes. (Leguminosae) desmoncoides desmoncus-like, from and oides, -οειδες, suffix for nouns, like or resemble. Desmoncus band and hook, from Greek δεσµός, desmos, bond, and ὄγκος, ogkos, onkos, a hook, referring to the barbed leaves of this genus, a climbing palm. desolatus lonely, forlorn desolutus desolate, lonely destillatorius dripping, trickling down (of moisture) destitutus destitute, robbed desud- Latin sweat greatly. deseuta out of use detectus lade bare, naked detergens, detersilis cleansing determinatus definite, determined, when the seasons growth ends with a bud. detinens holding back detonsus -a -um deton'sus (de-TON-sus) clipped, shorn, shaven detrit- Latin wear off. detruncatus supportless deuma-, deumato Greek wet, soaked. deutero Greek the second. Deus ex machina A god out of the machine. An old Greek theatrical device, that when everything is totally screwed up beyond all hope, a god descends from the sky and solves all the problems. Exit stage left. deustus burned, of a color as if burned or singed. Deutzia (Saxifragaceae)

deversus turned away, turned aside. devexus declining, downwards deviatus contrary to, departing from the usual. devolutus degenerate, becoming lower. devonicus, devoniencis from Devonshire dex Greek an insect; a worm. dexi-, dexio Greek the right-hand side; clever dext-, dexter, dextr-, dextro- Latin the righthand side; clever. dextrorsus -a -um to the right, turned or twisted from right to left. deweyana after Chester Dewey, D.D. (1784-1867), New York botanist, Congregational minister, and professor of chemistry and natural history at the Universty of Rochester di-, dia- Greek across, through; separate, apart di-, dis- Greek separate, apart; double, two di- referring to the number two diabol-, diabolo Greek διαβολη, diabole, slanderous, quarrel, enmity, devilish, from δια, dia, across, apart, and bolos, bolis, ballien, casting, to throw, to throw apart, to cause dissent. Διάβολος, Diabolos, devil. diabolicus Latin, in the Vulgate, diabolical, devilish, like a devil. diacanthus two-spined, with two thorns, with pairs of thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. diadelphis two brothers, having two bundles of stamens. diadem, diadema Greek a crown, turban. diadema diadem, crown diadematus ornamental, crowned. diadoch-, diadocho, diadochus, -diadochus Greek a successor diadrom-, diadromo Greek wandering. diaeresis, -diaeresis Greek a division. diaeresis, diaeresis f. Latin noun, distribution, separating diphthong or syllable in two pronounced connectively. diagnosis Greek diagnosis, from diagignoscein, to know apart, and -isi, suffix indicating an action of a general or abstract nature. diago Greek transmission. dialy-, dialys, dialyt Greek διαλυ-, dialy-, stem of διαλύ-ειν, dialy-ein, separate, to part asunder, break up; dissolve. dialycarpus bearing fruit composed of distinct carpels, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. dialyphyllus with separate, distinct leaves. dialysepalus having separate, distinct sepals dialystaminous having separate, distinct stamens. diamant German cv. diamond Diamorpha from a Greek word signifying deformed, in reference to its singular dehiscence. (Crassulaceae) diandrus, diandra, diander dian'drus (di-AN-drus) furnished with two or twin stamens, from Greek di, two, double, and andros, male, two stamens. This epithet is unusual for Carex diandra as all Carices have three stamens. Dianella from Latin Diana, Roman sylvan goddess, and -ella, feminine diminutive suffix, referring to the forest habitat and small stature. diantherus with two anthers. dianthiflorus -a -um dianthiflor'us (di-an-thi-FLOR-us) with flowers like the Pink, Dianthus. dianthifolius dianthus-leaved, with leaves like Dianthus, Pink dianthoides resembling Dianthus, Pink, from dianthophorus bearing Pinks. Dianthus the Pink or carnation, the flower of Jove, from Greek Διος, dios, of Jupiter, divine, and ἂνθος, anthos, flower, a reference to its preëminent beauty and fragrance. From Linnaeus. (Caryophyllaceae) diapedes Greek leaping through or across. Diaperia from Greek diapero, to pass through, alluding to pseudo-polytomous (opposed to dichotomous) branching pattern ("proliferous inflorescence") of type species diaphanus diaphanous, transparent, permitting the light to shine through. diaphor-, diaphoro different, pertaining to difference, from Greek διάφορος, diaphoros, different.

diaphoreticus, diaphoricus setting up perspiration, from Latin diaphorēticus, from Greek διαφορητικός, diaphoretichos, promoting perspiration, from διαφόρησις, diaphoresis, a sweat, perspiration Diarrhena from the Greek δι-, di-, for δίς-, dis-, twice, and αρρην-, arrhēn, male, referring to the two anthers; or ἀρρηνής, arrhenes, rough, for the two scabrous keels of the upper paleae. (Gramineae) diastema-, -diastema, diastemato Greek a space, interval. diastol- Greek standing apart. diastroph-, diastropho distorted, from Greek διάστροφος, diastrophos, twisted, distorted, from διαστρέφειν, diastrephein, to turn different ways, twist about. No warts in OED. diastrophis with two humps or warts (questionable translation, see above). diatherus with two spikes. diathesi-, diathesis, -diathesis Greek a condition, arrangement diatreus pierced, wholed, having holes (said of leaves) diatrypus turned as in a lathe, bored out diazoma, -diazoma, diazomato Greek a girdle; the waist. dibam-, dibamo Greek on two legs dic Greek right; a wood worm dicell-, dicella, -dicella Greek a two-pronged hoe. Dicentra Dicen'tra (di-SEN-tra, classically di-KEN-tra) modern Latin from Greek δίκεντρος, dikentros, from δὶς, δι-, dis, di, two or twice, and κέντρον, kentron, a sharp point or a spur, for the flower have two spurs. (Fumariaceae) dicentrifolius with leaves like Dicentra, dich-, dicho Greek two, in two. Dichaetophora Greek di- two, χαιτη, chaite, bristle, long hair, and -phore, bearer or carrier, referring to the two awnlike pappus elements dichas-, dichasis, -dichasis modern Latin from Greek δίχασις, dichasis, a division. dichasium A form of cymose inflorescence, apparently but not really dichotomous, in which the main axis produces a pair of lateral axes, each of which similarly produces a pair, and so on; a biparous cyme. (OED) dichel-, dichelo, dichelus, -dichelus Greek cloven-hoofed; forceps. Dichelostemma Dichelostem'ma (di-kel-o-STEM-ma) Greek dichelos, split hoof, and stemma, crown or garland, referring to the bifid perianth appendages that form a corona. dichlamydeus with a double perianth dicho- Greek in two; split, from Greek διχο-, dicho-, combining form of the adverb διχα, dicha, in two, asunder, apart. Dichodontium from Greek dicha, in two, and οδοντος, odontos, tooth, referring to partially divided peristome teeth Dichondra Dichon'dra (di-KON-dra) dichotomus -a -um dichotomus (di-KOT-a-mus) two-branched, with forked boughs, forked in pairs, dividing repeatedly in two dichotomiflorum dichotomifolium dichroacanthus, dichrocanthus with colorful thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. dichroanthus with flowers abounding in color, dichroa-flowered, Dichroa in the Saxifragacea Dichromena from Greek δίς, dis, two, and χροµα, khroma. (Cyperaceae) Dichromanthus Greek Greek δίς, dis, two, and χροµα, khroma, and anthos, flower, indicating 2-colored nature of flowers dichrous, dichrus of two colors, two colored Dicksonia for James Dickson (1738-1822), British nurseryman and botanist diclinus having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Diclytra (old synonym of Dicentra) dicoccus with two berries, formed of two cocci, of two seed vessels. dicotyledonous with two seed lobes Dicoria Dicor'ia (di-KORE-ee-a) Greek di, two, and koris, bug, referring to the two, "buglike" cypselae (achenes) of the original species dicr-, dicro Greek forked. dicran-, dicrano Greek two-headed, two pointed Dicranella from the genus Dicranum and Latin -ella, diminutive.

Dicranodontium from Greek dicranon, pitchfork, and odon, tooth, referring to forked peristome teeth Dicranocarpus Greek di-, two, kranos, skull or helmet, καρπός, karpos, fruit, probably referring to the twohorned cypselae Dicranopteris Greek dikranos, twice-forked, and pteris, fern, derived from pteron, feather, in reference to the leaf architecture dicranotrichus with forked hairs, with double pointed hairs Dicranoweisia from the genera Dicranum and Weissia, alluding to relationship with Dicranum and fancied resemblance to Weissia Dicranum from Greek dicranon, pitchfork, alluding to peristome teeth dicrot-, dicroto Greek double-oared. dict- Latin say, pronounce, tell Dictamnus Burning Bush (D. fraxinella), possibly related to dittany, from Latin dictamnus, dictamnum, Greek δίκταµνον, diktamnon, a name for dittany (Origanum dictamnus) from Δικτή, Mount Dicte (now Sethia) in eastern Crete where it grows; also a Greek name for Ballota pseudodictamnus. Mount Dicte is said to be the mountain where the infant Zeus was born and sheltered and the home of the Harpies. It is interesting to relate the Latin root dict-, say or pronounce, the burning bush, and Mt. Sinai. Burning Bush is a reference to the lemon-scented, aromatic, and inflammable aromatic oil emitted by the whole plant. Dictamnus is also a name for Origanum dictamnus, Marrubium pseudodictamnus, the genus Dictamnus, Lepidium latifolium, and Cunila mariana. (Rutaceae) dicty-, dictyo-, dictyum, -dictyum Greek a net, referring to a net dictyocarpus bearing fruit covered with net-like markings, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. dictyodromous covered with net-like, or reticulate veination. Dictyogramma net-like lines dictyophorus net forming, net bearing dictyophyllus with leaves showing an obvious network of veins, netted-leaves dictyopterus with net-veined wings dictyospermus, Dictyosperma seed with netted-markings, from and σπερµα, sperma, seed. dicyclic when organs are in two whorls as in a perianth; also applied to biennials dicyrt-, dicyrto- Greek two-humped didi Latin distribute didy- double, twinned didym-, didymo Greek double, twin; the testes. Didymocarpus didymocar'pus (did-ee-mo-KAR-pus) twin fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. didymostachyus, didymostachys double-spiked, twin-spiked Didymus, didymus -a -um Did'ymus (DID-ee-mus) formed in pairs, as of stamens, two-lobed didynamius formed in pairs, divided into two lobes didynamus having two long and two short stamens Die dulci fruere. Have a nice day. diegensis diegen'sis (dee-ay-GEN-sis) diegoense diegoen'se (dee-ay-go-EN-see) diemensis from Van Diemans Land, Tasmania Dierama Greek a funnel dieresis, -dieresis Greek a division. Diervilla (dee-er-VIL-la) After Dr. N. Dierville, a French surgeon who discovered the original species and introduced the shrub to Europe about 1700. (Caprifoliaceae) diet Greek a mode of living. Dieteria Dieter'ia (di-et-EER-ee-a) Greek di-, two, and etos, year, referring to the biennial duration of the plants first named by Nuttall. difficile, difficiliter, difficulter with difficulty difficilis difficult difflu- Latin flow apart difformis of differing forms, unusual in form diffisus with two grooves, with two fissures difformis -is -e of unusual formation diffractus broken in pieces, broken or separated by chinks. diffundens with spreading teeth, broadly toothed

diffusus, diffusa -um, diffusior -or -us, diffusissimus -a -um Latin adjective, spread out; wide; extending or covering widely; extensive or expansive in referring to writing. diffusus -a -um diffu'sus (dif-YOO-sus) diffuse, spreading about, spread out, wildly or loosley spreading diffusisimus -a -um most or very spread out or wide, Latin superlative adjective from diffusus, diffuse, spreading, and –isimus, most. digamous having two sexes in the same cluster as in Compositae digest Latin dissolved; digest digestus dissolved; divided(?) digit, digital, digiti- Latin a finger or toe, referring to fingers, digitate, hand-like. digitaliflorus with flowers like Digitalis, Foxglove Digitalis, digitalis -is -e Digita'lis (dij-i-TAY-lis) modern Latin from Latin digitālis, pertaining to the fingers, or digits, from Latin digitus, for the shape of the corolla resembling the finger of a glove. The plant was named by Fuchs in 1542 as an allusion to the German name, Fingerhut, i.e. thimble. Digitaria New Latin, from Latin digitus finger and New Latin –aria digitatus hand-shaped, fingered, with fingers, said of leaves such as those of Horse-Chestnut digitellus shaped like small fingers digitiformis finger shaped, formed like fingers dign- Latin worthy, fit. digyma digynus with two styles (or one deeply cleft style) or carpels, plants having two pistils, from Greek δι-, di and γυνή, gyne, woman, wife Díktamos Greek δίκταµος, diktamos, oregano. dilaceratus torn asunder, lacerated dilat- Latin expanded dilatatus -a -um dilata'tus (dil-a-TAY-tus) dilated, spread out, expanded, extended, widened into a blade dilatus dilated, spread out Dilleniaceae plants of the Sandpaper-tree family, from the genus name, Dillenia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Dillenia, dillenii honoring for Johann Jacob Dillen (Latinized as Dillenius), 18th century German botanist, botanical engraver and illustrator, physician, and professor at Oxford. Linnaeus honored him with the tropical tree genus Dillenia, and Dilleniaceae. dilute slightly, weakly, palely dilutus diluted, weak, pale, light, thin or thinned down, tapered Dimeresia Greek dimeres, in 2 parts or with 2 members, meaning unclear dimersus double-jointed dimidi Latin half; to halve dimidiatus halved, when half an organ is much smaller than the other dimin Latin lessen. diminutus small, diminished, dwarfed dimorphanthus producing two distinctly different flowers Dimorphotheca (di-mor-fo-THEE-ka) New Latin, from dimorpho-, from Greek dimorphos, d-i, dis-, two, twice, morphe, shape, and -theca, a fruit; a case or container, for the different type of cypselae produced by the ray and disk flowers. dimorphus -a -um, dimorphous dimor'phus (di-MOR-fus) two-formed, twice-shaped, existing in or presenting two forms din-, dino Greek terrible; whirling. dinaricus from the Dinaric Alps in Dalmatia dio- Greek divine, noble. Diodia New Latin, from Greek diodos thoroughfare, from dia- and hodos way, and New Latin -ia; from the frequent growth of these plants by the wayside; alternately Greek δις, dis, twice, and ὀδούς, odous tooth, referring to the two calyx teeth crowing the ovary. (Rubiaceae) Diodia two-toothed, δι-οδους. diodon with two teeth, from δι-οδων diodontus double-toothed

dioicus -a -um, dioeca, dioecious, dieucus(?) dio'icus (di-OH-ik-us, or dee-o-EE-kus) of two houses, from Greek δις-οικος, dis-oikos, dioecious, indicating that the male and female flowers are found on different plants, having stamens and pistils on separate flowers on different plants. Dionaea from one of the names of Venus, Venus’ Fly-trap. (Droseraceae) dioriticus dark green dios- referring to a god or divinity Dioscoreaceae plants of the Yam family, from the genus name, Dioscorea, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Dioscorea (dee-os-KO-ree-a) After Pedanios Dioscorides (1st century Greek physician and herbalist, ca 4090), author of De Materia Medica. Sometimes seen as Discorides. dioscoridis like Dioscoria (yam), named for the Greek physician Pedanios Dioscorides. Sometimes seen as Discorides. Diosma modern Latin, from Greek δῖ-ος, di-os, divine, and ὀσµή, osme, odor. A genus of South African heath-like plants (family Rutuaceæ), with strong balsamic odour diosmaefolius, diosmifolius, diosmatifolius diosma-leaved, with leaves like Diosma, African Sleet-bush diosmoides resembling Diosma, a genus of heath-like shrubs Diospyros ‘fruit of the gods, divine pear’, the persimmon, New Latin, from Latin, a plant, probably gromwell, from Greek, from διός, dios, of Zeus (?), or Latin Dijovis, of Jupiter, and πυρός, pyros, grain, wheat, perhaps more appropriately from Latin pyrum, pirum pear. For what reason would anyone associate a juicy, fleshy persimmon with a dry kernel of wheat, however noble? I vote for the pear, early and often. Ponder Deus, Zeus (dzeus, zdeus), Dijovis, Diovis, Theos, Jove (Jovis), Jahweh, Jesus, Yashua. diotostophus, diotostephus with two ears(?) dipetalus -a -um dipet'alus (di-PET-al-us) two-petaled, with two petals Diphasiastrum false Diphasium, from Diphasium, a generic name, and -astrum, incomplete resemblance, of a wild or inferior sort. diphoscyphus with two cups, with two ears diphy- Greek of a double nature, two fold. diphterolobus with skin-like or parchment-like lobes Diphylleia Greek δὶς, dis, twice, and φύλλον, phyllon, leaf. (Berberidaceae) diphyllus -a -um Greek for two-leaved, from δὶς, dis, twice, and φύλλον, phyllon, leaf. Diphyscium from Greek di-, two, and physkion, little gut, alluding to double bladder of spore sac and capsule wall dipl-, dipl-, diplo Greek double, two. Diplachne maybe from Greek λαχνη, lachne, soft, woolly hair??? diplandrus with two anthers Diplazium From Greek diplazein, double, or di, two, and plasion, oblong, referring to a double sori diplo- double Diploclinium from Greek διπλόος, diploos, double, and κλίνη, kline, couch, referring to the double placentae. (Begoniaceae) diplodurus with two tails of tail-like appendages Diplopappus from Greek διπλόος, diploos, double, and πάππός, pappos, referring to the double rpws of the pappus. (Compositae) Diplotaxis New Latin, from Greek diplous, diplo-, double, and -taxis, arrangement, row, in reference of the double row of seeds in each locule of the fruit Diplothemium double-sheathed dipn-, dipno-, dipnum, -dipnum Greek a meal, food. dipostephioides like Dipostephium dips-, dipsa, dipsi Greek thirsty, dry. Dipsacaceae Dipsaca'ceae (dip-sa-KAY-see-ee) plants of the Teasel family, from the genus name, Dipsacus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. dipsaceus, dipsacoides of or like teasel or Dipsacus, resembling Teasel Dipsacus New Latin, from Greek dipsakos, teasel, diabetes, from διψάω, dipsao, to thirst, alluding to the water held in the axils of the leaves. (Dipsacaceae) dipterigius with two wings Dipterocarpaceae plants of the Wood-oil family, from the genus name, Dipterocapus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names.

dipterocarpus with two-winged fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. dipterus two-winged, with two wings dipther-, diphtera Greek leather, skin, membrane. dipyrenus two-seeded, with two seeds or kernels dir- Greek: the neck; Latin: dreadful Dirca of or belonging to the fountain of Dirce, New Latin, from Latin Dirce, Dircæus, a fountain near Thebes in Boeotia, from Greek Δίρκη, Dirkē. directus straight dirig-, dirigo Latin direct. dis, dis- Greek separate, apart; double, two, referring to the number two or to a difference disc-, disci-, disco, discus Greek a round plate. discedens dividing Discelium from Greek di-, two, and skielos, legs, for the peristome teeth perforated proximally disciformis disc-shaped, disc-like discipes with thick feet, with a thick base discoidalis disc-like discoideus discoid, rayless; quoit-like, with a round thickened lamina. discolor, discolorus dis'color (DIS-ko-lor) of two colors or of different colors, of different coloring, often referring to the leaves that are green above and grey-white below Discopleura from Greek δίσκος, diskos, the disk, and πλευρά, pleura, a rib, for having the disk and ribs of the fruit united. (Umbelliferae) discors Latin discordant, disagreeing discretus separate, separated, standing off disepalus with two sepals disermas(?) wavy disjunctus -a -um separated, disjointed, disconnected dispar dissimilar, unlike; in uneven pairs dispermus -a -um disper'mus (dis-PER-mus) having two seeds, from Greek di, two, double, and σπερµα, sperma, seed, after the few flowered spikelets. dispersus, displicatus scattered dispersus -a -um disper'sus (dis-PUR-sus) scattered in all directions, spread (as of seed) disruptus -a -um broken off dissectus -a -um dissec'tus (di-SEK-tus) dissected, deeply divided, deeply cut, cut up, cut into many segments. dissensus disagreeing dissidens toothed in an irregular, abnormal manner dissiliens bursting open with elastic force, as in seed capsules. dissimilis unlike, dissimilar dissitus spaced out dissitiflorus remotely or loosley flowered, flowering far apart, flowering sparsley disso- Greek double dissolutus dissolved dissomorphus of double form dissona from Latin dissonus -a -um discordant, different, disagreeing dissospermus with double seeds dist-, dista- Latin stand apart, be distant distachyon distach'yon (dis-TAK-ee-on) distachys, distachyus, distychus two-spiked, with two spikes or two ears as in grain distans dis'tans (DIS-tans) distant, separate, remote, far apart, straggly distentus, distenta spread, extended distich- referring to two ranks, as in the arrangement of leaves distichanthus flowering in two rows, as the florets of grasses. Distichium from Greek distichos, in two rows, alluding to leaves distichophyllus with leaves in two ranks or two rows Distichilis Distich'lis (dis-TIK-lis) from Latin distichus from Greek distichos, meaning two ranked, or with two rows, referring to the distichous leaf arrangement. (Gramineae) distichus -a -um distich'us (dis-TIK-us, or DIS-ti-kus) in two ranks or two rows, having two rows

distinctus, distincta separate. distinct, not united, from Latin for separate, apart, different distincte distinctly, clearly distomus double mouthed, with two openings. distortus -a -um distorted, twisted distractilis widely apart, as the anther-lobes in Sages. distylus two-styled, with two pistils Ditaxis Ditax'is (di-TAK-sis) Dithyrea Dithyr'ea (dith-EER-ee-a) ditissimus plenteous, ample Ditrichum Greek di-, two, and trichos, hair, referring to peristome split longitudinally into two segments Ditremexa Dittrichia For Manfred Dittrich, b. 1934), German botanist ditto Greek double. diu a long while, long (in time) diure-, diures, diuret Greek urinate. diureticus promoting the discharge of urine diurn- Latin daily, in the daytime diurnus diurnal, day-loving, flowering in the day time, referring to daytime diutinus, diuturnus of long duration, lasting, referring to long flowering, from Latin, adjective diūturn-us of long duration, lasting, from diū, diūt- long, for a long time divaric-, divarica- Latin spread apart, spreading, spread asunder divaricatus -a -um divarica'tus (di-vare-i-KAY-tus) widely divergent, widely spreading apart, spread asunder, straggly, divergent, from participle of divarico, divaricare, divaricavi, divaricatus, Latin verb, stretch apart, spread out. divergens diver'gens (die-VER-jens) diverging, wide-spreading, spreading in different directions divers- variable diversi- Latin various; separated diversicolor diversely colored diversidens unevenly toothed, with differing teeth diversiformis of different forms diversiflorus diversely, or variable flowered, with flowers of more than one kind. diversifolius -a -um diversifo'lius (di-ver-si-FO-lee-us) variable-leaved, with leaves of more then one kind. diversifrons with differing foilage diversilobus -a -um diversilo'bus (di-ver-si-LO-bus) dives rich, from Latin dīves, a rich man. diversus opposite, distinct, turned in different directions divert- Latin turn aside divinus divine divissimus finely divided divisissimus extremely finely divided divisus divided, interrupted divitissimus very rich, most rich divulgatus widespread divulsus torn apart, pulled assunder divus divine doc-, doco, docus, -docus Greek a beam; a spar. doce Greek seem; think doch-, dochi Greek receive; receptacle. dochm-, dochmi, dochmo Greek slanting, side ways. doci-, docil- Latin teach; teachable docibilis -is -e Latin adjective, teachable. docilis -is -e Latin adjective, easily taught, teachable, responsive; docile. docim- Greek examine, test, prove doco Greek a beam; a spar doct- Latin learned, skilled. doctor, -doctor Latin a teacher.

docus, -docus Greek abeam; a spar. dodec-, dodeca Greek twelve. dodecagynia having twelve pistils Dodecahema Greek dodeka, twelve, and hema, dart or javelin, alluding to involucral awns dodecandrus twelved-stamened, with twelve anthers or stamens dodecanthus twelve-spined dodecapetalous with twelve petals (or less than twenty)(?) Dodecatheon, Dodekatheon Dodecath'eon (do-deh-KATH-ee-on, or do-dek-a-THEE-on) New Latin, from Greek dōdekatheon primrose, from neuter of dōdekatheos of twelve gods, from dōdeka- dodeca-, twelve, and theos, thios god. dodgei for Charles Keene Dodge (1844-1918. dodo Portuguese foolish dodonaefolius dodonaea-leaved dodra, -ae a drink of 9 (nine) ingredients, possibly medicinal. dodrantalis, dodrantarius a span long, the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger with the hand fully extended (averaging nine inches) Doellingeria for Ignatz Doellinger (1770–1841), German botanist dogma, -dogma, dogmat- Greek an opinion, decree dogma, dogmatis n. Latin noun, doctrine, defined doctrine; philosophic tenet; dogma, teaching; decision; edit. dolabr-, dolabra, -dolabra Latin an axe, mattock, from dolabra, dolabrae f., Latin noun, pick-axe. dolabratus shaped like a axe, pickaxe, mattock- or hatchet-shaped dolabriformis hatchet-shaped, with the form of a hatchet (one source has this as plain-shaped) dolabripetalus with hatchet shaped petals doleiformis barrel-shaped dolens mornful, doleful doler-, dolero Greek deceptive. doli-, dolio-, dolium, -dolium Latin a jar. dolicanthus -a -um dolican'thus (do-li-KAN-thus) doliolum, dolioli n. Latin noun, a calyx; small cask/keg. dolium, dolii n. Latin noun, a large earthenware vessel (~60 gal. wine/grain); hogshead (Cas); tun/cask. dolich-, dolicho long, from Greek δολιχός, dolikhos, long. dolichacanthus dagger-pointed, with long thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. Doliche “Long” island, referring to its length, the island later known as Euboea dolichocarpus bearing long fruit or long pods, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. dolichocentrus with long thorns, from Greek δολιχός, dolikhos, long, and possibly from κέντρον, kenton, sharp point, a goad, a peg, the stationary point of a pair of compasses. dolichoides resembling Dolichos, Hyacinth-bean dolichopetalus with long petals Dolichos from Greek δολιχὸς, dolikhos, long, for the great length of the vines. (Leguminosae) dolichostachyus, dolichostachys with a long spike dolio- Latin: a jar; Greek: crafty. dolo-, dolom-, dolop Greek fraud, deceit, trick. dolomiticus from the Dolomites, a part of the eastern Alps in northern Italy dolor, -dolor Latin sorrow dolor, doloris m. Latin noun, pain, anguish, grief, sorrow, suffering; resentment, indignation. dolosus -a -um dolo'sus (do-LO-sus) deceitful, deceptive, from Latin adjective dolosus -a -um, crafty, cunning; deceitful. dolu the plant rocket, from Keltic. dom-, domo-, domus, -domus Greek a house. doma, -doma, domato Greek a gift; a house. domestic Latin around the house. domesticus -a -um domestic, used in the house, domesticated, cultivated. Domine, dirige nos Lord, guide us. domingensis -is -e domingen'sis (do-min-GEN-sis) from San Domingo in the West Indies dominic- Latin of a lord.

dominic-, dominicens Latin of St. Domingo. dominicensis from St. Dominica in the West Indies dominus, -dominus Latin a lord. dona Latin give; a gift. dona-, donac, donax, -donax Greek a reed. Donax do'nax (DOE-nax) reed, distaff, cane, Great Reed, Arundo donax donesi Greek trembling, shaking. -dont(...) referring to a tooth dor-, dora, -dora, doro- Greek a hide, skin. -dor(...) referring to a gift dorat-, doratium, -doratium Greek a small spear doratoxylon Australian Spearwood, Acacia doratoxylon dorca-, dorcado-, dorcas, -dorcas Greek a gazelle. dorcadion bastard dittany, from Greek. dorcocerus with antelope horns dori-, dorid-, doris, -doris Greek a sacrificial knife. doria an early name for goldenrods dorm-, dormit- Latin sleep. dormiens dormant, sleeping doro Greek a spear; a hide, skin; a gift doroncoides doronicum-like, like or resembling Leopard’s Bane Doronicum from the Arabic name doronigi, alternately from Greek doron, a gift and nike, victory, in reference to its former use to destroy wild beasts. According to Linnaeus, it was a barbrous name, but it was retained possibly because it sounded Greek. dorrii dor'rii (DORE-ee-eye) dors-, dorso-, dorsum, -dorsum Latin the back dorsalis Latin, dorsal, attached to the back, like a rib of a carpet or the sori on a fern leaf, from dorsum, back and -alis adjectival suffix pertaining to or belonging to. Dorstenia after the herbalist and professor of medicine at Marburg dory-, doryt Greek a spear, a lance; a beam, shaft Doryanthes lance-flower doryphorus lance-bearing, spear-bearing doryphyllus with lance-shaped leaves dosi- Greek a gift. douglasiana douglasia'na (dug-las-ee-AY-na) douglasii, douglasianus -a -um doug'lasii (DUG-las-ee-eye) for David Douglas (1798-1834), Scottish gardener at the Glasgow Botanic Garden and plant collector in the northwest USA ‘Douglasii’ dug-LAS-ee-ee; Juniperus horizontalis ‘Douglasii’ for the Douglas Nursery, Waukegan, Illinois, for the Waukegan Juniper. dorvensis from Dovrefjeld, a mountain in Norway Downingia Downin'gia (down-IN-jee-a) dox-, doxa, -doxa Greek an opinion; glory. draba, -draba Greek a mustard-like plant. Draba Dra'ba (DRAY-ba, or DRAH-ba) from Greek drabe, name for a related plant, from δράβη, drabe, acrid, biting, in reference to the taste of the plant. (Cruciferae) drabifolius draba-leaved drac, drac-, dracaen, draco-, dracon Latin a serpent, dragon, referring to a dragon Dracaena draco the dragon tree of the Canary Islands dracaenoides dracaena-like, resembling Dragon’s-blood tree or Dragon-tree, Dracaena draco drachm-, drachma, -drachma Greek a weight. draco dragon, from Latin draco, dragon, from Greek δράκων, drakon, dragon, serpent, or snake. Draco dormiens nunquam titillandus "a sleeping dragon is never to be tickled" The motto of Hogwarts school in the Harry Potter series; translated more loosely in the books as "never tickle a sleeping dragon". dracocephalus, Dracocephalum with a dragon’s head, referring to the flowers, New Latin, from Latin draco, dragon, and New Latin -cephalum, neuter of cephalus, head, from Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head; from the form of the corolla.

dracocephalus with a head like a dragon, dragon-headed, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. draconopterus with dragon’s wings dracontius -a -um dra-KON-tee-us dragon like, in Arisaema dracontium from the resemblance of the divided leave to a dragon’s claws; or as some see it, from the long, thin spadix, coiling like a serpent’s tongue from the narrow green spathe. draco-onos dragon-ass, from Latin draco, dragon, from Greek δράκων, drakon, dragon, or snake, and ὂνος, onos, ass, the south end of a north-bound donkey. Dracopsis from Greek δράκων, drakon, dragon, serpent, or snake and ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, sight, view, referring to the pubescent and fairly long stygmas of the disk flowers. (Compositae). dracunculoides taragon-like dracunculus -a -um dracun'culus (dra-KUNG-kew-lus, or dra-KUN-kew-lus) little dragon, from Latin (Greek?) dracunculus, a small dragon, from Latin draco, dragon, from Greek δράκων, drakon, dragon, or snake, and diminutive suffix. The words tarragon and dragon have the same derivation. Artemisia dranunculus is tarragon, Arabic tarkhun. Drákos, drakóntio Greek δράκος, drakos, δρακόντιο, drakontio, tarragon, from δράκων, drakon, dragon, or snake. dram- Greek run drama-, dramat- Greek perform; drama. Dramatis personae the persons of the drama drakensbergensis from the Drakensberg range in South Africa drapet-, drapetes, -drapetes Greek a fugitive. drapetocoleus with a cloth-like sheath dras-, drast- Greek act; an agent. drasticus drastic, efficient drasteri Greek active. drepan-, drepani-, drepanum Greek a sickle derpanocarpus bearing sickle-shaped fruits or pods, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. drepanoides sickle-like drepanolobus with sickle-like lobes drepanophyllus with leaves sickle-shaped drepanopterus with sickle-like leaves drepanum sickle drimy Greek piercing, stinging. droebacensis from Dröbak, a seaport on Norway drom-, droma, dromae, dromaeo, dromi, dromo, dromus, -dromus Greek run; running; a race. dropacismus an application of pitch-plaster?, used as counter irritant. dros-, droso- Greek dew, referring to dew. Drosanthemum Greek drosos, dew, and anthos, flower, in reference to the glistening papillae droser-, drosero Greek dewy Drosera the sundew genus, New Latin, from Greek, feminine of droseros dewy, watery, from δρόσος, drosos, dew, water, in reference to the dew-like secretion. (Droseraceae) Droseraceae Drosera'ceae (dro-sir-AY-see-ee) plants of the Sundew family, from the genus name, Drosera, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. drummondianus -a -um, drummondii named for the Scottish plant-collecting brothers James Drummond (1786-1863), and Thomas Drummond (1793 (1790)-1835), Thomas like his countryman David Douglas made an ill-fated collecting trip to North America. Thomas collected extensively in Texas for 21 months, and died in Havanna, Cuba in 1835. druoeis Greek, full of oaks, woody, made of oak-wood drup-, drupa, -drupa Greek an over-ripe olive; a stone fruit. drup- referring to a berry-like fruit drupaceous -a -um drupa'ceus (droo-PAY-see-us) drupe-like, olive-like, stone-fruit like, with a kernel enclosed in pulp. drupeola a diminutive stone fruit. drupifera drupe-bearing dry-, dryo-, drys, -drys a tree; oak, referring to an oak, wooden, from Greek δρῦς, δρυός, drys, dryos, tree. drym-, drymo-, drymus, -drymus Greek forest, woodland.

Drymaria Greek drymos, forest, alluding to habitat of at least one species drymieus, drymeius oak forest loving drymarioides drymario'ides (dry-mar-ee-OH-i-dees) Drymocallis Drymocal'lis (dry-mo-KAL-is) (Rosaceae) dryophilus oak loving Dryopteridaceae Dryopterida'ceae (dry-op-ter-i-DAY-see-ee), from the genus name, Dryopteris, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Dryopteris Dryop'teris (dry-OP-ter-is, or dree-OP-te-ris) oak fern, the wood-fern genus, from the Greek drys oak, or tree, and pteris a kind of fern, from pteron, a feather, a wing, Sanskrit patati he flies, falls, in possible reference to the plants habitat. drynarioides drynaria-like drypt-, drypto- Greek tear, scratch. dschungaricus from Dschunga, China du-, duo Latin two, double. du maître d’ecole French cv. of the schoolmaster dubi- Latin doubtful. dubius -a -um du'bius (DOO-bee-us) from Latin doubtful, dubious, uncertain. duc-, duct Latin lead. Duchesnea Duchesn'ea (doo-SHANE-ee-a check this) New Latin for Antoine N. Duchesne (1747-1827), French botanist. Dudleya, dudleyana Dud'leya (DUD-lee-a) dudleya'na (dud-lee-AY-na) for William Russell Dudley (18491911), first professor of botany and head of the department at Stanford University. dudleyi dud'leyi (DUD-lee-eye) honoring William Russell Dudley (1849-1911), first professor of botany and head of the department at Stanford University, and discoveror of Juncus dudleyi. duinensis from Duino in the Bay or Trieste dul-, dulio-, dulo- Greek a slave, servant. dulc-, dulci- Latin sweet dulcamarus -a -um bitter-sweet, from Latin dulcis -is -e, sweet or pleasant, any taste not acrid, and amarus a -um, bitter. Dulce bellum inexpertis. War is lovely for those who know nothing of it. dulich-, dulicho Latin long. Dulichium from the Latin Dulichium, Dolicha, from Greek Δολίχη, Doliche, a city or an island of the Ionian Sea, southeast of Ithaca, belonging to the kingdom of Ulysses, or Latin dulichium, a kind of sedge. According to Homer, Dulichium abounded in grass and wheat. Some sources refer to Dulichium as an ancient name for Euboia. Alternately from Greek δυο, duo, two, and λειχον, leikhon, scale, in reference to the glumes in two rows. (Cyperaceae) dulcis -is -e (DUL-kis) sweet or pleasant, any taste not acrid; tender. Eleocharis dulcis is the water chestnut. dumetoreum, dumetorum of bushes or hedges, of thickets and hedgerows, from dumetum, dumeti Latin noun, a thicket. dum-, dumus, -dumus Latin bramble. dumalis growing under bushes dumetorum thicket-like, bushy, growing into a thicket, of shrubby or bushy places, from dumetum, dumeti n. Latin noun, a thicket. dumosus -a -um bushy, of shrubby aspect, full of thorn bushes, from Latin dumosus, -a -um, overgrown with thorn, briar or the like. dumulosus small bush like dumus, dumi m. Latin noun, a thorn or briar bush. dunkelpracht German cv. dark beauty dunkelste aller German cv. darkest of all dunnii dunn'ii (DUN-ee-eye) duo Latin two, double. Duobus temporibus oppugnant hostes: cum parati estis, et cum imparati estis. The enemy invariably attacks on two occasions: (a) when you are ready for them, (b) when you are not ready for them. duodec-, duodecim Latin twelve. duoden-, duodeni- growing in twelves, from Latin twelve each. dupl-, duplex, -duplex, duplic-, duplici- Latin double

duplicato-serratus with double saw edge duplicatus duplicate, double, folded, twin. dur-, dura, duro Latin hard. dura durabilis durable, lasting, hard, woody duracinus hard-berried, with grizzled, hard berries. duramen a hardening medicine ?, from Chiron(?) durandii named for the French nursery Durand Frères durangensis from Durango, Mexico. duratus dura'tus (durr-AY-tus) dureus, durius hardened, woody duritia hardness, from durus, hard, and -itia suffix indicating the abstract or general result. durior harder duriusculus -a -um somewhat hard or rough, inclined to be hard, grizzly. durus, durum hard, from Latin durūs, hard dusetorus dusetor'us (doo-muh-TOR-us) dusosus duso'sus (doo-MOE-sus) düsterlohe German cv. dark flame dya-, dyad, dyas, -dyas Greek two. dyn-, dynam-, dynamo-, dynast- Greek be able; power, energy. dyo- Greek enter, dive; two, in twos. Dyósmos Greek δυόσµος, dyosmos, peppermint. Dypsis dys- Greek bad, malicious, hard; enter, dive. Dysanthus with hair flowers, like Snake Gourd, Trichosanther dysentericus for the treatment of dysentery, pertaining to dysentery. dysis- Greek sinking; put on, clothe. dysosmos garlic germander, from Greek. Dysphania Dysphan'ia (dis-FANE-ee-a) Greek dysphanis, obscure, apparently alluding to inconspicuous flowers dysporo Greek hard to pass. Dysodiopsis from the generic name Dyssodia and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, sight, view. Dyssodia New Latin, modification of Greek dysōdia foul smell, bad odor, from dysōdēs ill-smelling, and -ia. (Compositae) dyt-, dytes, -dytes Greek dive, enter. OK, if I decide to do this, I'm gonna need an unlimited supply of Xena tapes, and Hot Pockets. Rat/Theodore J. Finch e see also ae, ai, o, or oe e- without, also out of, out from e Latin out, without, from. e. g., exempli gratia for the sake of example, used to introduce but not expand on an example E pluribus unum one out of many e publica in the public interest. -eae the ending of plant tribe names. ear-, earin-, earo- Greek spring, spring time. Eastwoodia for Alice Eastwood (1859–1953), western American botanist Eatonia honoring Prof. Amos A. Eaton, well-known author of the “Manual of Botany” that bears his name. (Gramineae) eatonii ea'tonii (EE-ton-ee-eye) Eatonella for Daniel Cady Eaton (1834–1885), American botanist eb-, eben-, ebo- Greek the ebony tree, referring to ebony. ebenacanthus having black thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. Ebenaceae plants of the Ebony or Ormander-wood, (Diospyros ebenaster) family, from the name, Diospyrus Ebenus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names.

ebenaceus, ebenus ebony-like, black like ebony ebeneus ebony black ebeninus ebony-like ebenoides resembling the Ebony tree. eborinus ivory-like, ivory-white ebracteatus bractless, destitute of bracts. ebracteolatus destitute of bractlets or small bracts. ebri- Latin drunk. ebulifolius with leaves like Dane-wort, Sambucus ebulus. eburne- Latin ivory. eburneus -a -um ivory-white, from Latin eburneus, made with ivory, of ivory, for the whitish scales against the blackish perigynia. From ebur, eboris, an object or statue of ivory, or an elephant or elephant tusk, perhaps from e-, Latin prefix and barrus, elephant; for the whitish scales against the blackish perigynia of Carex eburnea. eburneolus ivory-white eburnus ivory-white ec- Greek out, out of, from. ecalcaratus spurless. ecaton Greek a hundred. ecaudal without a tail or similar appendage. Ecce homo There is the man. eccli Greek bend down, turn aside. Eccremidium from Greek ekkremes, hanging, and -idium, diminutive, referring to the pendulous capsule eccri-, eccris, eccrit Greek separation; chosen. eccroust- Greek beaten out, driven away. eccye Greek give birth to, bring forth. ecdem-, ecdemi-, ecdemio- Greek travel, go abroad. ecdys-, ecdysis, -ecdysis Greek an escape, slipping out. ece-, ecesis, -ecesis, ecetes, -ecetes Greek dwell; a dweller. ecgon Greek born, descended from. ech-, echo Latin reverberation of sound. Echeandia For Pedro Gregorio Echeandía (1746–1817), Spanish botanist in Zaragosa. echel French a ladder. echene, echenei Greek holding ships fast; a kind of fish. Echeveria honoring Echeveri, a botanical draughtsman. (Crassulaceae) echi-, echidn-, echis-, -echis Greek a viper, adder. echidne adder, viper echin-, echino-, echinus, -echinus Greek a hedgehog; a sea urchin. echinatus -a -um bristly, prickly, spiny Echinacea (e-kee-NAH-kee-a) New Latin, from echin- and -acea (feminine of -aceus -aceous) from Greek ἐχῖνος, ekhinos, hedgehog, or Latin, echinus, sea urchin, for the spiny receptacle scales (pales). (Compositae) echinaceus -a -um prickly like a hedgehog. echinatus -a -um prickly, spiny, set with prickles or spines, Greek ἐχῖνος, ekhinos, hedgehog, an edible sea-urchin or a prickle. echinellus -a -um echinel'lus (ek-in-EL-lus) echiniformis shaped like a hedgehog or sea-urchin (echinus) echinocactoides resembling Hedgehog Cactus. Echinocactus Echinocac'tus (ek-eye-no-KAK-tus) Greek echinos, hedgehog, and Cactus, an old genus name echinocarpus -a -um echinocar'pus (ek-eye-no-KAR-pus) prickly-fruited, with prickly fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit.. echinocephalus with a prickly head, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. Echinocereus Echinocer'eus (ek-eye-no-SEER-ee-us) Greek echinos, spine, and Cereus, a genus of columnar cacti Echinochloa (e-keen-O-klo-a) New Latin, from Greek echin-, echinos, a hedgehog, and Greek chloa, chloe grass, young verdure, from chloos light green color, from the prickly awns, related to Greek chloros, greenish yellow.

Echinocystis from Greek εχῖνος, ekhinos, sea urchin, and κύστις, kystis, a blader, referring to the spiny, inflated fruit. (Cucurbitaceae) Echinodorus Echinodor'us (ek-eye-no-DOR-us) from Greek echius, rough husk, and doros, leathern bottle, referring to the ovaries, which in some species are armed with persistent styles, forming prickly head of fruit. echinoformis in the form of a hedgehog. echinoides hedgehog-like Echinomastus Greek echinos, hedgehog, and masto, breast, referring to the spiny tubercles echinopodus with a prickly or thorny stem, from and Greek πους, ποδος, pous, podos.. Echinops New Latin, from Greek echinos, echin-, hedgehog, spiny and -ops, face, appearance, for the spiny heads. echinosepalus prickly-sepaled echinospermus bearing hedgehog-like seeds. echinosporus with prickly spores or prickly seeds. echinulatus having diminutive prickles. echioides echioides (ek-ee-OH-i-dees) echium-like, resembling Echium, Viper’s-Bugloss. Echium Ech'ium (EK-ee-um) New Latin, from Greek echion echium, from εχις, echis, viper, from a name εχιον, echion, used by Dioscorides for a plant to cure snake bite (vipers bugloss). echis Greek a viper, adder echitoides resembling Echites nutans, Drooping Savannah-flower. echm-, echmat- Greek an obstacle, prop. echo Latin reverberation of sound. echth-, echthist, echtho-, echthr- Greek hated; hatred. -ecious Greek a house ecirrhata Eclaireur German cv. scout eclamp Greek shine. eclip-, eclips Greek deficient; leave out. Ecliptica Eclipta from Greek ekleipsis, a failing, possibly referring to the minute or wanting pappus. (Compositae) eclog- Greek pick out, select. eco- Greek a house, abode. ecornutus hornless ecorticatus, excorticatus without bark, destitute of bark. ecphyad- Greek an outgrowth, appendage. ecphyl- Greek alien, strange. ecphym-, ecphyma, -ecphyma Greek an eruption of pimples. ecphys- Greek blow out. ecro- Greek escape; keep safe. ect-, ecto- Greek outside, out, outer. ecta-, ectasis, -ectasis Greek an extension, dilation ectemn-, ectemno Greek cut out, weaken. ecthym-, ecthymo Greek spirited, eager, frantic. ecto Greek outside, out, outer. -ectomy Greek cutout. ectop-, ectopi-, ectopo- Greek displaced, foreign. ectopist-, ectopistes, -ectopistes Greek a foreigner, wanderer. -ectopy Greek displacement. ectro-, ectrom-, ectros Greek abortion, miscarriage. ecze-, eczem- Greek boil over. edaph-, edapho Greek the base, bottom; soil. ede-, edeo Greek the genitals. edema, -edema, edemat- Greek a swelling, tumor. edentulus -a -um toothless, of leaves with a smooth edge. edest-, edestes, -edestes Greek an eater. edgeworthii for Michael Edgeworth (1812-1881), British amateur botanist and plant collector edibil- Latin edible.

ēdo Latin I give out, opposed to ĕdo, I eat edr-, edra, -edra, edri Greek a seat. edulis, edulis, edule ed'ulis (ED-yoo-lis) Latin edible, eatable edurus, edura, edurum very hard ef Latin out, from, away. efferen- Latin carrying away, from effero, to carry out, bring out. effiguratus figured, ornamental. effluen Latin flowing away. effod- Latin digging; dig out. effusus -a -um effus'us (ef-FEW-sus) loosely spreading, straggly, pouring forth, from Latin adjective effusus -a um, loose spreading, disheveled. effusus -a -um, effusior -or -us, effusissimus -a -um Latin adjective vast, wide, sprawling; disheveled, loose hair or reins; disorderly; extravagant; efoliolatus without leaflike scales. ‘Egan’ honoring William A. Egan, the 1st and 4th Governor of Alaska. egena egen'a (eh-JEEN-a) egeri-, egeria, -egeria Latin a nymph Egeria Latin egeri, a nymph, in reference to aquatic habitat egi, egis Latin a shield, armor eglantaria eglandulosus, eglandulosa destitute of glands. Egletes Greek aiglitis, splendor or glitter, a possible reference to the heads ego Latin myself, self egranulose without granules. egregie eminately, excellently egregius extraordinary, eminent egregor Greek watch egresso Greek watchful egretta, -egretta French a kind of heron Eheu fugaces labuntur anni “Alas, how the years slip by.” Ehrendorferia Ehrendorferi'a (er-en-dorf-er-EE-a) Eichhornia for Johann A. F. Eichhorn (1779–1856), Prussian statesman eido Greek a form, image; like eidol, eidolo Greek an idol, image eir, eiro Greek wool eis Greek in, into, toward ejacul Latin throw out eka, ekast, ekast Greek one, each ekaton Greek a hundred eklonis eklon'is (ek-LONE-is) elacat-, elacata Greek a staff elach-, elachist, elachy Greek small elachoglossus having small tongues, from , and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue. elachophyllus having small leaves. elachycarpus, elachycarpa having small fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. elae- referring to the olive Elaeagnaceae Elaeagna'ceae (el-ee-ag-NAY-see-ee) plants of the Oleaster family, from the genus name, Elaeaganus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Elaeaganus New Latin, from Greek elaiagnos, a kind of willow, from elaia olive, olive tree, and agnos chaste tree. Elaía, elaís, eliá Greek Ἐλαία, Ἐλαίς, Ελιά, Elaia, Elais, Elia, olive. elaeagnifolius -a -um elaeagnifo'lius (el-ee-ag-ni-FO-lee-us) elaeagnus-leaved, with leaves like Elaegnus elaeagnoides resembling olive, Oleaster Elaeis from Greek elaia, olive, in reference to the oily fruits elaeiformis shaped like an olive elaeo, elaio Greek an olive; Olive Oil

elaeodes olive color elaio- olive green elan-, elano, elanus Greek a kite; drive elaphines tawny or fulvous elap-, elapas Latin a sea fish; a serpent elaph-, elapho, elaphus Greek a stag, deer elaphr, elaphro Greek light in weight elaps- Latin a sea fish; a serpent; slipped away elasm-, elasmo, elasmus Greek a plate, metal plate elasso- Greek make less elasticus -a -um elastic, yielding indiarubber. elat- Latin high, lofty elater Greek a driver elaterius -a -um shooting with elastic filaments (when spreading seeds) elatin-, elatino Greek fir-like; a toadflax Elatinaceae Elatina'ceae (el-at-in-AY-see-ee) plants of the Water-wort, or Water Pepper family, from the genus name, Elatine, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Elatine elat'ine (eh-LAT-in-ee) from Greek ἐλάτη, elate, fir, for the resemblance of the slender leaves of some species. (Elatinaceae) elatior, elatius Latin comparative adjective, taller, higher, more lofty. elatostemmoides resembling Pine Writhe. elatr Latin bark, cry out elatri, elatrie Greek draw, pull elatus -a -um ela'tus (eh-LAY-tus) tall, exalted, lofty, stately. elbrusensis from Mount Elbrus in northern Persia. elc-, elco-, elcoma, elcos- Greek a wound, sore elcysm- Greek dragging eleagn-, eleagnus Greek a marsh plant(????) elect- Latin choose electr-, electri, electro Greek amber; electricity electracanthus with amber-like thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. electrinus amber colored. eleg- Greek: mourning-, Latin: choice eleg- referring to elegance elegan-, elegant Latin elegant, fine elegans, elagantis el'egans (EL-e-gans, or AY-le-gahnz) elegant, graceful, neat, nice, from Latin adjective elegans, (gen) elegantis, elegant, choice, fine, handsome, neat, tasteful, luxurious, or sometimes in bad sense fastidious, fussy, or too nice. eleganter gracefully, finely elegantissimus, elegantissima most or very elegant, exquisitely fine or nice. elegantulus diminutive of elegant; or rather elegant? (one source has extra graceful or nice?) elelisphacos salvia, Salvia trilobs (L.). Elelísphakos Greek Ἐλελίσφακος, sage. elench Greek disgrace; test eleo Greek a marsh; oil; distracted eleo- marsh, from Greek ελος, ελεο-, elos, eleo-, cf. heleo-. Proper etymology shows the Greek root started with ἑ, an epsilon with a spiritus asper, pronounced and transliterated he-. Eleocharis (Heleocharis) Eleo'charis (e-lee-O-ka-ris, or he-lee-O-ka-ris, el-ee-OK-ar-is) marsh-beauty, marshfavor, marsh-joy, New Latin, from Greek ἑλεο- heleo-, marsh, or helodes, growing in marshes, heleios, dwelling in marshes, and χαρις, kharis grace, beauty, pleasant, or χαίρω, kharo, to rejoice. Mohlenbrock (2005) introduced the name Spikesedge since Eleocharis are in the sedge family not the rush family. eleph-, elephas, elephant, elephanti, elephanto Greek an elephant; ivory elepha- referring to an elephant elephanticeps with an elephant’s head. elephantidens large-toothed, ivory toothed. elephantidëus ivory-toothed (questionable translation, possible typo for elephantidëns?)

elephantinus thick-skinned elephatipes elephant-footed, like an elephant’s foot, thick stemmed. Elephantopus from Greek ἐλέφας, elephas, elephant, and πούς, pous, foot; possibly for the rosettes of basal leaves in the first described species; or the form of the leaves in some species. (Compositae) elephantum of the elephants Eleusine New Latin, from Greek Eleusinē, a name for Demeter, the goddess of grain (Ceres, goddess of Harvests), from the Attic town Eleusis, where Ceres was worshipped; ἐλευσίιον, eleusiion, belonging to Eleusis. (Gramineae) Elfenauge German cv. elf’s eye eleuther-, eleuthero Greek free, not joined eleuthantherous having distinct anthers (anthers not united) eleutherococcus with free distinct kernels or berries. eleutheropetalus having distinct free petals eleutherophlebius having free distinct nerves or veins. eleutherophyllous having free, separate leaves. elevatus elevated, raised. Eliá Greek Ελιά, Elia, olive. elig Latin a choice; choose eligm-, eligmo Greek winding, twisting elis Latin eradicated -ell, ella, ellum, ellus Latin diminutive suffix meaning small elliotianus -a -um honoring Stephen Elliott (1771-1830), Sout Carolina farmer, banker, legislator, natural historian, college instructor, and botanist. ellip-, ellips-, ellipt- Greek wanting, falling short; elliptical ellipsoidalis ellipsoid, elliptic, elliptical ellipsoideus elliptic, elliptical ellipticus -a -um ellip'ticus (e-LIP-ti-kus, el-IP-ti-kus) elliptic, shaped like an ellipse. Ellisia -ellus a -um Latin little, adjectival diminutive suffix used with First declinsion nouns (or adjectival bases (or nouns of any declinsion)). elmeri el'meri (EL-mer-eye) Elmfeuer German cv. St. Elmo’s fire ellop-, ellops Greek a sea fish; mute elo-, elod- Greek a marsh, from ἓλος, helos, marsh-meadow, marshy ground, backwater. elocularis -is -e without loculi, without partitions Elodea (e-LO-dee-a) from Greek ἑλοδες, ἑλώδης, helodes, marshy, growing in marshes, from ἓλος-ωδης, helos-odes, referring to the habitat of the plants. (Hydrocharitaceae, formerly Hypericaceae) elodes bog loving, from Greek ἑλοδες, helodes. elongatus -a -um elonga'tus (ee-long-GAY-tus) elongated, lengthened, drawnout, extended. elop-, elops Greek a sea fish; mute, from ελοψ = ελλοφ, elops, elloph, a serpent, sea fish, mute. elshotzia for J.S. Elsholtz (17th century German physician and botanist. Eltroplectris Greek eleutheros, free, and plectron, spur, referring to free spur of sepal elu, elud, elus Latin get away from elut- Latin washed out, from eluere, to wash out, clean, rinse, efface, wash away. eluterius washed out, sapless. elutus washed out, sapless. elwesii for Henry John Elwes (1846-1922), British (English) naturalist and arboriculturist elym-, elymo Greek a case, sheath; a kind of grass elymaiticus from Elmais (the Elam of the Bible) east of Palestine. elymoides elymo'ides (el-i-MO-i-dees) Elymus El'ymus (EL-i-mus) New Latin, from an ancient Greek name Elumos, or elymos, millet (Italian millet, Setaria italica, also known as melinê; knêmê melinê, plural a millet field), a type of grain, meaning millet, a case, a quiver, referring to the λέµµα, lemma, and palea which are tightly rolled about the seed. (the base root is ελυµ-, the upsilon translating this variously as elym- or elum-.) One author cites Greek ελύω, elym, to envelop; referring to the spike in the sheath. Similar to Greek ελυµος, elymos, meaning a case, a quiver, millet; ελυµα, elyma, the sharebeam of a plow. The Elymians, Greek Ἔλυµοι, Elymoi, Latin Elymi, were an ancient tribe that lived in western

Sicily (they used the Greek (or Phoenician?) alphabet but their language is undecifered), and were said to be a millet-growing people. The Trojans who fled from Troy to Sicily settled in that part of Sicily called themselves Elymi, after Elymus. Elymus (Greek Ἔλυµος, Elumos, Elymos; Elymnus in Strabo), was the natural son (or bastard son) of Anchises and brother of Eryx, one of the fleeing Trojans. With the aid of Aeneas they built the towns of Aegesta and Elymé (Elima). (http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=ELYTRAsTRA). Elumos is also a term for a type of aulos, a Greek ‘two-piped’ reed wind instrument, possibly originating from Phrygian phrugiaulos. It is often mistranslated as flute. (Gramineae) See the relationship of elymus with Triptolemus, Τριπτόλεµος, threefold warrior, who taught the arts of agriculture to Lyncus, king of the Scythians. “Triptolemos is analysed by Janda (1998) as a Greek continuation of a variant of the epithet, *trigw-t-welumos, a "terpsimbrotos" compound "cracker of the enclosure", Greek (w)elumos referring to the casings of grain in Greek being descended from the same root *wel-. On such grounds, a rock or mountain *welos or *welumos, split by a heroic deity, liberating Dawn or the Sun is reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European mythology (the "Sun in the rock" myth, sometime also speculated to be connected with the making of fire from flintstone)” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vala_(Vedic)) Triptolemus was one of the original priests of Demeter, and is shown in bas-relief receiving the gift of wheat to give to humanity. elysi-, elysis Greek a step, from ηλυσις, elysis, step, gait. elytr-, elytro-, elytrum Greek a sheath, cover, from ἔλυτρον, elytron, a sheath, a covering or a case; in medical procedures the vagina. Elytrigia Elytrig'ia (el-i-TRIJ-ee-a) Greek ἔλυτρον, elytron, sheath, covering elytroides with covering resembling the wing cases of a beetle, from Greek ἔλυτρον, elytron. elytrophyllus with leaves resembling the wing cases of a beetle, from Greek ἔλυτρον, elytron. elytrum, elytri modern Latin noun, elytron; outer wing. em- Latin in, into, from Greek prefix εµ-, in, within. emarcidus wilty, withered. emarginatus -a -um emargina'tus (ee-mar-jin-AY-tus) with a shallow notch at the apex (usually at the apex of a leaf), without a margin(?) embal-, emballo, embalm Greek throw in, put in, from εµβαλλω, emballo, throw in, throw into, put into. emberiz-, emberiza New Latin a bunting, from German-Swiss emmeritz, bunting, yellow hammer. embi-, embia, embio Greek lively, long-lived, from εµβια, embia, lively, εµβιος, embios, having life, lasting one’s whole life. embio from Greek εµβιοω, live in, of plants; become established, take root. embol, -embolm, embolo Greek inserted; a wedge. embol from Greek εµβολ, embol, putting in, inserting, ramming, gust of wind. embol-, embolim, embolo Greek εµβολιµος, embolimos, intercalated. embol from Greek εµβολος, embolos, a wedge, peg, stopper, linch-pin. embrith-, embritho Greek heavy, from εµβριθης, embrithes, weighty, heavy, dignified. embryo Greek an embryo, from εµβρυον, embryon, embryo, fetus. emendatus improved emer-, emera Greek a day, from ηµερα, emera, a day. emer, emero Greek domestic, tamed emergens standing up above its surroundings (said of capsules) emeritus honorary, well-earned emero- Greek ηµερο-, for a day, by day. emersus -a -um emer'sus (em-ER-sus) raised above the water level, from Latin e, out of and mergere, to dip, plunge. emerus domesticated, cultivated. emet-, emeti-, emeto Greek vomit, from εµετος, vomiting, sickness. emetic Greek producing vomiting, from εµετικος, provoking sickness. emeticus emetic, causing vomiting Emex Em'ex (EM-ex) from Latin, ex, and Rumex, a reference to segregation from that genus -emia Greek blood, αιµα. Emilia presumably for someone named Emile or Emilie; the author Casini mentioned no one eminens eminent, conspicuous, distinguished, prominent, projecting emmel, emmeleia Greek a harmony, dance

emmen-, emmena, emmeno Greek monthly; the menses; faithful Emmenanthe Emmenan'the (em-en-AN-the) emodensis, emodi- of or from the Himalayas emodus, emodi- from the Himalaya mountains. emolli Latin soften emmonsii after Ebenezer Emmons (1798-1863), a Massachusetts educator emoryi em'oryi (EM-or-ee-eye) after William H. Emory (1811-1887), U.S. Army officer who collected plants while on missions Empatraceae Empetra'ceae (em-peh-TRAY-see-ee) plants of the black-berried Heath or Crake-berry family, from the genus name, Empetrum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. empetrifolius empetrum-leaved empetriformis shaped like Empetrium, crowberry empetroides resembling black-berried Heath or Crake-berry Empetrum (EM-pe-trum) from empetron Greek from en on and petros rock, for its growth habit emphrax, emphraxi, emphraxis Greek an obstruction emphys Greek inflate emphysematosus bladdery emphyt, emphyto Greek implanted, innate empi, empid, empis Greek a gnat empir, empiro Greek experienced empres, empresi, -empresm Greek burning; set on fire empusa, -empusa Greek a hobgoblin, ghost empy, empyema Greek form pus emulsi Latin milk out, exhaust emulsus milky, like an almond. emy, emyd, emys Greek a tortoise, turtle en Greek in, into enali, enalio Greek of the sea, marine enall, enalla, enallagm- Greek differ from enallax Greek crosswise enant, enanti Greek opposite encarsi Greek oblique enatus grown out, projecting from the surface. -ence, -ency, -ancy, -ance Latin -antia, -entia, sufffixes pertaining to, quality of, state Encelia Ence'lia (en-SEE-lee-a) for Christoph Entzelt (Christophorus Enzelius) (1517–1583), German naturalist Enceliopsis Enceliop'sis (en-see-lee-OP-sis) from the generic name Encelia and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, sight, view. encephal-, encephalo-, encephalus Greek the brain, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. Encalypta from Greek en, in, and kalyptos, cover or veil or lid, alluding to the calyptra ench, encho, enchus Greek a spear enchely, enchelys Greek an eel enchym, enchyma Greek an infusion -ency, -ence, -ancy, -ance Latin -antia, -entia, sufffixes pertaining to, quality of, state Encyclia Greek enkyklos, to encircle, referring to the lateral lobes of the lip, which encircle the column end, endo Greek within, inner endecagynous having eleven pistils. endecandrous having eleven stamens. endecaphyllus eleven leaved, or with leaves of eleven divisions. endemius native, local, confined to a certain locality. endivia endive, from Latin Endybis, Greek Ενδυβις (ΕΝΔΥΒΙϹ, lunate sigma? Ενδυβις was a 3rd century C.E. king of Auxum, in modern Etritrea and Ethopia. endogenus growing within another body; internal growth as in Palms or grasses. endorrhizus (Monocotyledonous) when in germination the root gives rise to secondary rootlets, from , and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. endressii for Philip Endress (1806-1831), German plant collector endym, endyma, endymato Greek a garment

endysi, endysis Greek entering; a putting on enem, enema Greek send in Enemiom listed by Dioscorides as another name for Anemone enervis, enervius nerveless or veinless, or apparently so, Latin ex, beyond, out, without, and nervus, sinew, tendon for the nerveless perigynia Engelmannia, engelmannii engelmann'ii (eng-gel-MAN-ee-eye) for George (Georg) Engelmann (1809–1884), German-born St. Louis physician and botanist and an authority on cacti, North American conifers, and oaks. engraul, engrauis, -engraulis Greek a small fish engy Greek near; narrow enhydr- enhydris Greek an otter; a water snake enhydr- enhydro Greek living in water enic- enico Greek singe enne-, ennea Greek nine enneacanthus nine-spined, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. enneagonus having nine sides. enneagynous having nine pistils. enneandrus, enneandra, enneandrious with nine stamens enneapetalus having nine petals. enneaphyllus nine-leaved, with nine leaflets or leaves enneasepalous having nine sepals enneaspermous having nine seeds. eno Greek wine enod-, enodis Latin without knots or nodes, smooth -ens, -e, -is Latin of, belonging to ens- referring to a sword, from ensis, ensis m., Latin noun, a sword. ensatus sword-shaped, as the leaves of Iris -ense native to ensi-, ensis Latin a sword, from ensis, ensis m., Latin noun, a sword. ensiferus sword bearing, from ensifer, ensifera, ensiferum, Latin adjective, sword-bearing, from ensis, ensis m., Latin noun, a sword. ensifolius -a -um with swordlike leaves, from ensis, ensis m., Latin noun, a sword, and -folius -a -um, leaved, from folium, foli(i) n., leaf. ensiformis sword-shaped, formed like a sword, from ensis, ensis m., Latin noun, a sword, and . ensigerus sword bearing, from ensiger, ensigera, ensigerum, Latin adjective, sword-bearing, from ensis, ensis m., Latin noun, a sword. -ensis -is -e Latin adjectival suffix indicating country or place of growth or origin or else habitat, native to, used with a noun base. enslenii Aloysius Enslen, Austrian botanical explorer of the southeastern U.S. in early 19th century ent, ento Greek within, interior entas, entasis Greek a stretching; a spasm entelech Greek perfect -enter latin adverbial suffix used with adjectives. enter Latin between, among enter, entero, entersum Greek the intestine, gut enthet, enthetic, -entheto Greek put in, im-planted Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem. No more things should be presumed to exist than are absolutely necessary (Occam's razor). ento Greek within, interior entom- referring to insects entomophilus insect-loving, with flowers fertilized by insects entomophyllus with insect-like leaves, one source has this as synonymous with the above. Entosthodon Greek entosthi, within, and odon, tooth, referring to position of teeth inside capsule -eolens scented, olens, (gen.) olentis, Latin with an odor good or bad, odorous, fragrant, stinking. entrerianus from Entro-Rio in the Argentine entom, entoma, -entoma, entomo Greek an insect enton, entoni, entono Greek tension; strained

entrop Greek turn in, turn toward enydr, enydris Greek an otter; aquatic enygr, enygro Greek watery, in water Enziandom German cv. gentian dome eo, eos Greek dawn; early eodem to the same place eol, eoli, eolo Greek quick-moving; the winds ep, eph, epi Greek upon, over, beside epacr, epacro Greek pointed Epacridaceae resembling Epacris, Australian Heath, from the genus name, Epacris, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. epacroides resembling Epacris, Australian Heath. epagog, epagogo Greek enticing, bringing in epan, epanet, epani Greek relaxing epeir, epeiro, epeirus, epeirus Greek the mainland, a continent ependy, ependyma, ependytes Greek a tunic epenthes, epenthesis Greek an insertion eph Greek upon, over, beside epheb, ephebo Greek youth Ephedra Ephed'ra (eh-FED-ra) Greek ep-, upon, and hédra, seat or sitting upon a place; from the ancient name used by Pliny for Equisetum; the stems resemble the jointed stems of Equisetum, the segments of which appear to sit one upon the other. Ephedraceae Ephedra'ceae (ef-eh-DRAY-see-ee), from the genus name, Ephedra, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. ephedroides resembling Sea Holly, Ephedra distachya. ephemer-, empheri, ephemero Greek for a day, temporary Ephemerum from Greek ephemeros, of short duration ephemerus ephemeral, short-lived, lasting one day only. ephesti Greek domestic ephippi-, ehippus, -ehippus Greek a saddle ephoides ephydr-, ephydro Greek rainy, watery; living on the water ephyr-, ehpyra, -ephyra Greek a sea nymph; Corinth epi on, on top of, upon, over, beside, from Greek έπί, upon, epial-, epialo, epialus, -epialus Greek a nightmare; ague epiblem-, epiblema, -epiblema, epiblemato Greek a cover, cloak epichnous superficially covered with wool. epidemi-, epidemio Greek an epidemic; among the people Epidendrum Greek epi-, on, and dendron, tree, referring to the epiphytic habit epidos, epidosis, -epidosis Greek an enlargement; increase epier-, epiera Greek pleasing Epifagus on a beech tree epigaeus, epigeus, Epigaea on the ground, growing near the ground, growing above ground, New Latin, from Greek epigaios upon the earth, from epi- and -gaios, from gaia earth. epiglottis -is -e superficially covered with tongues, multi-tongued (?bad? translations), from Greek έπιγλωττίς, epiglottis, from έπί, epi-, upon, and γλῶττα, glotta, γλῶσσα, glossa, tongue, upon the tongue. epigynous -a -um growing upon the pistil, and above the ovary. epihydrus from epi, έπί, upon, on, and hydr, ὑδρ-, water, in reference to the floating leaves epilep-, epilepsy-, epilept Greek a laying hold of epilept-, epilepto Greek epilepsy epilinum dodder, a parasite growing upon flax, Linum. epilithicus -a -um growing on stones epilobifolius -a -um New Latin with leaves resembling those of Epilobium, from Epilobium, from Greek επι-, epi, on and λοβος, lobos a pod, and Latin folium. epilobioides epilobio'ides (ep-il-oh-bee-OH-i-dees) resembling willow herb, Epilobium.

Epilobium Epilo'bium (e-pi-LO-bee-um or, ep-il-OH-bee-um) from Greek ἐπί-, epi, on, and λοβός, lobos a pod, and New Latin -ium; alternately epilobion, from Greek ἐπί-, epi, on, and λοβός, lobos a pod, and ἴον, ion, a violet, i. e. a violet growing upon a pod; the corolla is on the end of the ovary. (Onagraceae) epimach, epimacho Greek assailable epinatans floating on top. Epipactis Epipac'tis (ep-i-PAK-tis) New Latin, from Greek epipaktis rupturewort, an ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus for a plant used to curdle milk. epipast, epipasto Greek sprinkled epiped, epipedo Greek on the ground, level epipetalus born upon the petals, usually applied to stamens. epiphor, epiphora Greek an addition epiphor, epiphoro Greek inclined, sloping Epiphyllum Greek epi, upon, and phyllon, a leaf, referring to flowers borne on leaves, actually phylloclades, leaflike stems epiphyllus growing on leaves of other plants. epiphytus plants that grow on other plants, but not parasitically like some orchids. epiplo Greek a thin membrane, caul Epipremnum growing on trees, from epi, upon and premnum, a tree??? epipsilus with a bare top. epipterus bearing winged fruit (?) epir, epiro, epirus Greek the mainland, a continent epirhizous growing as a parasite on roots, from , and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. epiroticus from ancient Epirus, Ηπειρος, part of the Balkan peninsula, including parts of Greece and Albania, at one time ruled by Phyrrhus, an ancient Greek general, an opponent of early Rome, whose victories had staggering losses. episcopalis pertaining to bishops. episio Greek region of pubes; vulva epistasi, epistasis, -epistasis Greek a stopping; attention epistroph Greek turn about; attention epithalam, epithalami Greek nuptial epithe, epitheca, epithem, epithes, epithet Greek added, laid on; covered Epithelantha Greek epi, upon, thele, nipple, and anthos, flower, describing flower position near tubercle apex epithym, epithymi Greek longing, desire epithymus growing as a parasite on thyme. epitrop Greek reference; a guardian epixparhyngius with a golden upper side. eplicatus not plaited or not folded. epomidi, epomidio Greek on the shoulder epops, -epops Greek the hoopoe, similar to Latin upupa, of imitative origin, a crested Old World nonpasserine bird, Upupa epops ept, epta New Latin seven epul, epulum Latin a feast epulot Greek healing; a scar epy Greek tall equ, equa, equi Latin equal equ- referring to horses equestr Latin a horseman equestris pertaining to the horse equestris, equestre, equester pertaining to horesmanship. equi Latin equal; a horse equilateralis equal sided. equin, equin-, equis- Latin pertaining to horses equinus of horses, relating to horses Equisetaceae Equiseta'ceae (eh-kwis-eh-TAY-see-ee) plants of the Horse-tail or Joint-Grass family, from the genus name, Equisetum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. equisetifolius with leaves like Horse-tail or Joint-Grass, equisetum-leaved

equisetiformis resembling Horse-tail or Joint-Grass. equisetoides resembling an Equisetum, Horsetail. Equisetum Equise'tum (ek-wi-SEE-tum) horsetail, literally horse-bristle, from Latin equus, horse, and saeta, seta, bristle, animal hair, for the resemblance of some species to a horses tail, or the coarse black roots of E. fluviatile. Compare hippuris. equisetuus? resembling Horse-tail or Joint-Grass, from from Latin equus, horse, and saeta, seta, bristle, a name used in Pliny for a horsetail. equitan, equitans Latin riding a horse, riding, folding over as if astride. equu-, equus, -equus Latin a horse er Greek spring, from ἦρ, er, = ἔαρ, ear; the earth. Eragrostis eragros'tis (er-a-GROS-tis, er-uh-GROS-tis, or e-ra-GROS-tis) Nathaniel Wolf described Eragrostis in 1776 but gave no explanation of the meaning or origin of the name. The most obvious explanation of the name is that it is New Latin, from Greek ἔρως, ἔρωτος, eros, erotos, sexual love, and Greek, ἄγρωστις, agrostis agristidos, some kind of field grass eaten by mules, variously ascribed to Triticum repens and Cynodon dactylon (or an indeterminate herb, a weed, or couch grass), Latin agrostis, agrostis, couch grass, Quitch-grass, from Old Greek ἀγρός, agros, a field. The exact meaning of the name and reference to the plant are unclear and unexplained, perhaps an allusion to splendor in the grass, in the least, giving the genus the common name "lovegrass". (investigate type species) Scholars have proposed alternate meanings based on various interpretations of the initial er- or eri-. In scientific name usage, the prefix eri- has been translated as early; spring; earth, field; wool; very, much; hedgehog; and heath. In Greek, er is spring, from ἦρ, er, the same as ἔαρ, ear; the earth. One suggested meaning is from the Greek ἠρ, er, early and ἄγρωστις, agrostis, wild, referring to the fact that some species are early weeds of disturbed land. But Agrostis refers to field grass, growing in an αγρος, agros or field, while ἄγριος, agrios, means wild and savage. More appropriately this could mean early in the field, successionally or seasonally. Using Greek ἦρι, eri, a prefix meaning very or much, is the suggestion that the name means manyflowered Agrostis. Unfortunately we know of no botanical Latin term using eri- to mean very or much, and only one reference to this use (as of 8/22/11). Some interpret Eragrostis as from the Greek era, earth or field. The ancient Greek root ἔρα-, era- (in ἔραζε, eraze, to earth, towards the earth), in Hellenistic Greek also means ‘on the ground’. ‘On the ground’ may be a reference to the many species that are low growing or mat-forming. (confirm type species) Gray (1876) calls Eragrostis an early name probably from ἔρα-, era-, earth, and Agrostis, in reference to the procumbent habit of the original species. According to Charters, earth or field “makes much more sense since many of the species of this genus especially the 90 or so from southern Africa are habitants of pastures and fields.” Britton & Brown note the doubtful etymology, suggesting a low grass, or Love-grass, an “occasional English name.” It's likely the name "lovegrass" is a misnomer. eran, erano Greek a contribution; a society erann, eranno Greek pleasing eranthemis flowering early Eranthemum from the Indo-European root *ue(s)r, spring. Eranthis Greek er, spring, and anthos, flower. From the Indo-European root *ue(s)r, spring. erasmi, erasmo Greek lovely erast, erastes, -erasto, erasto Greek a lover; beloved erat, erato Greek lovely Erdblut German cv. earth blood ereb-, erebo, erebus Greek mythology darkness, from ἐρεβεννος, erebennos, dark, gloomy. erebinthinos Greek ἐρέβινθος, erebinthos, chick pea, Cicer arietinum. Erechtites New Latin, from Greek ἐρεχθῖτις, erekhthitis, groundsel, a name used by Dioscorides presumably for Senecio or Erechtheus, from erechthein (or ἐρέχθω, erekhtho) to rend, break. However, ἐρεχθῖτις is said to be another name for ἀριστολόχεια, aristolokheia, promoting birth, birthwort, ἀριστολόχεια στρογγύλη, aristolokheia stroggyle (strongyle), is Aristolochia rotunda. Alternately from ἐρέχθω, erekhtho, to trouble, as many species are troublesome weeds. Erechtheus is also the name of an archaic king of Athens, a character in the Iliad, and a surname of Poseidon, and a lost tragedy of Euripides. (Compositae) erect-, erectus -a -um erec'tus (ee-REK-tus) Latin upright, erect erectiusculus nearly perpendicular.

erectus -a -um Latin upright, erect, perpendicular. erem-, eremi, eremo Greek a lonely place erem- solitary, deserted, usually refers to a desert erema Greek gently, calmly Eremalche Eremal'che (er-em-AL-kee) eremicolus -a -um eremico'lus (er-em-i-KO-lus), New Latin from Greek eremos, desert, and Latin suffix -cola/colus, from cola, from incola, dweller, inhabitant eremicus -a -um erem'icus (er-EM-i-kus) of deserts eremiticus of hermit habit. Eremocarpus Eremocar'pus (er-em-oh-KAR-pus) Eremocrinum Greek eremos, desert, and krinon, lily Eremogone Eremo'gone (er-e-MO-go-nee) Greek eremo-, solitary or deserted, and gone, seed or offspring, allusion uncertain eremophilus -a -um eremoph'ilus (er-em-OF-il-us) desert loving. ermocarpus with single fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. eremostachya eremostach'ya (er-em-oh-STAY-kee-a) Eremothera Eremother'a (er-em-oh-THEER-a) Eremurus (?) desert tail eresis Greek take eret, eretmo Greek an oar; a rower ereth, erethist Greek irritate, rouse to anger ereun Greek probe, search erg, ergasia, ergo Greek work ergat, ergates, ergato Greek a worker ergo Latin therefore ergot French: spur; Latin: a fungus eri- Greek prefix meaning early, spring; wool; very much; a hedgehog; or heath. eri-, erio- referring to wool eriacanthus woolly-spined, having woolly thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny.. eriadenius with woolly veins or woolly nerves. eriantherus -a -um woolly-anthered, having woolly anthers Erianthus erian'thus (er-ee-AN-thus) woolly-flowered, New Latin, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, diminutive of eiros fleece, and New Latin -anthus, from Greek ἄνθος, anthos, flower. (Gramineae) Eriastrus Erias'trus (er-ee-AS-trus) Ericameria Ericamer'ia (er-ik-a-MER-ee-a) erica- referring to the genus Erica, the Heath Ericaceae Erica'ceae (er-i-KAY-see-ee), plants of the Heather family, from the genus name, Erica, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. ericaefolius, ericifolius erica-leaved, with leaves like Erica, heath ericaeus peat or heath-loving Ericameria from the generic name Erica and Greek meros, part or portion, referring to the resemblance of leaves ericetorum peat-loving, heath-loving (??) erici-, ericin-, ericius Latin a hedgehog ericoides erico'ides (er-i-KO-i-dees, or e-ri-KOI-deez) Erica-like, heath-like, in reference to the slender branches and bracteal leaves resembling those of Erica, heath or heather, from the genus name Erica, and classical and postclassical Latin oīdēs, and its etymon ancient Greek -οειδής, -oeides, adjectival suffix indicating having the form or likeness of, like unto, like something else, resemble, having the nature of, in compound words to signify a resemblance. ericsmith-, ericsmithii for Eric Smith (1917-1986), plantsman and gardener at Hadspen, Somerset, UK Erigenia from Greek for born in the spring, or from Greek ἠριγένεια, erigeneia, daughter of early spring, in reference to is early blooming; probably ultimately from the Indo-European root *ue(s)r, spring. (Umbelliferae) erigeron, -erigeron Greek a kind of plant. Erigeron Erig'eron (er-IJ-er-on, or e-RI-ge-ron) New Latin, from Latin, groundsel, from Greek erigeron, early old man, from ὴρ, er, spring, early, or εριο-, erio-, woolly and γέρων, geron old man, the early flowering plant soon

develops seeds with hoary pappus. The accrescent, gray or white fluffy pappus is like the hair of an old man, or for the solitary, woolly heads of some species. (Compositae) erin Greek a hedgehog; woolen erina- referring to spines, a hedgehog erinaceus -a -um erina'ceus (er-in-AY-see-us) prickly, like a hedge-hog, from Latin erinaceus, n., hedgehog. erinoides resembling Erinus, liver-balsam. erio- wool, Greek from εριον, εριο- erion, erio-, wool or cotton, eriobasis -is -e with a woolly foot-stalk, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and erioblastus -a -um with woolly shoots or sprouts, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and Eriobotrya from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and βότρυς, botrys, a cluster of grapes, referring to the villous flowers, the Loquat. (Rosaecea) eriobotryoides eriobotrya-like eriobotrys, eriobotryus -a -um having woolly racemes, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and βότρυς, botrys, a cluster of grapes. eriocalyx, eriocalycus -a -um with a woolly calyx, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and eriocarpus -a -um eriocar'pus (er-ee-oh-KAR-pus) with woolly fruits, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and καρπός, karpos, fruit. Eriocaulaceae plants of the Pine-wort family, from the genus name, Eriocaulon, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names; from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and Eriocaulon New Latin, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant. eriocaulus -a -um with woolly stalks, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. eriocentrus -a -um eriocen'trus (er-ee-oh-KEN-trus) eriocephalus -a -um woolly-headed, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. eriocladus -a -um having woolly twigs, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, Eriochloa from Greek from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and χλοη, khloe, for grass. Eriodictyon Eriodic'tyon (er-ee-oh-DIK-tee-yon) Eriogonum Erio'gonum (er-ee-OG-an-um) from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and gony, knee, a reference to the hairy nodes of E. tomentosum, the first species described. eriogonus -a -um having a woolly edge or border(?), from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and Erioneuron Erioneur'on (er-ee-oh-NYUR-on) erionotus with woolly markings, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and eriophorus wool-bearing, densely cottony, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, Eriophorum wool-bearing, New Latin, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool or cotton, and Greek φορεω (φερω), phoro (phero) bearing. (Cyperaceae) eriophyllus -a -um, Eriophyllum eriophyl'lus (er-ee-oh-FIL-us) Eriophyl'lum (er-ee-oh-FIL-um) with woolly leaves, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and phyllon, leaf. eriopterus with woolly wings, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and eriopodus -a -um eriopo'dus (er-ee-oh-PO-da) eriopus having woolly stalks, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and eriorhabdus, eriorhabdon having woolly stalks, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and rhabdos, rod. eriospathus hairy spathe, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and eriosphaerus havong woolly balls, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and eriostachyus, eriostachys woolly-spiked, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and eriostemon, eriostemus with stamens woolly, from Greek ἔριον, erion, wool, and eris, erism, erist Greek quarrel erisma, -erisma, erismat Greek a prop, support eristalis, -eristalis Latin an unknown precious stone ermineus of the color of ermine, white with yellow shading. ern, erno Greek a sprout; a child erod, erod Greek a heron Erodium Ero'dium (er-OH-dee-um) New Latin, from Greek ἐρωδιός, erōdios, a heron; from the long-beaked fruit. (Geraniaceae) erophilus spring loving

eros Greek: love; Latin: gnawed away erostratus, erostratus beakless. erosus -a -um ero'sus (er-OSE-us) erose, jagged, having the margin irregularly notched as if gnawed or bitten off. erot, erote, erotem Greek question, ask erot, eroto Greek love erotyl Greek a darling erpe, erpes, erpet Greek creep; a creeper, compare to Latin rept, reptiliErpodium from Greek erpo, creeping, alluding to growth habit err, erran, errat Latin wander; wandering erraticus erratic, unusual, sporadic, wild strange. erratum mistake erromenus vigorous, healthy ers, ersae, erse Greek dew; dewy, fresh; young Erste Zuneiging German cv. first love erubescens blushing, or reddening, usually referring to color literally, emitting rose-color, pale red, turning red. Erucastrum eruc, eruca, eruci Latin a caterpillar eruciformis tendril-like. Eucephalus from Greek eu-, good or original, and kephalotos, with a head; a reference "to the elegant qualities of the calyx"—T. Nuttall 1840 erucoides eruca-like erumpens breaking out of, breaking through, as if bursting through the epidermis. erupt Latin burst forth erycin, erycina Latin Venus, goddess of love and beauty eryng-, eryngus Greek a kind of thistle eryngioides resembling Eryngium, Sea-Holly. Eryngium Eryn'gium (e-RING-gee-um, or er-IN-jee-um) A name used by Theophrastus or Dioscorides. New Latin, from Latin ēryngion, eryggion name for E. campestre eryngo, from Greek ἠρύγγιον, eryggion, eryngion, a bristly plant, diminutive of ἤρυγγος, eryggos, eryngos, in reference to the apparent prickle-like leaves, which are not very bristly or prickly. The Greek root is an ancient regional (epichoric) dialect, Attic Greek, a variation of and closely related to aruncos, Doric Greek, the source of the genus name Aruncus. Both aruncos and eryngos are from the Indo-European root *ue(s)r, spring. Alternately from Greek ἐρυγεῖν, erygein, to belch, from a supposed remedy to flatulence. (Umbelliferae) eryo- Greek draw, drag erysi- Greek red Erysimum Erys'imum (er-IS-i-mum, or e-RI-si-mum) from the Greek name erysimon, a kind of mustard, from erysthai to defend, protect, save; from its use as a medicinal herb; alternately from ἐρύω, eryo, to cure, in reference to its salutary medicinal properties. (Cruciferae) erysimum hedge mustard. erythr-, erythro- red, combining form of Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red. erythr- red (Erythrina, the tropical coral-tree), from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red. erythraeus -a -um with a reddish tinge, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red. erythranthus bearing red flowers, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and ανθος, anthos, flower. erythreus from Erythrea in Abysinnia. Erythrina from Greek ερυθρὸς, erythros, red, for the color of the flowers. (Leguminosae) erythrinus -a -um coral red, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red. erythrobasis from from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrocarpus red-fruited, with red fruits, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red and καρπός, karpos, fruit. erythrocaulis -is -e having a red stalk, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. erythrocephalus red-headed, having red heads, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and κεφαλή, kephale, head. erythrochaetus having red bristles, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and χαιτη, khaite, bristle, long hair. Erythrocladum (e-rith-ro-KLA-dum) with red shoots, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and .

erythrococcus having red berries, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrocoleus having a red sheath, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrocomos having red hairs, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrocorys having a red hood, red-helmed, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrodanus -a -um with red roots (Madder), from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrolepis -is -e having a red membrane (?) or scale, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. Erythronium (e-rith-RON-ee-um) from erythronion, a Greek name for another plant, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, referring to the pink to purple flowers of Erythronium dens-canis. erythrophyllus -a -um having red leaves, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrpodus -a -um red-footed, red-stalked, with a red stem or red base, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and πους, ποδος, pous, podos. erythropteris -is -e red-winged, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythropus -a -um with a red stem or base, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrorhizos with red roots, from erythro-, red, combining form of Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. erythrosepalus -a -um (e-rith-ro-SE-pa-lus) with red sepals, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrosorus with red sori, in red patches, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrospermus -a -um having red seeds, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrostachys, erythrostachyus -a -um with red spikes, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrostictus -a -um, erythrostictum with red spots, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . erythrotrichus having red hairs, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . Erythroxylaceae plants of the Guinea Red-wood, or Coca family, from the genus name, Erythroxylum, and aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names, from Greek ἐρυθρός, erythros, red, and . es Greek into, to -es Greek (a suffix meaning an agent or doer) -esc, -en, -ens Latin becoming; slightly Escallonia (Saxifragacea) escarboucle French cv. carbuncle -escens (-is -e?) (like -ascens) Latin adjectival suffix from -escentia, translated as -ish, -part of, -becoming, becoming more, -being, inceptive, indicating a process of becoming or developing, becoming like, having an incomplete resemblance, such as albescens, whitish, becoming white, from the present participle of edo, edere; esse, edi, esum (essentia), to eat, devour, consume, waste. Verb base, usually itself with a noun or adjectival base. Often the equivalent of English -ish. eschar Greek a fireplace; a scab; a kind of fish escharoides scurfy, scabby. eschat, eschato Greek extreme, last Eschscholtzia, eschscholtzii Eschschol'zia (esh-SHOLE-tzee-a, or esh-SHOLTS-ee-a) eschschol'tzii (eshSHOLE-tzee-eye) after Johan (Johann) Friedrich G. von Eschscholz, (1793-1831), Russian (or German) botanist, or Estonian physician and biologist who traveled with Chamisso on the Romanzoff (or Kotzebue) Expedition to the Pacific Coast, well known for his research in California. (Papaveraceae) eschyn Greek shame Escobaria Escobar'ia (es-ko-BAR-ee-a) escul-, esculus Latin Italian oak escul- edible esculen-, esculent-, esculentus Latin edible, esculent, fit for human food. esculentus -a -um esculen'tus (es-kew-LEN-tus) Latin adjective esculentus, edible, eatable, fit for food, fit to be eaten. esculus the Italian Oak, Quercus esculus. esibilis suitable for food. eskius not growing in shade. eso Greek within, inward esophag-, esophago-, esophagus Greek the esophagus esoter- Greek inner, interior esotericum (esoter'icum) from Greek esoterikos, arising within, esoteric -essa Latin -essa, Greek -issa, feminine suffixes.

essed Latin esseda, a two-wheeled war-chariot. essequibensis from Essequibensis in British Guiana. Ḗssōpos Greek Ήσσωπος, hyssop. est, estes New Latin an eater esteroa estero'a (es-ter-OH-a) esth Greek feel, perceive; clothe; eat esthem, esthemato Greek perception esthes Greek a garment esthesi, esthesio Greek sensation, perception esthet Greek sensible; a garment esthi, esthio Greek eat esthonicus from Estonia estival Latin summer Estne volumen in toga, an solum tibi libet me videre? Is that a scroll in your toga, or are you just happy to see me? -estris (-ester) -is -e, also -ustris Latin adjectival suffix indicating a place of growth, belonging to, loving, living in, an origin or habitat, used with noun base, as sylvestris, living in or belonging to the woods, or rupestris. After a base ending in u, the e is dropped as in lacustris, dwelling in lakes, from lacus, lake. estr, estro, estrus Greek a gadfly; frenzy estragkón from Greek εστραγκόν, estragkon, tarragon. estriatus not striped, without stripes estu, estua Latin boil estuar Latin the sea esulus, esula (es'ulus) eatable for the hungry. Alternately, “Latinized form of a Celtic name meaning sharp, referring to the acrid juice and derives from the word esu, sharp, biting, referring to the sap” (Daves Botanary in California Plant Names) et al. abbreviation of et alii, and all the other people Et in Arcadia ego “And I too, have lived in Arcadia” Et tu, Brute And you Brutus? It is said that Caesar spoke in Greek “Kai su, teknon?”--“You too, my child?” etc. abbreviation for et cetera, meaning and the other things. -etes Greek dwell; a dweller; one who eth-, ether Greek the upper air eth-, etho Greek custom, habit; abode etheo Greek strain, sift; a bachelor ether-, etheri Greek the upper air ethic Greek moral; national ethiop- Greek Ethiopian, African; dark ethm-, ethmo, ethmus Greek a sieve ethn, ethno Greek a nation etho Greek custom, habit; abode ethuc maidenhair, from Egyptian. etio- Greek a cause etiol- New Latin pale, whitish etiolatus drawn or deprived of color by the absence of light. etiole French cv. star etr, etra, etro Greek the belly, pelvis etrucus Etruscan, from ancient Etruria, a region of Italy, north of Rome, now Tuscany. -ett, -etta, -ettum, -ettus New Latin small -etum Latin indicating a collective place of growth, used with noun bases, as a caricetum. etuberosus without tubers etym-, etymo- Greek true; truth, from ἔτυµος, true. etymologia, etymologae f. Latin etymology, from Greek ἐτυµολογία, etymologia, from ἐτυµολόγ-ος, etymolog-os, an etymologer, from ἔτυµον, etymon, true, and -λογος, -logos, one who discourses. etymon the primitive form or root of a word, from Latin, from Greek ἔτυµον, etymon, originally the neuter of ἔτυµος, etymos, true, from Old Aryan *es, to be, and P.I.E. (?) *s-etumo-s, . eu Greek good, well, true, used in compound words, from εὐ-, eu-, combining form of ἐὐς, eus, good.

eu- well, good, normal, complete euacranthic truly terminal. euboeus from the island of Euboae, Εὕβοια, now Evvoia. eucalyptoides eucalyptus-like, resembling Eucalyptus or Gum Tree. Eucalyptus Eucalyp'tus (yoo-kal-IP-tus) from eu, well and kalypt, calypt meaning covered, referring to the seed capsules euch Greek pray eucharis pleasing, agreeable Euchiton euchlorus dark green. euclastus friable, brittle Eucnide Euc'nide (YOOK-ni-dee) Eucomis from Greek eu, good and kome, hair Eucrypta Eucryp'ta (yoo-KRYP-ta) eudi-, eudio Greek calm, clear eudoxus of good repute euganeus from Padua, Italy, from Latin Eugane-us, from Euganeī, an ancient people of northern Italy eugenioides eugenia-like, like Eugenia, named for Prince Eugene of Savoy euglossus -a -um with beautiful tongues, from , and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue. eulab Greek wary, cautious Eulophia Greek eu, well, and lophos, plume, crest, alluding to the crest on the lip Eulophus from Greek εὐ, eu, true and λόφος, lophos, crest, the application not apparent. An old generic name for Perideridia. (Umbelliferae) -eum NQ a place where. eumorphus, eumorpha well-formed, of beautiful and true form. euneurus with beautiful nerves or beautiful veins. eunuch Greek guardian of the couch. euonym Greek having a good name. Euonymus Euon'ymus (yoo-ON-i-mus, or ew-ON-i-mus) from the classical Latin name, euonymus, spindle tree, from Greek euōnymos, having an auspicious name, from εὔ-, eu-, well, good, and ὄνοµα, onoma, name. The name was spelled by Linnaeus as Euonymus and Evonymus. (Celastraceae) euoplus good-looking, beautiful. eupatori-, eupatorium Greek agrimony eupatoria from an old application of Eupatorium Eupatoriadelphus eupatorioides eupatorium-like, which see, Eupatorium (ew-pa-TO-ree-um) New Latin, from Greek eupatorion (E. cannabinum) hemp agrimony, said to be from eu good, and pator father, from Mithridates VI Eupator (132-63 B.C.), King of Pontus, who ca. 115 B.C. is said to be the first to use this plant in medicine, and to have discovered a species was an antidote to a common poison. Mithridates was said to be immune to many poisons through repeated experimentation upon himself to find their antidotes. (mithradate is an old term for medical restoring agency or an antidote to a poison, which see.) (Compositae) euphlebius with beautiful veins. Euphoria carried well euphorbi-, euphorbium Greek an African plant Euphorbia Euphor'bia (yoo-FOR-bee-a, or ew-FOR-bee-a) New Latin, from the classical Latin euphorbe,-a, euphorbia, from Euphorbus, 1st century Greek physician to Juba II, ob. 23, client-king of Mauretania and Numidia. (Also seen as king of Numidia. Western Numidia and Mauretania Caesariensis are essentially the same place. The modern country of Mauritania is west and south of ancient Mauretania.). Juba II was educated in Rome and married the daughter of Anthony and Cleopatra. Occasionally, Euphorbia is interpreted as being from Greek eu, well, and phorbê, pasture, food, although some species produce a blistering sap. Euphorbus is also the name of a Trojan hero of the Trojan War. Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia'ceae (yu-for-bee-AY-see-ee) plants of the Spurge family, from the genus name, Euphorbia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. euphorbioides euphorbia-like, resembling Spurge. euphrasia Greek delight

euphrasioides resembling Euphrasia, Eyebright. euphraticus from the banks of the Euphrates River in Turkey and Iraq. euphy Greek shapely euphyllus with beautiful leaves, with true leaves, with foilage leaves. eur, euro Greek east; the east wind; southeast; broad eurekensis -is -e eureken'sis (your-ee-KEN-sis) ultimately from Greek eureka, which means “this bath is too hot” (Dr Who). eurin- Greek: keen-scented; Latin: the east wind euro-, eurot Greek mold eury Greek broad, wide europaeus -a -um European, of or from Europe, from Europa, and -aeus Greek adjectival suffix indicating ‘belonging to’. eury from Greek εὐρύς, eurys, wide euryandrus with broad anthers. Eurybia Greek εὐρύς, eurys, wide, and βαιος, baios, few, small, little, humble, perhaps alluding to the few, wide-spreading ray florets. eurycarpum from Greek εὐρύς, eurys, wide, and καρπος, karpos, fruit. eurycheilus having broad lips. eurycladus having broad boughs. eurynotus having broad borders or road margins, said of leaves. eurypterus with broad wings. -ēus -ēua -ēum a Greek adjectival suffix indicating a state of possession or ‘belonging to’, or ‘noted for’, used with a noun base, usually the name of a person, as in niveus, of or in snow, or giganteus, belonging to the giants, from gigas. -ĕus -ĕua -ĕum Latin adjectival suffix used to impart the characteristics of material or color or resemblance in quality, used as a noun base, as in cereus, waxy from cera, wax, or melleus, pertaining to honey, from mel, honey. eusorus in fine variety (bad translation?) from Greek σωρος, soros, heap eustachi from Bartelomeo Eustachio, Eustachius, an Italian anatomist (1520-1574. Derative Eustachian tube. Eustachys from Greek εύ, eu, well, and στάχυς, stakhys, a row. (Gramineae) eustachys, eustachyus with beautiful spikes. Eustoma Eusto'ma (yoo-STO-ma) eutact Greek orderly eutel Greek worthless Euthamia Eutham'ia (yoo-THAY-mee-a) New Latin, from eu-, good, well, and thama, tham- probably from Greek thamees crowded, and -ia; akin to Greek tithenai to place, set, for the crowded branching pattern of the inflorescence. euthem- Greek orderly Eutrochium from Greek eu-, well, truly, and θροχός, trochos, wheel, disk, alluding to whorled leaves euthy Greek straight euthym, euthymo Greek generous eúzōmon from Greek εὔζωµον, rocket. ev Greek good, well evacinus resembling Evax, Everlasting Cotton-Rose. evacu, evacua Latin empty evanescens disappearing, soon vanishing, lasting only a short time. evani, evanid Latin disappearing evani, evanio Greek making trouble easily evect Latin carried out, led away evectus swollen, inflated. evectic Latin good health evectus extended????/ evenosus not conspicuously veined evernius well growing; resembling Evernia. eversus overthrown, turned inside out, protrusion of organs. evertus expelled, turned out

evira Latin castrate evitatus avoiding, not having oil cells as in the fruit of the Umbelliferae. evolutus unfolded, unrolled, turned back, from Latin an unrolling evolvens unrolling. Evolvulus evonymoides resembling Euonymus. evuls Latin pull away, pull out ewanii ew'anii (YOO-an-ee-eye) ex, ex- Latin out, out of, off, from, beyond ex cathedra with authority, literally, “from the chair” ex libris “from the books of” ex officio by virtue of office ex post facto after the fact Ex quocumque facere poteris te sauciabit, nihilo comprehenso. Anything you can do can get you shot, including nothing. ex tempore off the cuff, literally “of the time” exacerb Latin violent, bitter exagger Latin heap up exalbescens abrupt exalt- very high, tall, lofty exaltatus -a -um exalta'tus (ex-all-TAY-tus) exalted, raised high, very tall, erect, lofty, commanding. exanthema, -exanthemato Greek an eruption exanthemata having blotches on leaves or petals. exarat Latin plowed up exaratus furrowed; brittle, inclinned to splinter exarticulatus without joints. exasperatus roughened (?), rough, with hard or sharp projections. excavatus excavated, hollowed out as though dug out. Exeat holiday, literally “let him be absent” excel- exalted, lofty, high, tall excellens excellent, excelling, superb. excelsus tall, lofty, high, elevated. excelsior taller, raised, elevated above its surroundings. excelsius raised, elevated above its surroundings. excentricus excluded, external or out of center, one sided. excert Latin projecting exeunt, exit walk off stage excipuliformis funnel-shaped. excisus cut away, cut out. excit, excito Latin call forth, arouse excortiatus barked, skinned excorticatus, ecorticatus off-bark, without bark, striped of bark, referring to exfoliating bark. Excoriation is the falling of the outer layer of terminal cells of glandular hairs. excresc- Latin growing up excrescens growing unnaturally as a wart or other similar growth. excret- Latin separate, throw out excubitus -a -um excub'itus (ex-KUBE-it-us) excurrens empty, running out. exeden- Latin eating out exesus eaten or consumed as with corrosion. exhib- Latin give, present exhibens showing, present to view. exhil-, exhilar Latin cheer, gladden exi- Latin: go out; Greek: habit exigu- Latin adjectival root, short, small.

exiguus -a -um exig'uus (ex-IG-yoo-us, or eks-IG-ew-us) Latin adjective little, weak, lowly, narrow, insignificant; small; meager; dreary; a little of, a bit of; scanty, petty, short, poor. exil-, exili- Latin small, thin, slender exiliflorus with small or slender flowers exilis -is -e ex'ilis (EX-il-is) Latin adjective for thin, poor, small, weak, slender, feeble, meagre, lank and straight. exilis -is -e, exilior -or -us, exilissimus -a -um Latin adjective, small, thin; poor. eximie excellently eximius eximious, distinguished, extraordinary, out of the ordinary; excellent for size or beauty, from Latin eximi-us excepted, select, choice, from eximĕre, to take out. exitiosus pernicious, destructive exo Greek out, outside, without exod-, exodo-, exodus, -exodus Greek a going out exogenus growing externally, increasing by layers as trunks of trees. exoletus exotic, from another country; antiquated, old, out of date. exoniensis from Exeter, in Devonshier, UK, usually from the nursery of Veitch & Sons exorm, exormi Greek go forth Exorrhiza from the root, from and, ῥίζα, rhiza, root. exorrhizus with outside roots, (above ground), from , and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. exosus sapless, drained. exoter, exotero Greek outside exoticus Greek foreign origin, exotic, opposite to indigenous. expallens turning pale. expansus expanded, diffused, spread out, as a flower in full perfection. expir Latin breathe out explanatus spread out flat. explodens exploding, shooting out, said of seed and their receptacles. expuls Latin driven out expulsus with fruit which forcibly expel their seed. exquisitus exquisite, larger or better colored than usual. exscapus without a scape, without stalk or stem. exsculptus dug out, with small depressions, as if gouged out or scooped out, as the seeds of Anchusa, SeaBugloss. exsertus -a -um exser'tus (ex-SER-tus) protruding from, projecting, said of stamens projecting beyond the corolla. exsiccatus dried up. exstipulatus exstipulate, without stipules, the leaflike appendages at the base of leaves. exsuccus destitute of sap. exsudans oozing, sweating out. exsula Latin a stranger; an exile exsularis of or belonging to exile or to exiles exsulcus grooved. exsurgens rising up, erect, upright. extern-, externo Latin outside, outer extim- Latin farthest away extra, extus Latin on the outside; beyond; more; besides (opposite to intra, intus) extensus extended, stretched out, spread. exterior, exterius outer, external, outward. exterus being outside. extremus outermost, last extimus on the extreme outside. extinctorius quenching, extinguishing, destroying. extra-axillaris beyond or out of the axil. extra-foliaceus on the underside of leaves, or away from leaves. extraneus strange, foreign, not essential. extremus outermost, last. extrins Latin from the outside

extrinsecus from withoutside, outside extrors Latin on the outside extrorsus turning outward, rising externally (applied to anthers). exuber Latin abundant exud Latin sweat exudans exuding exul, exulatus in exile. exunguiculate with out a claw. exust Latin burned up, consumed exuv-, exuvi Latin that which is taken off exuviatus casting its skin, peeling off or shedding scales. ewxygr- ewxygro Greek wet eystettensis for the garden of Prince Bishop Conrad von Gemmingen at Eichstätt

fab, faba, fabell Latin a bean faba- referring to a bean faba, -ae f. bean Faba (Leguminosae) Fabaceae Faba'ceae (fa-BAY-see-ee) the bean family, from the genus name, Faba, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. fabaceus -a -um faba'ceus (fab-AY-see-us) faba-like, bean-like, from faba, bean faberi faberius resembling broad bean. fabifolius with leaves like a bean. fabiformis bean-shaped, of bean form. fabul, fabula Latin a fable Fac me cocleario vomere! Gag me with a spoon! Fac ut gaudeam. Make my day. Fac ut nemo me vocet. Hold my calls. Fac ut vivas. Get a life. facetus choice, fine faci, facia, facies Latin the face; appearance facil Latin easy facile easily Faciles facoides sea-heath, from Greek, from Discorides. facon lentil, pulse, from Greek, from Discorides. facula, -facula Latin a little torch facult Latin capability, skill. faec, faeci Latin dregs f(a)ecula wild chevil, from Discorides. faeroensis from the Faeroe Islands, between the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea fag-, faga-, fagus from Classical Latin name for beech, from Greek figos (?), an oak with edible acorns, probably from Greek fagein, to eat. Fagaceae Faga'ceae (fa-GAY-see-ee) plants of the Beech family, from the genus name, Fagus, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. fagifolius with leaves like Fagus, beech fagineus beech-like. Fagonia Fago'nia (fa-GO-nee-a) Fagopyrum literally Beech-wheat, New Latin, from Latin fagus beech, and New Latin -o-, and Greek pyrum, from Greek pyros wheat, a reference to a resemblance of the achene to a beech-nut. Fagus (FAH-gus) a beech tree, from Pliny, from the classic Latin fagus, beech tree, from Greek φηγος, phēgos, from Doric φαγὸς, phagos, for a kind of oak bearing an esculent acorn. falc-, falci Latin a sickle

falcatus falcate, sickle-shaped, curved like a sickle falcarius sickle-shaped falciculatus resembling a small sickle. falcifolius falcate-leaved, with sickle-shaped leaves. falciformis sickle-shaped, in the form of a sickle. falcinellus resembling a small sickle. falco, -falco, falcon Latin a falcon fallac- Latin deceptive fallaciosus spurious, not genuine. fallax deceptive, spurious, not genuine. Fallopia for Gabriel Fallopius (Gabriello Fallopio) (1532-1562), Italian anatomist. Where would we all be without Fallopian tubes? What did people use before he invented them? Polygonaceae. Fallugia Fallu'gia (fa-LOO-jee-a) fals-, falsi Latin false falso falsely, incorrectly falsus false, untrue, spurious. falx, -falx Latin a sickle fam, fameli, famin Latin hungry famil Latin friendly; a family familiaris living like or growing like a family together. fantas Latin fancy far barley. farc Latin stuff; stuffing farcatus pithy, full of pith. farctus (stuffed) solid, not hollow or tubular. farfara farfaria, -ae colt's-foot Discorides. fargesii named for Paul Farges (1844-1912), French missionary and plant hunter in China farin-, farina Latin flour, coarse meal farin- referring to starch or wheat farinaceus containing starch, starchy, abounding in flour. farinfer, farinifera starch-bearing, flour yielding. farinosus -a -um farino'sus (fare-in-OH-sus) mealy, powdery, covered with farina, covered with a dusting of flour. farius in rows, used in compound words as bifarius, in two rows. farnesiana farnesia'na (farns-ee-AY-na) farneus, farnvs (farnus) an uncertain tree ?, from Apicius. farrer named for Reginald Farrer (1880-1920), English plant collector in east Asia, introducer of Buddleia alternifolia to the west. farus (stuffed) solid, not hollow or tubular. Fas est ab hoste doceri. One should learn even from one's enemies. Publius Ovidius Naso [Metamorphoses]: Fasan German cv. pheasant fasci-, fascia- Latin a bundle, from fascis, fascis m., Latin noun bundles of rods; pluralwith an ax, carried by lictors before high Roman magistrat); power/office of magistrate; bundle especially sticks or books sg.; faggot; packet, parcel; burden, load. fasci-, fascia Latin a bundle; a band, from fascea, fasceae f., fascia, fasciae f., noun, a band or strip; ribbon; bandage; streak or band of clouds; headband or filet; sash (Ecc). fasciarius banded, band-shaped, from fascia. a band. fasciat Latin banded fasciatus abnormally flattened, ribboned, with a monstrous perpendicular expansion of stems; banded, striped, with colored bands. fascicul- clustered, from fasciculus, fasciculi m., Latin noun, little bundle, little packet; bunch of flowers, fascicularis -is -e fascicular'is (fa-sik-yoo-LARE-is) Latin fascicled, clustered, in close clusters or bundles, banded, in bundles, from fasiculus, little bundle, little packet, and -aris -aris -are, Latin adjectival suffix, a variant of -alis used after stems ending in l, pertaining to, relating to, of, in connection with, or belonging to.

One could assume fasciculatus is with small clusters, and facicularis is with clusters. fasciculatus -a -um fascicula'tus (fa-sik-yoo-LAY-tus) Latin fasciculatus, fascicled, clustered, in close clusters or bundles, banded, in bundles, from fasiculus, little bundle, little packet, and -atus -ata -atum, possessive of or likeness of something. fasciculiflorus with flowers in clusters fasciculus a close bundle or cluster of flowers, stems, or roots, from fasciculus, fasciculi m., Latin noun, little bundle or little packet; bunch of flowers. fascin- Latin charm, bewitch, from fascino, fascinare, fascinavi, fascinatus, cast a spell on, bewitch; fascinator fascinating, from fascinatio, fascinationis f., fascination; bewitching. fasciol-, fasciola Latin a little bandage, from fasciola, fasciolae f., Latin noun, a little bandage. fascis, plural fascēs Latin, bundle, a bundle of rods bound up with an ax in the middle and its blade projecting, the emblem of power of a Roman lictor. faseolus, faseoli m. Latin noun, kidney-bean; (see also phaseolus); fasianus -a -um Latin adjective, pheasant; (phasianus) Faskómēlo Greek φασκόµηλο, phasomelo, sage, Modern Greek term αλισφακιά, alisphakia. fastibilis repulsive, disagreeable. fastidiosus loathsome. fastigi-, fastigium Latin pointed; the point, top, summit; depth fastigiatus -a -um fastigia'ta (fas-ti-jee-AY-ta) fastigate, with an upright habit, with branches parallel, erect and close together, as in the Lombardy Poplar. fastuosus -a -um fastuo'sus (fas-tew-OH-sus) proud, haughty, bountiful, stately. fatmensis of Arabian origin, after Fatima,the daughter of Mohammed. Fatoua fatu- Latin foolish, silly fatuus -a -um fat'uus (FAT-yoo-us) empty, barren, insipid, from Latin adjective fatuus -a -um for foolish, silly, idiotic, simple, insipid, worthless, from the noun fatuus, fatui, or fatua, fatuae, a fool. fauc-, fauces, fauci Latin the throat faucialis mouth, throatlike, from fauces, the throat. faucidens having a mouth with fangs. fauciflorus bearing throat-like flowers. faun- Latin mythology Faunus, god of agriculture and the shepherds fauna, faunae f. Latin noun, fauna. Faunus, Fauni m. Latin noun, rustic god; deity of forest, herdsman; sometimes identified with Pan, faustus happy, fruitful. fav, favo, favus, -favus Latin a honeycomb faveolatus, favosus finely honeycombed faveolatus honey-combed, from favus, honeycomb. favill, favilla, -favilla Latin embers favosulus somewhat honey-combed. favosus honey-combed. febr, febri, febri- Latin fever; boil, referring to fever febricito to be raving mad. febrifuga, febrifugia(?) lesser centaury, feverfew, Erythraea centaurium. febrifugus fever-flight, driving away or removing a fever, fever-dispelling. frebruus cleansing. fec, feci Latin dregs fecul Latin foul; sediment fecund Latin fruitful fecunditas -atis f. fruitfulness, fecundity. fecundo -are to fructify, fertilize. fecundus fruitful, fertile, prolific; abundant, full, plentiful, from ......, and -cundus adjectival suffix indicating an aptitude or constant tendency. Fedia “Adanson (see Cicendia) A name without any known or probable meaning.” (Alcock 1876) Feei Fee'i (FEE-eye) feejeenis from the Fiji Islands.

Feijoa Feijo'a (fy-JO-a) Feles mala! Cur cista non uteris? Stramentum novum in ea posui. Bad kitty! Why don't you use the cat box? I put new litter in it. feli, felin, felis, -felis Latin a cat felic Latin favorable, lucky, from felix, felicis, of good omen félicité perpétue French cv. lasting happiness felinus pertaining to the cat. felix lucky, happy fell Latin the gall bladder; bile, from fel, fellis, gall bladder, bile; poison fellatensis pertaining to the Fellata tribe in central Africa. fellens bitter as gall. felo Latin f. cat; a robber felosmus of offensive smell. fem, femor, femoro, femur Latin the thigh femin-, femina Latin female, of a woman femineus, femininus female, a flower having pistils but no stamens. fendleri fend'leri (FEND-ler-eye) fendleriana fendleria'na (fend-ler-ee-AY-na) fenestr-, fenestra Latin a window fenestralis with windows, with window-like openings, having openings through a membrane. fenestratus, -alis pierced with holes, as the septum of some Cruciferae feng-, fengo Greek light fenisec-, feniseca Latin a mower, harvester fennel Old English finugl, finule weak feminine, fenol, finul (masculine), from popular Latin fēnuclum, fēnoclum (substituted for classical Latin fæniculum, diminutive of fænum hay). (OED) fennicus Finnish, of or from Finland. fer, -ferus Latin to bear, carry, used in compound words as florifer. -fer(...) bearing, producing fer-, fera Latin wild; a wild beast ferax fruit-bearing, fruitful, fertile. ferdinandi named for King Ferdinand of Bulgaria (1861-1948 fere almost, nearly ferens carrying, bearing fergusoniae ferguson'iae (fir-gus-OWN-ee-ee) ferment Latin yeast, leaven fernandezianus from the island Jaun fernandez, in the Pacific Ocean. fernandina fernandi'na (fer-nan-DEE-na) Ferner Osten German cv. Far East fero-, feroc, feroux, ferox Latin fierce, wild Ferocactus Latin ferus, fierce or wild, referring to the horrid spines, and Cactus, the genus from which this segregate was removed -ferous, -ferus-a -um -iferous, bearing, adjectival suffix from Latin -fer (-ifer), producing, from the verb fero, ferre, to bear, bring, carry, and -us. -ferous Latin fearing (typo? for bearing), alternately from Latin ferus, wild, and -ous. ferox ferocious, fierce; very thorny or spiny, strongly fortified with thorns or spines. fernaldii fero- ferocious (ferox is the Latin adjective) Ferocactus Ferocac'tus (feer-oh-KAK-tus) ferociously-spined cactus feroculus -a -um fero'culus (fe-RO-kew-lus) ferr, ferr-, ferro Latin iron ferreus iron gray; hard like iron, as firm as iron, pertaining to iron ferrissii ferrofluvius rust colored in part?, one would think rusty flowing water from ferrugin, Latin rust-colored ferrugineus, ferruginosus rusty, rust colored, light reddish brown, brown. ferruginescens ferrul French a ring, bracelet

ferruminatus rust-like. fertil-, fertilis Latin fruitful, fertile, producing many seeds, capable of bearing fruit abundantly. ferul, ferula Latin a walking stick; fennel ferulaceus like Ferula, Fennel, or giant fennel ferulaefolius ferula-leaved, with leaves like Ferula, giant fennel ferulago the deadly carrot, an inferior or lesser kind of ferula. ferularis of the giant fennel. ferus wild ferv, ferven, fervid, fervor Latin heat, burning fervens glowing, incandescent (of color). fess Latin weary, feeble festalis festive, bright festin Latin quick festina lente “Hurry slowly, or make haste slowly” From Suetonius, who, at the time of Augustus, turned the republic into an empire. festivus festive, gay, bright festmus speedy, hasty, quick. festuc, festuca Latin a stem, stalk festuc- referring to the genus Festuca, a grass, therefore grass- like festuca -ae f. a stalk, stem, straw. By transference, a rod used in the manumission of slaves. Festuca Festu'ca (fes-TOO-ka) New Latin, from Dodonaeus, classical Latin festūca, popular Latin festūcum, the name for a stalk of grain, stalk, stem, straw; rod for touching slaves in manumission; probably akin to Latin ferula giant fennel, or from Celtic fest, food or pasturage (Hooker and Arnott). festucaceus -a -um Latin festuca, straw-like weed, or resembling Fesuce Grass, and –aceus, of, for its resemblance to common fescue. festucine straw colored, from festu, a straw. festucoides resembling Festuca, fescue festus festive, pompous. fet, feti, fetus Latin the young in the womb feti, fetid Latin ill-smelling, putrid feudgei feu'dgei (FEW-jee-eye) Feuer German cv. fire Feuerkerze German cv. fire candle Feuermeer German cv. sea of fire feuxicterus birthwort. -fex New Latin a maker Fiat justitia et pereat mundus. Let justice be done, even if the world perishes. Johannes Manlius [Loci communes]: fiber, -fiber Latin a beaver fibr, fibrin, fibro Latin a fiber; a beaver fibra a fine thread or filament. fibrilla a diminutive thread or filament. fibrillosus having fibers, fibrillose, with fibre-like roots. fibrosus fibrous, with fiber-like roots. fibul, fibula Latin a clasp, buckle fibuliformis buckle-shaped, from fibula, buckle. fic, fication Latin make, making fic, fic-, fico, ficus, -ficus Latin the fig, referring to the genus Ficus ficaria New Latin, from Latin ficus fig and New Latin -aria, from the appearance of the roots ficariifolius with leaves like Great Pile wort, Ficaria. ficarioides resembling Ficaria. ficarius fig-like(?) ficifolius figleafed, with leaves like Ficus carica, fig ficoides, ficoideus like a fig, fig-like. ficulneus, ficulnea pertaining to or hailing from the Fig Tree. Ficus, -i m. Fi'cus (FY-kus) from Latin ficus, an old name for edible fig, Ficus carica, from Celsus.

ficus-indica fi'cus-in'dica (FY-kus -- IN-di-ka) the fig of India -fid(...) parted, divided fide, fidei, -fiden Latin faithful, trusting fidi Latin a lute fidic, fidicin Latin a lute player -fidus -a -um -cleft, -divided, -forked, Latin adjectival suffix used in compound words like trifidus, threecleft. fidus -a -um Latin adjective, faithful, loyal; trusting, confident, also used as a suffix meaning -faith. Fidus Achates loyal friend, Acheates was the best friend of Aeneas. figlinus terra-cotta figul-, figula-, -figula Latin a potter figur-, figura Latin a form, figure figus see also phegus, oak. fil-, fili, filo, filum Latin a thread filaginifo'lius filaginifo'lius (fi-la-jin-i-FOL-ee-us) filaginoides filagino'ides (fil-aj-in-OH-i-dees) Filago Fila'go (fi-LAY-go) Dodonaeus from Latin fil, filum, a thread, and -ago, possessing or resembling, fon account of the abundant cottony indument. The plant is covered with thread-like hairs. (Compositae) filamentaceus like the stalk of an anther. filamentosus, filarius (fee-lah-men-TO-sus) with filaments or threads, filimentous filamentosus -a -um thread-like, fibry, formed of filaments or fibers, with filaments or threads, filimentous. filaris thread, string-like, from filum, thread. fili- referring to a thread fili-, filia, filius Latin a son or daughter fili, filic-, filix Latin a fern filic-, filici- referring to ferns ; the noun is filix, fern filicatus fern-like filicaulis -is -e thread-stemmed, with a threadlike stem or stalk, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. filices ferns. filicifolius, filicifolia with fernlike leaves, with leaves like fern fronds. filiciformis fern-like, with the form of a fern. filicinus fern-like filicoid, filicoides fernlike filicula a small fern. filiculmis thread stemmed, from fili- and culmis, a stem of grain filiculoides like a small fern filifer, filiferus, filifera filif'era (fi-LIF-er-a) thread-bearing filifolius -a -um filifo'lius (fi-li-FO-lee-us) thread-leaved, with thread-like leaves. filiformis -is -e filifor'mis (fi-li-FOR-mis) thread-like, shaped like threads. filipendulinus -a -um like Filipendula, meadowsweet filipendulus -a -um thread-drooping, hanging by a thread, joined by a thread. Filipendula (fi-li-PEN-dew-la) From Latin filum, a thread, and pendulus, hanging, referring to the threadlike roots connecting the tubers of some species. (Rosaceae) filipes fi'lipes (FI-li-pees) hairlike or threadlike stalk or foot, with threadlike stems. filix fern filix-femina or as filix-foemina in some older reports fil'ix-fem'ina (FIL-ix--FEM-in-a) Filix-femina is the fern and woman, the lady-fern, referring to the relatively delicate fronds of Lady Fern as compared to the Male Fern Dryopteris filix-mas filix-mas FIL-iks-mas, literally Male Fern, to distinguish it from the more delicate Lady Fern. filopes with thread-like stems. filose terminating in a thread. fim-, fimus, -fimus Latin dung fimetarius growing on or amongst dung, from Latin finetum, a dung-hill. fimicephalus -a -um from Latin fimus, dung, and Greek κεφαλη, kephale, head or brain.

fimicolus growing on manure heaps, from Latin fimus, dung, and colo, I inhabit. fimiporopragmus working in a shit hole, New Latin from Latin fimus, dung, and Greek πορος, poros, hole, and πραγµον, pragmon, to work. fimbri, fimbria, -fimbria Latin a fringe, fibers fimbr- referring to a fringe fimbriatulus with small fringe fimbriatus -a -um fimbria'tus (fim-bree-AY-tus) fimbriate, fringed, with a fringed margin, from fimbra, fringe. fimbrilliferous with many little fringes. fimbrillate minutely fringed. Fimbristylis New Latin, from Latin fimbria or fimbris, fringe, and -stylis, from stylus, style, referring to the ciliate style. (Cyperaceae) fin, fina, fini Latin an end, limit finitimus limited, confined finmarchicus from Finmarken, a Swedish province. Finókio Greek Φινόκιο, fennel seed. firm- Latin firm, strong firmandus firm firmatus fixed on. firmifolius with hard, firm leaves. firmus Latin firm, hard, strong, stout; lasting, valid; morally strong. Adverb firme and firmiter, firmly, strongly, steadfastly. firuratus formed, shaped fisc, fiscus, -fiscus Latin the state treasury; a woven basket fiscellarius drawn together. fishiae fish'iae (FISH-ee-ee) fiss, fissi, fissur Latin a cleft fissi- split Fissidens with cleft tooth, from Latin fissus, cleft, and dens, tooth, referring to split the peristome teeth. fissifolius split-leaved, having cleft leaves. fissilis cleft or split fissirostris with a cleft beak. fissuratus fissured, cleft fissus cleft, split fistul-, fistula, -fistula, fistuli Latin a pipe, tube fistul- hollow tubelike fistula pipe or tube. fistularis -is -e fistulosus –a -um fistulo'sus (fist-ew-LO-sus) Tubular, dude!, hollow, pipe-like, hollow like a pipe, but closed at both ends, hollow throughout as the leaf of an onion; full of holes, New Latin from fistula, a water-pipe; a reedpipe, shepherd's pipe, tube, hollow reed or stalk, or Pan pipe, and -osus, adjective suffix for nouns indicating plenitude or notable development. fistulous tubular, hollow throughout as the leaf of an onion; full of holes. fivor Latin bluish flabell-, flabella, -flabella Latin a fan flabellaris -is -e fan-shaped, with fan-like parts, wedge shaped. flabellatus -a -um fan-shaped, with fan-like parts, wedge shaped. flabellifer, flabelliformis fan-shaped, formed like a fan flabellifolius with fan-shaped leaves. flabelliformis formed like a fan, of fan shape. flabellinervous with radiate nerves or veins. flabellulatus like a small fan. flabellum fan flabellus fan-like. flabr- Latin the breeze, winds flacc-, flaccid Latin flabby flaccidus flac'cidus (FLAS-i-dus) soft, flaccid, limp, withered, flabby.

flaccospermus -a -um with a soft seed. flaccus limp, withered, flabby. Flacourtiaceae plants of the Indian Plum tree family, from the genus name, Flacourtia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. fladnizensis from the Fladnitz Alps. flado a kind of cake. flagell-, flagellum, -flagellum Latin a whip Flagellariaceae plants of the Wild Ratan family, from the genus name, Flagellaria, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. flagellaris, flagellatus whip-like flagellaris having creeping sarmenta (runners like a strawberry) flagellatus provided with wip-like runners. flagellifer whip-bearing flagelliformis shaped like a whip, whip-formed, resembling a runner or tendril, lash, or whip-like, tapering and supple. flagellum a scourge or whip flagr-, flagran Latin burn, burning flagriformis flamm- Latin flame, burn flamme Latin flame-colored Flammenspiel German cv. dancing flames flammeolus, flammeus flame-colored flammeus of flame color, bright red. flammeriferus of flame color, bright red. flammus mullein. flamulus, flammula small flame, burning. flat- Latin blow, blown, from flatus, flatus m., Latin noun, blowing; snorting; breath; breeze. flātulentus Modern Latin from flāt-us, a blowing, from flāre, to blow. flav, flav- yellow, referring to yellow, from the Latin adjective flāvus -a -um, yellow, golden, gold colored; flaxen, blond; golden-haired. flavens yellow Flaveria Latin flavus, yellow flavicans yellowish(?) flavescens flaves'cens (flay-VEH-sens) yellowish, becoming yellow, turning a pale yellow, from flavesco, flavescere, Latin verb become or turn yellow or gold, or from Latin flāvēscent-em, present participle of flāvēscĕre to become yellow, from flāv-us yellow. flavicomus New Latin yellow-wooled or yellow-haired, with a yellow tuft or crest. flavidus yellowish, yellow, pale yellow, somewhat yellow, from Latin flavus, adjective, golden yellow, reddish yellow, flaxen, blonde, and idus, adjective suffix indicating condition or progression. flavipes with yellowfeet or a yellow base. flaviramae flavoremea flah-vi-RAHM-ee-a; with yellow shoots flavirostris with a yellow beak. flavispinus, flavispina yellow-spined, having yellow thorns. flavissimus deep yellow, very yellow flavoculatus flavocu'latus (flay-vo-kew-LAY-tus) flavo-punctus with yellow dots. flavovirens, flavo-virens yellowish green flavoviride flavovir'ide (flay-vo-VEER-i-dee) flavula flavus -a -um fla'vus (FLAY-vus) bright, almost pure yellow; pure, pale yellow, from Latin adjective flavus -a um, yellow, golden, gold colored; flaxen, blond; golden-haired. flect- Latin bend Flectere si nequeo superos, Achaeronta movebo “If I cannot move heaven I will raise hell" alternately, If I can not move the gods, I will set the forces of the underworld in motion. Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil) Aeneid Book 7 Fleischmannia For Gottfried F. Fleischmann (1777–1850), teacher of Schultz-Bipontinus at Erlangen

flemingii fleming'ii (flem-ING-gee-eye) fleur French flower fletcher for Harold Fletcher (1907-1978), Director of RHS Garden Wisley, Surrey, and Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh flex-, flexi- Latin bend; pliant, from flexus, flexus m., Latin noun, turning, winding; swerve; bend; turning point. flex- pliable, crooked, bent, from flexus, flexus m., Latin noun, turning, winding; swerve; bend; turning point. flexibilis -is -e Latin adjective flexible, bendable, pliant, from flectere to bend. flexicaulis -is -e New Latin pliant-stemmed, with a flexuous stem, with a bent stalk, from flexus, flexus m., Latin noun, turning, winding; swerve; bend; turning point, and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft. flexifolius with bent leaves, flexicaulis -is -e New Latin pliant-stemmed, with a flexuous stem, with a bent stalk, from flexus, flexus m., Latin noun, turning, winding; swerve; bend; turning point., and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft, and . flexilis -is -e flex'ilis (FLEX-il-is) flexible, pliant, limber, whip-like, from Latin adjective, flexilis -is -e, pliant, pliable, supple. flexipes, flexipedis with a flexible stem or foot, curved foot, with a bent foot-stalk, from Latin flexipes, (gen.), flexipedis, adjective, crooked-footed, twining. flexispinus having bent thorns, from flexus, flexus m., Latin noun, turning, winding; swerve; bend; turning point, and . flexu- Latin winding, from flexus, flexus m., Latin noun, turning, winding; swerve; bend; turning point. flexuosus -a -um flexuo'sus (flex-yoo-OH-sus) flexuosus, zigzag, tortuous, bent alternately in opposite directions, to the right and the left, like the path of a snake, from Latin flexibilis, flexilis, flexible. flexuosus -a -um, flexuosior -or -us, flexuosissimus -a -um Latin adjective, curved; with many curves in it, full of bends/turns; winding/sinuous/tortuous; flexus, flexus bent, twisted, from flexus, flexus m., Latin noun, turning, winding; swerve; bend; turning point. flig- Latin dash; strike down, from fligo, fligere, -, - Latin verb, beat or dash down. flo- Latin blow, from flo, flare, flavi, flatus, Latin verb, breathe; blow. flocc Latin a lock of wool, flake floccidus bearing wool. floccigerus bearing wool. floccose, floccosus a -um floccosus (flock-OH-sus) floccose, woolly, with locks of soft hair, from floccus, a lock of wool. flocculosus with small woolly curls. flocon de neige French cv. snowflake Floerkea New Latin, after Heinrich G. Floerke died 1835 German botanist. (Limnanthaceae) flor-, flora, flori Latin a flower, from Flora, Florae f., Flora; goddess of flowers. floralis floral, relating to the flower florealbo with white flowers florentinus Florentine, from or pertaining to Florence, Italy florepleno, flore pleno with double flowers Florestina no etymology given; possibly from Latin floreus, of flowers, and tina, a wine vessel; perhaps referring to sometimes purplish involucres florëus flowering fully, flowering profusely floribundus -a -um floribun'dus (flor-i-BUN-dus) flowering, full of flowers, from flore, to flower, and -bundus -a -um adjectival suffix indicating doing, like a present participle, or action accomplished, used with a verb base. In other sources abounding in flowers, abundantly-flowering, free-flowering, from florum-abundus. florid Latin flowery floridanus, floridana of or from Florida, USA. floridulus rather free-flowering floridus -a -um flor'idus (FLOR-i-dus) flowering, flowering abundantly or richly, full of flowers; bright. florifer, floriferus, florifera bearing flowers, flowering florigerus bearing flowers. florindae named by the British plant hunter Frank Kingdon Ward for his first wife Florinda, Primula florindae

Floruit “he flourished” from floreo, -ere, -ui, bloom, flower, abbreviated fl. florulentus bearing small flowers. -florus -a -um -flowered, from post-classical Latin and scientific Latin -florus -a -um; from classical Latin flōr-, flōs, flower. flos flower, bloom, from classical Latin flōr-, flōs, flower. floscul, flosculus, -flosculus Latin a little flower flos-cuculi flowering when the cuckoo sings; flower of the cockoo, Lychnis flos-cuculi, the ragged robin flosculosus bearing small flowers or florets with tubular flowers. flos-jovis flower of Jove Flourensia for Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens (1794–1867), physiologist, perpetual secretary, Académie des Sciences, Paris flu Latin flow fluctu Latin wave, move to and fro fluctuans wavy. fluen, fluent Latin flowing flui- floating fluitans floating flum, flumen, -flumen, flumin, flumini Latin a river fluminalis, flumineus of rivers, growing in running water. fluminensis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. fluo Latin flow fluster New Latin plait, weave fluv- referring to a river fluvi, fluvia, -fluvia, fluviatil Latin a river fluvialis fluviatilis, fluviatile pertaining to a river, of or from a river flux Latin flowing Flyriella for Lowell David Flyr (1937–1971), Texan, synantherologist, and -ella, Latin feminine diminutive suffix. foc, foci, focus, -focus Latin a point, focus; a fireplace fodien, fodient Latin digging foecundus, fecundus bearing fruit. foed Latin filthy, ugly; an agreement foemina feminine foemineus female foeneus -a -um New Latin from Latin foenum, foeni, hay; faenum (fenum) -i n. hay. foeniculaceus, foeniculaceum resembling Foeniculum, Fennel Foeniculus, foeniculus -a -um Foenic'ulus (fee-NIK-yoo-lus) with a similar odor to fennel in one source, from foenum, hay, and -ulum, Latin adjectival diminutive suffix meaning little, -tending to, meaning little hay or haylike, because of the hay-like smell. A name used by Pliny from foenum, hay, for the smell of the plant being similar to hay. foeniculum fenugreek, fennel, Trigonella foenum-graecum. foeninus, faeninus of hay color, dull bluish-green. foenisec, foensca, Latin a mower, harvester, from faeniseca, -ae m. a mower, a country-man. foeten, foetens Latin fetid, evil smelling foetid- fetid- stinking foetidissimus -a -um foetidis'simus (fee-ti-DIS-im-us) most or very fetid, of a very evil smell or stench, from Latin fētid-us, from fētēre to have an offensive smell, and -issimus -a -um, superlative suffix, indicting the most, very, -est. foetidus -a -um foetid, fetid, bad smelling, stinking, evil-smelling, from Latin fētid-us (often incorrectly written fœtidus), from fētēre to have an offensive smell. -foetus, -fetus Latin the young in the womb, from Latin fētus (u stem) offspring (incorrectly written fœtus), from root *fē- to produce offspring, from Aryan *bhwē-, an extension of root *bheu-, bhu-, to grow, come into being. foli, foli-, folia, folium, -folium Latin suffix meaning leaf, leaved, from folium, foli(i) n., leaf. foliaceus leafy, leaf-like, having the texture or shape of a leaf, as the branches of Xylophylla.

foliaris leafy or leaf-like. foliatus with leaves, bearing leaves, clothed with leaves. folio edition, from folium leaf, later meaning page. foliolamus growing from the end of a leaf. foliolatus -a -um having leavelets, clothed with leaflets, New Latin from Latin *foliolātus, from French foliole, from post-classical Latin foliolum (4th cent.), diminutive of folium leaf, and –atus, Latin suffix indicating possession, likeness of, or ‘provided with’. foliolosus -a -um foliolo'sus (fo-lee-oh-LO-sus) having leavelets; thickly or profusely leaved. foliolum single leaflets of a compond leaf. foliosus -a -um folio'sus (fo-lee-OH-sus) leafy, many-leaved, full of leaves, clothed with leaves, well covered with foilage, New Latin from foliosus, leafy. foliosissimus -a -um New Latin very leafy, the most leafy, superlative of foliosus -a -um, leafy. folitis hart's-tongue. folium single leaflets of a compond leaf. folium nard leaf, perhaps (as a spice). folium pentasphaerum nard-leaf, perhaps. -folius -a -um -leaved, from folium, foli(i) n., leaf. foll- referring to follicles, from follis, follis m., Latin noun bag, purse; handball; pair of bellows; scrotum. folli- Latin a bag, bellows, from follis, follis m., Latin noun bag, purse; handball; pair of bellows; scrotum. follicul- Latin a little bag, from follis, follis m., Latin noun bag, purse; handball; pair of bellows; scrotum, and ulus -a -um, Latin adjectival diminutive suffix. follicularis -is -e bearing follicles, follicle-like, bearing small bags, bearing a whorl of small bags (follicules), with bag fruit. folliculatus, folliculata Latin folliculus, a small sac or bag, after the sac-like perigynia folliculus, folliculi m. Latin noun, bag or sack; pod; shell; follicle. fomentarius touch-wood, or tinder-like. fomes touch-wood, tinder. fon Greek kill fon, fons, -fons, font, fontan Latin a fountain fontanesianus, fontanesii for René Desfontaines (1750-1833), French botanist and author fontanus -a -um fonta'nus (fon-TAY-nus) growing in or near springs, spring-loving, the seep not the season. fontigenus growing in springs. fontinalis found in springs, as a genus of aquatic moss. fons et origo the original source, literally the fountain and origin. foram, foramen, -foramin foramin Latin an opening foratus pierced with holes forbesii forbes'ii (FORBS-ee-eye) forcip, forcipi Latin forceps forcipatus forked like pincers. Forestiera Forestier'a (for-es-tee-ER-a) forf-, forfex, -forfex, forfic Latin scissors forficatus Latin forked, shaped like scissors. fori-, foris Latin a door; out of doors, from the noun foris, foris, f., door, gate; the two leaves of a folding door (pl.); double door; entrance; and the adverb foris, out of doors, abroad, respectively. form, -form(...), forma, -forma, -form Latin form, shape, in the form of ...., from Latin verb formo, formare, formavi, formatus, form, shape, fashion, model formic-, formica, -formica Latin an ant, from formica, formicae, f., ants. formicaeformis -is -e ant-shaped, from Latin formica, formicae, f., ants, and -formis -is -e, New Latin, shaped, from Latin verb formo, formare, formavi, formatus, form, shape, fashion, model. formicarius -a -um attractive to ants; of ants, from formica, formicae, f., ants, and care, carius, carissime, adverb, dear, at high price; of high value; at great cost or sacrifice. Formicidae (for-MIK-ih-dee or for the etymologically impaired who apparently grew up with for-MISS-uh counter tops, for-MISS-ih-dee) the ant family, from Latin formica, formicae, f., ants, and -idae, the suffix used to form animal family names. formid- Latin fear, from formido, formidare, formidavi, formidatus, dread, fear, be afraid of; be afraid for the safety of.

-formis -is -e New Latin, -shaped, from Latin verb formo, formare, formavi, formatus, form, shape, fashion, model. formos, formos- Latin graceful, beautiful formosan, formosanus referring to Formosa (Taiwan), an island in the China Sea. Taiwan was so named by the Portuguese for the beauty of the island. formosanus of Taiwan (Formosa) formosissimus very or most beautiful, extra beautiful. formosus -a -um formo'sus (for-MO-sus) beautiful from Latin, finely formed, beautiful, handsome. forn-, fornic, fornix, -fornix Latin an arch; a brothel fornicalis, fornicatus arched fornicatus helmet-shaped; arched as the scales on certain flowers. forrestii named for George Forrest (1873-1932), Scottish plant collector for the Botanic Garden in Edinburgh who worked in China forsan, forsitan, fortasse perhaps Forsythia New Latin, from William Forsyth (1737-1804), British (Scottish) botanist, and New Latin -ia fort-, forti-, fortis Latin adjective strong, vigorous fortiter Latin adverb strongly, from fortis, strong, and iter, a way. Fortiter in re, suaviter in modo. Strong in cause, mild in manner. Claudio Aquaviva: fortuit Latin at random; fluctuating fortunatus fortunate, happy. fortunei named for Robert Fortune (1812-1880), Scottish plant collector fosbergii fosberg'ii (fos-BURG-ee-eye) foss-, fossa, -fossa Latin a ditch, trench fossalis fossa'lis (fos-SAY-lis) fossil Latin dug up -fossor, fossori Latin a digger fossul Latin burrow fossulatus with small grooves. Fothergilla dedicated by the younger Linnaeus to Dr. John Fothergill (1712-1780), London physician and patron of and expert on early American botany. (Hamamelaceae) Fouqieria Fouqier'ia (foo-kwee-ER-ee-a) Fouquieriaceae Fouquieria'ceae (foo-kwee-air-ee-AY-see-ee), from the genus name, Fouquieria, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. fourcroyoides like Fourcroya, or furcraea, a small genus of tropical American plants closely related to and resembling Agave but distinguished by rotate white flowers. New Latin, from Count Antoine F. de Fourcroy died 1809 French chemist. (family Amaryllidaceae) fovearis groove-like or with a depression, as in the upper surface of the leaf base in Isoëtes. foveatus pitted, depressed, grooved. foveolatus rather pitted, having a small depression or a small groove. foveosus depressed, grooved. fracid Latin mellow, soft fract Latin break; broken fractiflexis zigzag fracti-serialis in intermittent rows. fractuosus broken, severed. fractus -a -um frac'tus (FRAK-tus) broken frag-, fraga, -fraga Latin break; a strawberry -frag(...) referring to a break or rupture Fragaria Fragar'ia (fra-GARE-ee-a, or fra-GAH-ree-a) from Pliny, from fraga, fragorum, (fragum, fragi n.) strawberry and New Latin -ia. “Fraga (akin to Sanscrit root ghra, odorari), the fragrant things: hence Strawberries.” --Whites Lat. Dict 1869 quoted in Alcock. In one source as from the Latin fraga, fragum, or fragrans, fragrant, refering to the scent of the fragrant fruit, as in the verb fragro, I smell strongly. (Rosaceae) fragarioides strawberry-like, resembling Fragaria, from Latin fraga, fragorum, (fragum, fragi n.) strawberry, and ancient Greek -οειδής, -oeides, adjectival suffix indicating having the form or likeness of, resemble.

fragifer, fragiferus, fragiferum strawberry bearing, from Latin fraga, noun, strawberry, -i-, connective vowel used by botanical Latin, and fer, active participle,from fero, to bear, carry, bring fragifolius with brittle, fragile leaves. fragilis -is -e fragil'is (fra-JIL-is) easily broken, fragile, brittle, from Latin fragilis, from frag- root of frangĕre to break, and -ilis adjectival suffix indicating capacity or ability, hence a property or quality. Fragkomaïntanós Greek Φραγκοµαϊντανός, Chervil. fragm, fragmen, fragmin Latin a piece fragr Latin emit a scent fragrans fra'grans (FRAY-grans) fragrant, a a pleasant odor. fragrantissimus very or extra fragrant fragum, -i n. Latin noun, strawberry. fraîche beauté French cv. cool beauty framb, frambes, framboes Latin a raspberry franciscëus from the river San Francisco in Brazil. francofurtensis from Frankfort, Germany. franconicus of Frankish origin, from Franconia the Major, part of western Europe. frang- Latin break, from Latin frango, frangĕre, fregi, fractum, to break, break in pieces, shatter. Frangula, frangulus -a -um Fran'gula (FRANG-gyu-la) brittle, an old generic name for Rhamnus, from Latin frango, I break. frangulifolius with leaves like the black alder, Rhamnus frangula. Frankenia Franken'ia (fran-KEN-ee-a) named for John Franken, a Swedish botanist and professor of medicine at Upsall, died 1661, from Linnaeus. Frankeniaceae Frankenia'ceae (fran-ken-ee-AY-see-ee) plants of the Sea-heath family, from the genus name, Frankenia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. frankii after Joseph C. Frank (1782-1835), German botanist and physician who travelled and collected in the United States. Franseria New Latin, from Antonio Franseri, 18th century Spanish physician and botanist, and New Latin ia Frasera, fraseri after John Fraser, 1750-1811, a Scottish collector of North American plants, especially in Newfoundland and the Appalachians, and nurseryman in London nurseryman. First name James in one source. Abies fraseri, Magnolia fraseri. (Frasera in Gentianaceae) frat, frater-, -frater, fratr Latin a brother fraternus brotherly, companionable. fratercul, fraterculus, -fraterculus Latin a little brother fraud, frauda Latin cheat fraudulentus fraudulent, deceptive. frax- referring to the ash tree fraxifolius, fraxinifolius fraxinus or Ash leaved, with leaves like Fraxinus, ash fraxin-, fraxinus, -fraxinus Latin the ash tree fraxineus like or resembling Fraxinus, Ash. Fraxinus Frax'inus (FRAX-in-us, or FRAKS-i-nus) the Classical Latin name, fraxinus ash tree freemanii Freesia “for F. H. T. Freese, d. 1876), student of C. F. Ecklon (1795–1868), who first used the name (as Freesea), although in a different sense” (fna) fregat-, fregata, -fregata Italian a frigate frem-, fremit Latin roar, murmur fremontii fremont'ii (FREE-mont-ee-eye) Fremontodendron Fremontoden'dron (free-mont-oh-DEN-dron) fren-, frena, frenat, frenum Latin a bridle frequenter frequently friesii friburgensis from Freiburg. frict Latin rub frig, friger, frigid, frigor Latin cold frigidus -a -um (FRI-gi-dus) cold, of cold regions, growing in cold places, frosty, stiff. frikartii for Carl Ludwig Frikart (1879-1964), Swiss nurseryman.

fringill, fringilla Latin a finch fritill-, fritillus, -fritillus Latin a dice box fritillarius -a -um, Fritillaria Fritillar'ia (fri-til-AIR-ee-a) from Latin, fritillus, checkered; a dice box, referring to the markings on the tepals of many species frivol Latin silly Froelichia for Joseph Aloys von Froelich (1766-1841), German physician and botanist who published on Sonchus, Hieracium, and Gentian frond, frond-, fronde, frondi Latin a leaf, foliage, referring to a leaf frondescent converting petals or sepals into leaves. frondiformis resembling a leafy moss, Muscus frondosus. frondosus -a -um leafy, leaf-like, leaf-bearing, covered with foliage. frons, -frons Latin the forehead, brow; frond, the foilage of ferns and palms, and leafy twigs, a leaf, foliage, referring to a leaf or frond front, fronto Latin the forehead, brow fruct-, fructi, fructus Latin a fruit, referring to fruit (esp. the grape) fructifer, fructiferus, fructifera, frugifer fruit-bearing, fruitful fructificans bearing fruit. fructigenus fruitful, bearing fruit. fructu albo with white fruits fructuarius fruitful, from Latin adjective fructuarius -a -um fruit-bearing, fruitful. fructo luteo with yellow fruits fructuosus fruitful, from fructuosus -a -um fruitful, fertile. fructus fruit frugal Latin economical, thrifty frugi Latin useful, fit Frülinggold German cv. spring gold Frülingshimmel German cv. spring sky Frülingszauber German cv. spring magic frument, frumentum Latin corn, grain (corn in the Old World sense, not DeKalb Hybrids) frumentaceus -a -um rich in flour, grain yielding, grain-like, pertaining to grain, as in spiritus frumenti frustr Latin in vain; deception frustraneus misleading, unsuccessful. frustul, frustulum Latin a little piece frustulatus separated into fragments. frut, frut-, frutex, -frutex, frutic Latin a shrub, referring to a shrub (shrubby) frutescens frutes'cens (froo-TES-ens) shrubby, shrub-like, bushy. frutex a shrub or bush, from Latin frutex, fruticis m. a shrub or bush, or a as a term of reproach, blockhead! fruticans shrubby, shrub-like fruticiformis fruticifor'mis (froo-tis-i-FOR-mis) fruticohybridus bushy, shrubby(????). fruticosus -a -um frutico'sus (froo-ti-KO-sus) shrubby, bushy, from Latin fruticosus, fruticos-, bushy, shrubby, from fruticosus -a -um, bushy or full of bushes, from frutex, a shrub fruticulosus -a -um fruticulo'sus (froo-tik-yew-LO-sus) shrubby and small, in the form of a small bush. fuc-, fuci, fucus Latin a seaweed; red fucatophylus with stainedleaves or colored leaves. fucatus -a -um painted, colored, died, stained, from the perfect participle of fucare, to color. Fuschia, fuschii named for Leonhart Fuchs (1501-1566), German professor, botanist, and herbalist. (Onagraceae) fuchsioides fuschia-like, like or resembling Fuschia fuciflorus with flowers resembling bumble-bees, as Orchis fuciflora. fucifromis bumle-bee like, from fucus -i m. a drone bee. fucoideus -a -um referring to a red alga plant in shape, resembling Fucus, a genus of seaweed. fuegianus from Tierra del Fuego, in Chile and Argentina fueginus dying, fleeting, present participle of fugio, fugere, fugi, fugitum. fug-, fugi Latin flee, dispel fuga, fugaci, fugax, -fugax Latin swift, fleeting, transitory, ephemeral

fugacious falling off or fading early, adverbial form of fugax. fugax fugitive, fleeting, from Latin fugax, fugacis ready to flee, flying; speeding, fleeting, transitory; with the genitive avoiding; or apt to flee, fleeting, withering or falling quickly, from fugere, to flee. and -ax suffix meaning with a sense of ‘inclining or apt to’. Fuirena New Latin, from Georg Fuiren (1581-1628), Danish (or Dutch) botanist and physician. (Cyperaceae) -ful English full of fulcidus supported with accessory organs as with stilt-like roots above ground, from fulcio fulcire fulsi fultum, to prop up, support; to strengthen, secure; morally, to support, stay, uphold. fulcr, fulcrum, -fulcrum a support, prop, from Latin fulcrum -i n. the post or foot of a couch. fulcratus -a -um fulcra'tus (ful-KRAY-tus) supported with accessory organs as with stilt-like roots above ground. fulg-, fulgen, fulgi Latin flash, gleam fulg-, fulgor, fulgur Latin lightning fulgens shining, glowing, glistening, excessive, brightly colored fulgidus -a -um fulgid, shining, brightly colored, gleaming, radiant, glittering, from Latin fulgidus -a -um, shining, gleaming, glittering, from fulgēre, to shine. fuligineus, fuliginosus sooty, soot-like, black, brownish black, dark brown, dark in color, from Latin fuligo inis f. soot; powder for darkening the eyebrows. fulic, fulica, -fulica Latin a coot, from Latin fulica -ae f. a coot. fulig, fuligin Latin soot; sooty fulleri fulleriana fullonum of fullers, used for carding wool, from Latin fullonica -ae f. the art of fulling. fulm, fulmen, -fulmen, fulmin Latin lightning; a thunderbolt, from Latin fulmen -inis n. [a stroke of lightning, a thunderbolt fulmineus lightening-colored, like lightening, from Latin fulmineus -a -um of lightning; like lightning, rapid or destructive fulv- Latin reddish yellow, tawny, referring to the color yellow (orange) fulvellus tawny yellow, yellowish brown fulvescens fulves'cens (ful-VES-ens) tawny yellow(?), yellowish brown(?) fulvidus slightly tawny fulvipilus with yellowish brown hairs. fulvispinus -a -um having yellowish-brown thorns. fulvosus -a -um yellowish-brown fulvus –a -um ful'vus (FUL-vus) fulvous, tawny, tawny yellow, yellowish brown, orange-gray-yellow, reddish brown, from Latin fulvus -a -um tawny, yellowish brown fum- smoke, from Latin fumus -i m. smoke, steam, vapor fumanus -a -um smoky. Fumaria New Latin, from Late Latin, fumitory, from Latin fumus smoke, and -aria, in reference to the disagreeable odor of the roots. (Fumariaceae) Fumariaceae plants of the Fumitory family, from the genus name, Fumaria, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. fumariaefolius, fumariifolius fumaria-leaved, with leaves like Fumaria, fumitory fumarioides resembling Fumitory. fumatus smoking, or apparently smoking. fumeus, fumidus, fumosus smoky, smoky gray, gray-brown fumeus of the color of smoke. fumigatus of the color of smoke. fumosus smoky, sooty. fun, funal, funi, funis Latin a rope funalis rope-like, cord, string, or rope-like as the roots of Pandanus. Funaria Latin funis, rope, referring to cord-like twisted seta funarius -a -um as if turned in a lathe. Funastrus Funas'trus (few-NAS-trus) funct- Latin perform fund Latin pour

fund, funda, fundi Latin a sling; the bottom fune, funebri, funere Latin a funeral; death funebris ornamenting graves, growing on graves, of cemeteries,; funereal, of, belonging to, suggesting a funeral, gloomy, from Latin funer-, funus n. funeral. funereus -a -um funer'eus (few-NEER-ee-us) ominous, lamentable. funestus -a -um ominous, lamentable. fung-, fungi, fungus, -fungus Latin a mushroom, toadstool, fungus, mould, etc. fungiformis mushroom-shaped fungilliformis mushroom-shaped. fungosus -a -um fungosus, resembling a fungus in texture and form, spongy funi, funcul, funis, -funis Latin a rope, cord funicularis, funiculatus rope-like, of a slender rope or cord, like string, cord, or rope as in some roots. funiculosus -a -um arranged in ropes or bundles funifer, funiferus bearing string-like or rope-like organs. funiformis string-like or skein-like. fur, furen Latin rage furc-, furca, furci- Latin a fork, forked, cleft, from furca, furcae f., Latin noun, a two-pronged fork; a prop. furcans, furcatus -a -um furcate, forked, cleft, with two long lobes, with prong-like terminal lobes, from furca, furcae f., Latin noun, a two-pronged fork; a prop. furcellatus -a -um minutely forked, diminutively forked. Furcraea for Antoine François de Fourcroy (1755–1809), French chemist who helped establish the system of chemical nomenclature furfur Latin bran, scurf, dandruff furfuraceus -a -um scurfy, covered with loose, bran-like (branny) scales or powder furi, furios Latin rage, madness furians wild, violent furn-, furnari, furnus Latin an oven Furnulum pani nolo. I don't want a toaster. furor Latin madness, fury furtiv- Latin secret; stolen furunc Latin a boil; a petty thief furvus dull, black, swarthy fus-, fusi Latin a spindle; pour out fusc- Latin dusky, brown fuscatus -a -um browned, tanned. fuscellus -a -um somewhat dusky. fuscescens turning brown, somewhat brown. fuscifolius -a -um fuscous-leaved fuscipes with a brown stalk. fusco-ater -atra -atrum brownish black. fusco-luteus -a -um brownish yellow. fuscopictus -a -um dark-colored fuscoruber dark red fuscotinctus -a -um dark-tinged fuscus -a -um fuscus, brown, reddish-brown, blackish brown, dark, dusky fuscatus -a -um browned, tanned fuscellus -a -um somewhat dusky fusi- referring to a spindle fusiformis -a -um fusiform, spindle-shaped, thicker in the middle than at the ends, tapering at both ends, carrot-shaped. fusipes with a carrot-like base. fust-, fusti, fustis Latin a club, cudge fusus -a -um creeping or spreading on the ground, used in compound words. Frrverkeri Swedish cv. fireworks

gabonensis from the river estuary Gabun, or Gaboon on the west coast of Africa. gabrielensis gabrielen'sis (gab-ree-el-EN-sis) gad, gado, gadus Greek a kind of fish gaditanus -a -um from Cadiz, Spain -gae(...) referring to the earth, ground gaea Greek the earth gagat- Greek jet black Gaillardia Gaillar'dia (gay-LAR-dee-a, or gay-LARD-ee-a) New Latin, from M. Gaillard de Marentonneau (Merentonneau or Charentonneau in some sources), 18th century French magistrate and botanist (or botanical patron) and New Latin –ia. (Compositae) -gal(...) referring to milk, from Greek γαλακτ-, γάλα, galact-, gala, milk. gala-, -gala, galact-, galacto Greek milk, from γαλακτ-, γάλα, galact-, gala, milk. galacifolius -a -um galax-leaved, with showy leaves(?), from Greek γαλακτ-, γάλα, galact-, gala, milk, and . Galactia from Greek γάλα, gala, milk, in reference to the milky sap of some species. (Leguminosae) galacto- milky white, from Greek γαλακτ-, γάλα, galact-, gala, milk. galactodendron cow tree, of Milk-tree, Brosium galactodendron. galag African a lemur-like animal Galagkē from Greek γαλάγκη, galangale, a se Asian culinary herb. galanga Galanthus, Snowdrop. galanthodes resembling Snowdrop, from Greek γάλα, gala, milk, and ανθος, anthos, flower, and -odes. Galanthus milk-flower, from Greek γάλα, gala, milk, and ανθος, anthos, flower, referring to the color of the flowers galapegius from the Galapagos group of islands in the eastern Pacific. galat-, galatea, galathei Greek a sea nymph Galatella Latin diminutive of Galatea, from which this genus was separated. (Compositae) galax-, galaxi- Greek milky, from γαλακτ-, γάλα, galact-, gala, milk. Gălaxias from medieval Latin galaxia, Latin galaxias, the milky way, from Greek Γαλαξίας, Galaxias, galaxy, from γαλακτ-, γάλα, galact-, gala, milk. galb- Latin yellow; a small worm, from Latin galba, galbae f., a mite or maggot in meat, from Hebrew chalab (chalb), fatness. Alternately, it meant the color of a worm or maggot. galban- greenish yellow, from Latin galbinus -a -um greenish-yellow. galbaniferus yielding Galbanus gum, from Latin galbanum -i n., the resinous sap of a Syrian plant. galbănum Latin the gum on a herb called Ferula, from Greek Χαλβάνη, Chalbane. galbanus, galbinus greenish brown, from Latin galbănum, a garment worn by luxurious women (or the effiminate), possibly originally spelled galbinum, galbani, from galbus. It has nothing in common with the Ferula gum, unless they were of the same color. galbul Latin an oriole; a cypress nut gale, galea a helmet, from Latin galea -ae f., helmet. gale,, galea, galei Greek a weasel, cat gale (GAH-lee) Gale from old English gagel, gagol, strong, possibly related to Old Norse *gagl in gaglviðr, which may be an old name for Myrica gale, from *gagl, gale, and við-r wood (OED). Galeandra Latin galea, helmet, and Greek -andrus, male, referring to shape of anther Galearis Latin galea, helmet galeatus helmeted, with a helmet or helmet-like covering, as the flowers of Aconite, from galeatus -a -um, helmeted. galegifolius galega-leaved galen-, galena Greek calm, rest; lead ore Galenia for Claudius Galenius, C.E. 130-200), Roman physician and writer on medicine galeo, galeod Greek a shark galeobdolon yellow Dead-nettle or Archangel, Lamium galebdolon. Galeopsis New Latin, from Latin, a nettle, from Greek galēopsis, from galē, galeē weasel, and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, resembling, sight, view.in reference to the corollas similarity to the head of a weasel. galeola, galeolae f. Latin a cap.

galer- Latin: a cap; Greek: cheerful galericulatus -a -um skullcap-like, helmet-like, with a small helmet, cap or hood, from Latin galericulum, galericuli n. skull-cap; wig, and Latin –atus, suffix indicating possession, likeness, or ‘provided with’, used with noun bases. galericulum a small cap or helmet, from Latin galericulum -i n. skull-cap; wig, includes -ulum, the diminutive suffix. galerum, galeri n., galerus, galeri m. Latin cap or hat made of skin; a ceremonial hat worn by pontifices or flamines (pagan priests); a wig. galgul-, galgulus Latin a woodpecker, or Gallinago colius or Colius, Galgulus, a name used by Aristotle or Pliny for a bird yellow with green patches that hacks timber, hammers wood, utters a loud cry, about the size of a turtle-dove, lived mainly in the Peloponnese, a picus. Specific epithet of a Loriculus parrot, also a genus of ‘toad-shaped’ bugs. galid- Greek a little weasel galilaeus from Galilee, a province in Palestine. Galinsoga New Latin, after Mariano Martinez de Galinsoga 1766-1797 Spanish botanist, court physician, and director of the Botanic Garden, Madrid. galioides galio'ides (gay-lee-OH-i-dees) galium-like, resembling Bedstraw, Galium. Galium (GA-lee-um) New Latin, from Greek galion, bedstraw, from Greek γάλα, gala, milk, referring to the flowers of G. verum, Lady’s Bedstraw, formerly used to curdle milk. (Rubiaceae) Galius Ga'lius (GAY-lee-us) gall-, galla Latin a gall nut gall-, gallin, gallo, gallus Latin a chicken, cock gallicus -a -um gal'licus (GAL-ik-us) referring to Gaul or France, of French origin, (Gallia, Gaul), Gallic; also refers to a cock or rooster galpinii for Ernest Galpin (1858-1941), South African banker and plant collector galvan, galvani, galvano N: Galvani pertaining to the electric current Galvezia Galve'zia (gal-VEE-zee-a) gam-, gamo, gamus Greek marriage gam- united, or married gamalensis from Gamala, a village on Palestine. Gambelia Gambel'ia (gam-BEL-ee-a) gambelianus gambelia'nus (gam-bel-ee-AY-nus) gambosus hoof-shaped. gamet Greek a wife or husband gammar-, grammarus Latin a kind of lobster gamocarpus with united, multiple fruits grown together, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. Gamochaeta Gamochae'ta (gam-oh-KEE-ta) Greek gamos, union, and χαιτη, khaite, bristle, loose and flowing hair, for the basally connate pappus bristles gamopetalus joined petals, with united petals. gamophyllus having leaves united, forming a perianth. gamosepalus with sepals united into one. gamps, gampso Greek curved, bent -gamy Greek marriage, reproduction gan, ganeo, gano Greek beauty, luster gandavensis from Ghent, Gent, in Belgium. ganderi gan'deri (GAN-der-eye) gangeticus of the river Ganges, India. gangli-, ganglion Greek a knot on a string; swelling gangren Greek a sore; gangrene ganophloeus having scaly bark. Garberia, garberi for Abram Pascal Garber (1838–1881), Lancaster County, Pennsylvania physician and botanist noted for his contributions to the flora of Florida, discovered Carex garberi. gardenii named for Dr. Alexander Garden (1730-1791 gardenioides resembling Gardenia. gargal, gargalo Greek tickle; tickling garganicus belonging to Gargano, Italy, ancient Garganus in Apulia.

gargaricus from Mount Gargarus in Asia Minor. gariepinus, garipensis from the Orange River, South Africa. garífalo, garýfallo, garýfano from Greek γαρίϕαλο, γαρύϕαλλο, γαρύϕανο, cloves. garismatium fish-sauce factory. garrexianus from Garessia in the Italian province Cuneo. garrul Latin chattering Garrya Garr'ya (GARE-ee-a) Garryaceae Garrya'ceae (gare-ee-AY-see-ee), from the genus name, Garrya, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. garryana garrya'na (gare-ee-AY-na) Gartensonne Greman cv. garden sun gast, gast-, gaster, gastero, gastr, gastro Greek the stomach, belly, referring to a stomach, a belly, swollen Gasteria a genus of succulents, with somewhat swollen stems Gastridius Gastrid'ius (gas-TRID-ee-us) gastropus belly-footed, with thw stem creeping on the ground. gattingeri for Augustin Gattinger (1825-1903), discovered Agalinis gattingeri. gaud, gaude, gaudi Latin joy; joyous Gaultheria (gawl-THE-ree-a) after Dr. Gaulthier (c.1708-1758) Canadian botanist and physician gaur-, gauro Greek proud, majestic, from γαῦρος, gauros. Gaura Gau'ra (GAW-ra) New Latin, from Greek gaurē, feminine of γαῦρος, gauros majestic, splendid, superb, referring to the beautiful flowers of some of the species. (Onargaceae) gaus-, gauso Greek crooked gavi, gavia Latin a sea bird, a loon gavial, gavialis New Latin a crocodile Gaylussacia New Latin, from J. L. Gay-Lussac and New Latin -ia Gayophytus Gayophy'tus (gay-oh-FIE-tus) Gazania Gaza'nia (ga-ZAY-nee-a) Greek gaza, riches or royal treasure, alluding to splendor of flowers; or for Theodorus of Gaza,1398–1478), who translated the works of Theophrastus. ge, geo Greek the earth geanthus -a -um with flowers on the ground, from , and ανθος, anthos, flower. gecc-, gecco New Latin a chirping lizard geiss, geisso Greek a cornice, eaves geiton, -geiton geitono Greek a neighbor gelast Greek laugh gelat Latin frozen, jelly-like gelatinosus plants consisting of or resembling jelly, with albumen-like bodies. Gelbe Mantel German cv. yellow cloak gelea wild gourd. gelid Latin cold gelidus ice-cold, ice-like, congealed. gelo Greek: laugh, laughter; Latin cold; freeze gemin, gemin- Latin twin, double, referring to twins geminalis culivated sage, clary. geminarius in pairs, binate. geminatus twin, in pairs, binate. geminiflorus, geminiflora twin-flowered, with twin-flowers, flowering in pairs. geminiscapa geminispinus twin-spined, with thorns in pairs. geminus double. gemm, gemm-, gemma, gemmul a bud, referring to jewels or buds, from Latin gemma -ae f., a bud or eye of a plant; by transference, a jewel, gem, precious stone gemmatus bearing buds, bud-like, from gemma, a leaf bud. gemellus bearing twin flowers. gemmifer, gemmiferus, gemmifera bud-bearing, beafing leaf buds, contrast with Latin gemmifer -fera -ferum, bearing or producing seeds. gemmiflorus bud-flowered

gemmulosus with minute buds, as with mosses. gemmosus jeweled gemonensis from Gemona, Udine province, Italy. gen Greek: bear, produce; Latin: a nation, race gena, -gena Latin the cheek, chin gene, genea, -genea, geneo Greek birth, descent, race gene, genesis, -genesis Greek origin, birth genei Greek a beard gener Latin beget; a race; produce generalis general, prevailing generosus noble, eminent genesis -is f. the constellation that presides over one's birth genevensis, genavensis from Geneva, Switzerland. genet Greek birth, ancestor genethli Greek a birthday geni, genio Greek the chin, jaw genianthus with bearded flowers, from , and ανθος, anthos, flower. -genic Greek producing genicul Latin the elbow, knee, joint geniculatus jointed, kneed, with bent knees, abruptly bent like a knee, of with joints, from Latin geniculatus a -um, knotty, full of knots. Genista, -genista Genis'ta (jen-IS-ta) from a Latin name, the Plantagenet kings and queens of England took their name, planta genesta, from story of William the Conqueror sailing for England, plucked a plant holding tenaciously to a rock, stuck it in his helmet as symbol to hold fast in risky undertaking. From Latin genista (genesta) -ae f., the plant broom. Alternately from Celtic gen, or French genet, a small shrub. (Leguminosae) genistifolius genista-leaved, with Genista-like leaves, from Latin genista (genesta) -ae f., the plant broom. genistoides Genista-like. genit, geniti, genito Latin beget geno Greek race, offspring; sex -genous Greek producing gens, -gens, gent Latin a clan, tribe gentiaca, gentiana gentian, from Dioscorides. gentian Greek a gentian Gentiana Gentia'na (jen-tee-AY-na, or gen-tee-AH-na) New Latin, from Latin Gentiana after King Gentius of Illyria, 2nd century BC, who discovered medicinal properties of G. lutea, the European yellow gentian. Gentianaceae Gentiana'ceae (jen-tee-an-AY-see-ee) plants of the Gentian family, from the genus name, Gentiana, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Gentianella Gentianel'la (jen-tee-an-EL-a) gentianoides like or resembling Gentiana, gentian Gentianopsis Gentianop'sis (jen-tee-an-OP-sis) gentilis noble, exalted, or belonging to a class, from Latin gentilis -e, of a gens; of a country, national. genu the knee, from Latin genu -us n. the knee. genuflexus bent like a knee genuinus genuine, natural, true to type, from Latin genuinus -a -um natural , innate. genus, -genus birth, a race; a sort, class, kind, a group consisting of a number of species of a common character, from Latin genus -eris , n. birth, descent, origin; race, stock, family, house; also offsrping, descendents, class, kind, variety. -geny Greek production geny, genyo, genys Greek the jaw, chin geo-, ge- Greek the earth, from classical Latin geo- and its etymon ancient Greek γεω-, geo-combining form of γῆ, ge, earth, of unknown origin. Geocarpon Greek ge, earth, and karpos, fruit geographia -ae f. geography geoides of the earth, the ground; resembling Avens, geum. geometricus in a pattern, from Latin geometricus -a -um geometrical.

geonomaeformis geonoma-formed, a genus of palms, New Latin, from Greek geonomos colonist, from geoge- and -nomos (from nemein to distribute, pasture, or manage) Geoprumnon earth plum, New Latin , from classical Latin geo- and its etymon ancient Greek γεω-, geocombining form of γῆ, ge, earth, of unknown origin, and Hellenistic Greek προῦµνον proumnon, plum; compare classical Latin prūnum n., prūnus f., plum Hellenistic Greek προύµνη plum tree. georgianus -a -um of Georgia, USA, as in Jimmy and Billie Carter and Bill and Deb Brons, Cheryl and Vinnie Obrien, etc. georgicus from Georgia or Grusia, near the Caucasus (Transcaucus) Russia. gephyr, gephyra, -gephyro, gephyro Greek a bridge ger-, gero bear, carry, from Latin gero gerere gessi gestum to carry, bear. -ger(...) bearing gera, geras, gerat Greek old age Geraea Gerae'a (jer-EE-a) from Greek geraios, old, alluding to white-haired involucre of Geraea canescens Geraniaceae Gerania'ceae (jer-ay-nee-AY-see-ee) plants of the Geranium family, from the genus name, Geranium, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. geraniifolius with leaves like Geranium geranioides geranium-like, resembling Crane’s-bill. Geranium Gera'nium (jer-AY-nee-um, or ge-RA-nee-um) from the Greek name geranion from γέρανος, geranos. a crane, for the beak like fruits resembling a crane’s bll. (Geraniaceae) Gerardia Plumier dedicated this genus to John Gerard, “Joannes Gerardus” author of “Historiam edidit plantarum Anglicam”, London, 1597. gerardii Louis Gerard, French botanist (1773-1819), who described Big Bluestem from cultivated plants grown in the south of France. gerb- Arabic a kangaroo mouse gerbe ďOr French cv. gold spray gerfalco, -gerfalco, gerfalcon Late or Low Latin a sacred falcon germander from medieval Latin, germandra, germandrea (French germandreé), altered form of gamandrea, -ia (source of German and Dutch gamander, Italian calamandrea), corrupted from Greek χαµανδρυά, chamandrya, a corruption of χαµαίδρυς, khamaidrys, lit. ground oak, from χαµαί, khamai, on the ground, and δρῦς, drys, oak. Correctly adapted in medieval Latin chamædrȳs. germanicus -a -um of German origin, from Latin Germania -ae f. Germany. germinans germinating, sprouting, sending forth buds, from germino -are to sprout forth, from germen -inis n. an embryo; a bud, shoot or graft. gero Latin bear, carry; Greek: an old man gero, gerere, gessi, gestus Latin verb, bear, carry, wear; carry on; manage, govern; se gerere = to conduct oneself. geron-, geront Greek an old man gerontea, -ae, groundsel, from Greek. -gerous, -ger, -gerus -a -um Latin suffix, bearing, from gero, gerere, gessi, gestum, to carry, to bear. gerr-, gerrho, gerri, gerro Greek a wicker shield, compare Latin gerrae -arum f. pl. wattled twigs. gery-, geryo Greek shout; speech ges omfalos navelwort, cotyledon, from Greek. Gesneraceae plants of the Gesnera family, from the genus name, Gesnera, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. gesneriflorus bearing Gesnera-like flowers. (or verticillate, whorled????) gest- carried, from Latin gesto -are to carry, bear about. gesto, gestare, gestavi, gestatus Latin verb, bear, carry; wear. Geum Ge'um (JEE-um, or GAY-um) New Latin, from Latin gaeum, geum, herb bennet, from γεύµ, geum, to taste well, in reference to the roots of a species, an ancient name used by Pliny for this group. (Rosaceae) geus, geusi, geust Greek taste Gewitterwolke German cv. thundercloud. geyeri after Charles A. Geyer, a German botanist who collected in the 1840’s in Washington and Idaho, Minnesota, and Iowa. Gibasis Latin gibbus, swollen, and basis, base gibb humped, from Latin gibba -ae f. also gibbus, -i m. hump, hunch. gibb- swollen on one side (the gibbous moon)

gibberosus humped, hunchbacked, with a small hump, from Latin gibber -era -erum hump-backed. gibbiflorus gibbous-flowered, with humped flowers. gibbose more convex in one place than another. gibbosus hunchbacked, humped at the base like the flowers of Snapdragons. gibbulosus having a small hump or tubercle. gibbus -a -um swollen on one side, hunchbacked, humped. gibralticus, gibraltaricus of or from Gibraltar gig- referring to giants or immensity giga-, gigan, giganto Greek giant, very large giganteus -a -um gigan'tea (ji-GAN-tee-a, but possibly with a hard initial g) very large, giant, gigantic, unusually high, higher than the type, from Latin giganteus -a -um, adjective, of or belonging to giants, gigantic, from -ēus a Greek adjectival suffix indicating a state of possession or ‘belonging to’, or ‘noted for’. giganthes giant-flowered gigantospermum gigarus edderwort, from Gallic. gigas of giants, giant, immense, from Latin Gigas -gantis m. a giant. gigno Greek know gilanicus from Gilan in Persia. gilarus, (-um?) thyme, from Gallic. Gilia Gi'lia (JEE-lee-a) (Pronunciation based on personal name) New Latin, from Felipe Gil 18th century Spanish botanist and New Latin -ia giliadensis from Gilhead in Arabia. gilioides gilio'ides (jee-lee-OH-i-dees) gilliesii gillies'ii (gil-EES-ee-eye) Gillenia (gi-LEN-ee-a) In honor of Arnold Gillen, or Gill (Gillenius), 17th century German botanist; alternately from Greek γελάω, galeo, to laugh, alluding to its exhilarating qualities. (Rosaceae) Gilmania, gillmanii gil'manii (GIL-man-ee-eye) for M. French Gilman (1871-1944), Death Valley naturalist gilv- Latin pale yellow gilvus dull yellow, brown-yellow, from Latin gilvus -a -um pale yellow. gingidion pepperwort, from Dioscorides. gingiv-, gingiva the gums, from Latin gingiva -ae f. gum (of the mouth). ginglym-, ginglymo, ginglymus, -ginglymus, ginglum Greek a hinge gingglumes resembling a hinge. Ginkgo from Chinese yin, silver, and hing, apricot, in reference to appearance of the seed ginnala a native name giraldianus, giraldii for Guiseppe Giraldi (1848-1901), Italian missionary and plant hunter Gisekia For Paul Dietrich Giseke (1741-1796), German professor, botanist, and pupil of Linnaeus (originally as Gisechia) girdiana girdia'na (gird-ee-AY-na) gissensis from Giessen Germany. git, gith, gicti black cumin, gith, fitches, Nigella sativa (L.), from the eastern Mediterranean. githago an old Latin name for a plant, gith, sometimes git or gicti, also called melanthion or melanospermum, Roman coriander, Nigella sativa L., and ago, to drive. Githopsis Githop'sis (gi-THOP-sis) glab, glaber, glabri- Latin smooth glaber, -bra, -brum, glabri-, glabro- gla'ber (GLAY-ber, or GLA-ber) gla'bra (GLAY-bra) glabrous, lacking hairs, smooth, bare, from glaber, glabra, glabrum, Latin adjective, hairless, smooth; in one source from glaber, glabri, Latin for bald. glabellus -a -um rather glabrous, smoothish, rather smooth (destitute of pubescence, hairless (questionable)) glaberrimus -a -um glaber'rimus (glay-ber-EYE-mus) Latin very smooth, smoothest, bare, superlative of glaber, lacking hairs, smooth. glabr- smooth glabratus -a -um glabra'tus (gla-BRAY-tus) somewhat or almost glabrous (destitute of pubescence, hairless (questionable?))

glabrescens glabrescent, becoming glabrous, smoothish, becoming hairless or slightly so, Latin glabrescentem, present participle of glabrescĕre to grow smooth or glabrous, or from Latin glaber, glabra, glabrum, hairless, smooth, and -escens Latin adjectival suffix from escentia, translated as -ish, -part of, becoming, -becoming more; said of surfaces that are hairy when young but becoming smooth when mature. glabriflorus, glabriflora with smooth hairless flowers. glabrifolius, glabrifolia with smooth leaves. glabrior, glabrius somewhat smooth or slightly hairy. glabriusculus -a -um glabrius'culus (glay-bree-YOO-skew-lus) nearly hairless, nearly glabrous. glaci-, glacia- Latin ice, a. from glacial, ad. Latin glaciālis icy, f. glaciēs -ei ice. glacialis, glaciālis from glaciers or cold places, growing in a snowy region, from Latin glacialis -e icy, frozen. glad- referring to a sword gladi, gladia, gladius, -gladius Latin a sword, from Latin gladius -i m. a sword. gladiatoria -ae, f. pondweed. gladiatus sword-like, sword shaped. gladiifolius with sword-like leaves. Gladiolus sword-like leaves, from Latin gladiolus, a little sword, referring to the leaf shape gland, glandi an acorn; a gland, from Latin glans glandis f. mast (as in nut crop); an acorn, chestnut, etc gland- referring to a gland glandicaulis -is -e having a glandular stem, from , and Latin noun caulis, caulis m., from the Greek καυλος, kaulos, the stem or stalk of a plant; usual spelling was colis or coles, or kaulos, the shaft.glandiferus bearing glands. glandiformis gland-formed glandinum oil made of acorns, Dioscorides. glandulaceous resembling a gland. glandulaceus tawny-brown (????) Glandulicactus Latin glandula, gland, and Cactus, an old genus name glanduliferus glandulif'era (gland-yoo-LIF-er-a) gland-bearing, bearing small glands. glanduligerus bearing small glands. glanduloso-pilosus with glandular hairs. glandulosus -a -um glandulo'sus (gland-yoo-LO-sus) glandular glani-, glanis, -glanis Greek a kind of fish glano-, glanx acorn. glans, -glans Latin an acorn; a gland glaphyr, glaphyro Greek hollow; neat, polished glare, glarea, -glarea, glareo Latin gravel, from Latin glarea -ae f. gravel. glareose frequenting gravel or sand. glareosus of gravel, frequenting gravel or sand, from Latin glareosus -a -um gravelly, full of gravel. glastifolius with leaves like Isatis, Dyers-woad. glatfelteri glauc-, glauco-, glaucus -a -um glau'cus (GLAW-kus) gray, bluish-green or gray, covered with ‘bloom’, from Latin glaucus -a -um, bluish-gray or greenish-gray, from Greek γλαυκός, glaukos; also a kind of fish (obselete), a gull, or a mollusc. glauc- milky, with a bloom, greyish or bluish green glaucescens becoming glaucous, rather glaucous, covered with a grey bloom, of sea-blue, gray, or lavender color. glaucia, -ae sweet new wine, from Dioscorides. glaucidi, glaucidium, glaucidium Greek an owl glaucidifolius with leaves like Glaux, Salt-wort or Sea Milkwort. glaucifolius glaucous-leaved, with leaves of a grey-lavender color. glauciifolius with leaves like Glaucium, Horned Poppy. glaucinus with a grey-blue shine. glaucistipes having grey-blue stems. Glaucium Horned Poppy, from Greek γλαυκὸν, glaukon, glaucus, for the hue of the foliage. (Papaveraceae) glaucium fleabane, from Greek.

glaucodeus -a -um from Latin glaucus -a -um bluish- or greenish-gray, from Greek γλαυκός, glaukos, glaucus, silvery, gleaming, or bluish-green or gray, and oides, with the form of or a resemblance, for the strongly glaucous foliage glaucoides grey-blue, sea-blue, from Greek glaukos, silvery, gleaming, or bluish-green or gray, and oides, with the form of, for the strongly glaucous foliage glaucomollis -is -e glaucomol'lis (glaw-ko-MOL-is) glaucophylloides resembling grey-blue leaves. glaucophyllus glow-ko-FIL-lus; glaucous-leafed, with glaucous leaves, with grey-blue leaves. glaucopis having grey-blue eyes. glaucopus with a grey-blue stem or stalk. glaucus -a -um GLOW-kus glaucous, a white powdery or waxy coating on a leaf or fruit giving a greygreen, dull green, or grayish blue appearance, covered with a ‘bloom’, as in grapes or cabbage, from Latin glaucus -a -um, bright, sparkling, gleaming, bluish-grayish, bluish-green, sea-blue, lavender from Greek γλαυκός, glaucus; also a kind of fish (obsolete), a gull, or a mollusc. glaux-, -glaux Greek milk vetch; an owl glazioviana Auguste Francois Marie Glaziou, 19th century French botanist. gle-, glea, gleo Greek glue gleb-, gleba, -gleba Latin a clod, a COE construction division employee, from Latin gleba (glaeba) -ae f. a lump or clod of earth. glebarius having a slight swelling, as on the thallus of lichens, from gleba, a clod. glebulous in clod-like masses, from Latin glebula -ae f. a little clod or lump; a little farm or estate. Glebionis Glebion'is (gleb-ee-OWN-is) from Latin gleba, soil, and -ionis, characteristic of; reference uncertain, perhaps to agricultural association glecho-, glechon, -glechon Greek pennyroyal glecom Greek pennyroyal Glechoma New Latin, irregular from Greek glēchōn, blēchōn pennyroyal or thyme, also Glecoma??? glechomoides resembling Glechoma, Ground-Ivy or Hedge Maids. glechon fleabane; catmint, from Greek glechonophyllus with soft leaves. Gleditsia (gle-DITS-ee-a) Modern Latin after Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch (1714 - 1786), of Leipzig, German botanist, writer, director of the Berlin Botanical gardens, and contemporary of Linnaeus. Wood (1872) gives his first name as John, but with a middle name of Gottleib, … Occasionally seen as Gleditzia or Gleditschia (op. cit.). (Leguminosae) Gleicheniaceae plants of the Lung-wort family of ferns, from the genus name, Glechenia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. glen-, gleno Greek a pit, socket; wonders gleo Greek glue gli-, glia, glio Greek glue Glinus Greek glinos, sweet juice gliri-, gliris Latin a dormouse, from Latin glis gliris m. dormouse. glischr, glischro Greek sticky; greedy glius gum, Greek, from Dioscorides. glob, glob-, globo-, globus, -globus a ball, globe, referring to a ball or sphere, from Latin globus -i m. a ball, globe, sphere; a troop, crowd, mass of people globatus globular, ball-shaped. globicarpus with globular fruits, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. globifer, globiferus, globulifera ball-bearing, globule-bearing or globe-bearing, bearing small(?) globeshaped clusters globispicus, globispica with globose spikes globosus globose, spherical, ball-like, nearly spherical, from Latin globosus -a -um spherical. Globulariaceae plants of the Globe Daisy family, from the genus name, Globularia, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. globularis globe-shaped, ball-shaped, of a little ball or sphere(?) globulifer, globuliferus beraing small globes (buds). globulosus in the form of small balls. globulous, globulus -a -um glob'ulus (GLOB-yoo-lus) like a little ball

gloch, glochi, glochis, -glochis Greek a point, from γλωχις, glochis. glochidiatus barbed on one or both sides as some awns. Glokenturm German cv. bell tower gloe-, gloea, gloeo Greek glue gloi, gloio Greek glue glom-, glomer-, glomerus Latin a ball of yarn; a ball, from Latin glomus -eris n. clue, skein, ball of thread. glom- referring to a cluster glomeratus -a -um glomera'tus (glom-er-AY-tus) glomerate, clustered in a head, club-shaped, from Latin glomero, glomare, to form into a sphere, or a rounded heap. glomeruliferus bearing small clusters of flowers; in the form of a small club glomeruliflorus with flowers in glomerules. gloire de … French cv. glory of … glor- glorious glori-, glorius -a -um Latin glory gloriosus -a -um glorious, noble, splendid, from Latin gloriosus, adjective, glorious, superb, full of glory; famous, renowned; boastful, conceited; ostentatious. gloss, gloss-, glossa-, glosso- Greek the tongue, referring to a tongue shape, from γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue glossocerus having tongues or(?) horns, perhaps tongue-like horns, from γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue, and . glossoides shaped like a tongue, from γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue, and . Glossopetalon Glossopet'alon (glos-oh-PET-a-lon) from γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue, and glott-, glotti-, glotto Greek the tongue glottianus from Glasgow, Scotland. Glottidium from Greek γλῶττα, glotta, tongue, referring to the singular structure of the pods. (Leguminosae) gloxiniiflorus having Gloxinia-like flowers. gloxinioides gloxinia-like gluc-, gluco Greek sweet glum-, gluma Latin a husk, hull gluma the husk or chaffy bract-like scales of corn(?) grasses and sedges. glumaceus with glumes (in grasses) or glume-like structures, having chaff-like bracts. glut, gluti Latin to swallow; glue Glut German cv. glow glut-, glute-, gluteo Greek the rump glut- referring to glue glutin- Latin glue glutinarius gluey, tenacious, from Latin gluten -tinis n. glue. glutinator -oris m. one who glues books, a bookbinder. glutinosus -a -um glutino'sus (gloo-tin-OH-sus) glutinous, sticky, very sticky, covered with a sticky exudation. glyc, glycer, glyco Greek sweet glyc- sweet tasting glycia, glycea the name of a drug, from Greek. Glyceria Glycer'ia (classically gloo-KE-ree-a, or gli-SE-ree-a, glis-ER-ee-a) New Latin, from Greek γλυκερός, glykeros, sweet (OED), alternately Greek γλυκ-ύς, glykys, γλυκερός, glykeros, sweet, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root, and New Latin –ia (very much like Glycyrrhiza, possibly a transcribing error), referring to the sweet, edible seeds of one species, which were used in soups (or the leaves and roots of some species(OED)). Sweet-root (in one source ?), which is the meaning of Glycyrrhiza. (Gramineæ) Glycine New Latin, irregular from Greek glykys sweet; or in one source as from Greek for sweet tubers. glycinioides glycine-like glycycaryus sweet-nutty. glycyosmus sweet-scented. glycyphyllus having sweet leaves. Glycyrrhiza Glycyrrhi'za (glis-er-EYE-za) New Latin, from Latin, licorice root, from Greek γλυκύρριζα, glykyrrhiza, from glykys sweet, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. Common name from from Late Latin liquiritia, alteration of Latin glycyrrhiza. (Leguminosae) glycyrrhizeticus adjective of liquorice, from Dioscorides. glycyrrhizus having sweet roots, like licorice, from and, ῥίζα, rhiza, root. glycys new wine, from (?)Pliny, Greek.

glyká amýgdala from Greek γλυκά αµύγδαλα, Almond. glykániso from Greek γλυκάνισο, anise seeds. glykániso asteroeidés from Greek γλυκάνισο αστεροειδές, star anise. glykóriza, glykýrrhiza from Greek γλυκόριζα, γλυκύῤῥιζα, liquorice. glymma-, glymmato Greek a carved figure glyp-, glyph-, glypho-, glypt-, glypto- Greek carve; carved, engraved glyptocarpus -a -um bearing fruit with ornamental grooves or flutings, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit.. glyptodon, glyptodontus having fluted or grooved teeth. Glyptopleura Greek glyptos, carved, and pleura, rib, referrng to the cypselae (achenes) glyptosperma glyptosper'ma (glip-toe-SPER-ma) from , and σπερµα, sperma, seed. glys-, glavx (glaux) wart cress, from Dioscorides. gmelina named for Johan Gmelin (1709-1755), German naturalist gnamp, gnampto Greek bent, curved Gnaphalium Gnapha'lium (na-FAY-lee-um) floccose-woolly, New Latin, alteration of Latin gnaphalion cudweed, modification of Greek, or gnaphallion, a downy plant, an ancient name applied to these and similar plants, from γνάφαλλον, gnaphallon, lock of wool or cotton, from gnaptein to card, alteration of knaptein, in reference to the soft, cottony surface of the herbage; akin to Old English hnæppan to strike, Old Norse hnafa to cut, Lithuanian knabeti to peel, Latin cinis ashes. (Compositae) gnaphalioides resembling Gnaphalium, Cudweed. gnaphalodes gnaphalium-like, a composite gnaphaloides gnaphalo'ides (na-fa-LO-i-dees) gnath-, gnatho, gnathus, -gnathus Greek the jaw gnesi Greek genuine Gnetaceae plants of the Gnetum family (including Ephedra and Welwitschia), from the genus name, Gnetum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. gnom, gnoma, gnomo Greek a mark; judgment gnomon Greek judge; rule; a carpenter's square gnoph, gnopho Greek darkness gnorim, gnorimo Greek well known, familiar gnos, gnosis, -gnosis, gnost-, gnostic Greek know; known; knowledge gobi, gobius Latin a kind of fish gobicus from the Gobi desert in eastern Asia. Gochnatia for Frédéric Karl Gochnat, (d. 1816), a botanist who worked with Cichorieae Godetia (colloquially as \gō-ˈdē-sh(ē-)əә\; the t is also pronounced as a t or as a z) New Latin from Charles Henry Godet, (1797-1879), Swiss botanist and author of works in French and German. (Clarkia) godfreyi gogoensis from gogo or Ghago in the Western Sudan. Goldbukett German cv. golden bouquet Goldene Jugend German cv. golden youth Goldfuchs German cv. gold fox Goldgefieder German cv. gold plume goldiana Goldklumpen German cv. golden clogs Goldkrone German cv. golden crown Goldquelle German cv. gold fountain Goldrausch German cv. gold rush Goldstrum German cv. gold storm Goldtau German cv. gold dew gomiphias Greek a toothache gomos perhaps miswriting of zomos, soup, sauce, from Greek. gomph, gompho, gomphus Greek a wedge-shaped bolt or nail gomphi, gompho Greek a tooth gompho Greek a bolt, nail; bolt together gomphocarpus with club-like fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit.. gomphocephalus club-headed, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head.

gomphococcus club-berry gompholobium with club-like pods. gomphospermus with club-like seeds or spores. (seen as “pores”) Gomphrena Latin gromphaena, a type of amaranth gomphrenoides resembling Globe Amaranth, Gomphrena. -gon(...) referring to an angle gon, gone, gonidi, gono, gony Greek seed, generation, offspring gon, goni, gonia, gonio Greek an angle gon-, gony Greek the knee gonacanthus having knee-shaped thorns, from Greek gonu, knee, and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny.. gonato- Greek the knee gonatodes knee-shaped. gone Greek seed, generation, offspring Goniopterus angle-winged gongyl-, gongylo Greek round gongyl- rounded, swollen gongylocarpus having round knob-like fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. (as also in thalus of Lichens). gongyloides roundish, swollen gongylodes with round deciduous body, as in some seaweeds. goni, goni-, gonia, -gonia, gonio Greek seed; an angle, corner, referring to an angle goniatus -a -um angled, cornered, Greek γωνία, gonia, angle,, and -atus, Latin suffix indicating possession, likeness of, or ‘provided with’. gonidi Greek seed; reproductive organ gonim, gonimo Greek productive goniocalyx, goniocalycus with a cornered calyx, having a many sided or fluted calyx. goniocaulis -is -e with many sided or fluted stalk, from , and Latin caulis, caulis, a stem, a stalk, from Greek καυλος, kaulos, stem, stalk. goniodacanthus with many sided or fluted thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. gono- Greek generation, offspring; seed; reproductive organ; the knee gonocladus having many sided boughs. gonospermus with many sided seeds or spores. -gony Greek seed; reproduction gony, gonyo Greek the knee gooddingii goodding'ii (good-DING-gee-eye) Goodeniaceae plants of the Goodenia family, after Dr. Sam Goodenough, from the genus name, Goodenia, and aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Goodmania for George Jones Goodman (1904-1999), authority on Chorizanthe goodmaniana goodmania'na (good-man-ee-AY-na) Goodyera John Goodyer (1592-1664), English (British?) botanist. goramensis from the island of Goram in the Malay Archipelago. gordi- Greek mythology a kind of knot, the Gordian knot. Gordonia in honor of James Gordon, distinguished nurseryman of London. (Camelliaceae) gorg- French the throat gorg-, gorgo Greek grim, fierce gorgonensis -is -e from the island of Gorgona in Central America. gorgoneus -a -um from the island of Gorgona in Italy, Ligorno province. gorgonias Medusa-like, a head having serpents for hair. Goshiki Japanese cv. five-colored gossyp- referring to the genus Gossypium, the cotton plant gossypi-, gossypium, -gossypium Latin cotton Gossypianthus Latin gossypion, cotton, and Greek ἀνθεµον, n. anthemon, flower, presumably in reference to the villous tepals Gossypium New Latin, from Latin gossypion cotton; alternately said to be from Arabic goz, a silky substance. (Malvaceae) gossypifolium cotton plant leaf

gossypinus -a -um gossypi'nus (gah-sip-EYE-nus) gossypium-like, cottony, cotton-like, resembling Cotton, Gossypium. gour, goura New Latin kind of pigeon Govenia For J. R. Gowen, English collector in Assam gracil, gracil-, gracili-, gracilis Latin slender, graceful, from gracilis -is -e. gracilentus slender, willowy, from gracilis -is -e, slender. gracilescens tapering to a point, becoming slender, narrowing, from Latin gracilescent-em, present participle of gracilescĕre to become slender, from gracilis -is -e. graciliflorus graceful-flowered, from Latin from gracilis -ie -e, slender, graceful, and . gracilifolius with slender leaves, from Latin from gracilis -ie -e, slender, graceful, and . gracilior -or -us Latin comparative adjective, more graceful gracilipes slender foot or stalk, with a slender stalk, from Latin from gracilis -ie -e, slender, graceful, and . gracilis -ie -e grac'ilis (GRAS-il-is) grac'ile (GRAS-il-ee) slender, gracefully slight in form. gracilis -is -e, gracilior -or -us, gracillimus -a -um Latin adjective, slender, thin, slim, slight; fine, narrow; modest, unambitious, simple, plain; gracilens thin, slender, gracilentus -a -um gracilen'tus (gras-il-EN-tus) gracilescens becoming slender, becoming graceful, Latin gracilis, slender, thin simple, and –escens, beginning to or becoming gracilistylis slender-styled, from Latin from gracilis -ie -e, slender, graceful, and . gracillimus -a -um gracil'limus (gras-IL-i-mus) Latin superlative adjective, most slender or very slender. gracul-, graculus Latin a jackdaw; a cormorant, from graculus, graculi m., a jackdaw. grad-, grada-, gradi- Latin step, walk; slope, grade gradatim little by little, gradually gradatus graduated step by step as to form or color. graec- pertaining to Greece, Greek graecizans to have a Greek form, from Latin Græcizāre, from Græc-us; alternately from Latin Graeci, the Greeks and -izans, adjectival suffix meaning ‘becoming like, resembling, forming’. graecus -a -um of Greek origin, of Greece grall-, gralla, grallato, grallin Latin stilts gram-, gramen, -gramen, gramin, gramin- Latin grass, referring to grass Gramineae plants of the Graminea, Grass family. gramineus -a -um Latin adjective, grassy, grass-like, relating to grain. graminifolius -a -um with grass-like leaves, from Latin gramen, gramineus, grassy, of grass, or of cane or bamboo, -i-, and folius, folium, a leaf. graminoides resembling grasses. gramm, gramma, grammat Greek a letter, writing gramm- referring to a line, or written upon Grammitis Greek gramme, line, alluding to the elongate sori in a few species grammopetalus petals striped or marked Grammatophyllum written-on (lined) leaves grammatosorus with pustules (of ferns) in rows, resembling writing. grammicus as if written in lines, marked as though inscribed. grammopodius having a stripped stem. grammosepalus having sepals or leaves(?) with markings resembling writing. gramopetalous one source refers this to gamopetalus, with joined petals, with united petals. More likely meaning having linear petals, from grammo-, irregular combining form of Greek γραµµή, line, and πέταλον, leaf, and -ous. gramosepalus one source refers this to gamosepalus with sepals united into one, but probably having linear sepals. gramuntius from Gramont Montpellier. gran, grani, grano, granum Latin grain granatensis from Granada in southern Spain. granatinus pale scarlet. granatus with many seeds, filled with kernels. grand, grandi Latin large, great

grand, grandin, grando, -grando Latin hail, a hailstone grand- large grandiceps large-headed, with a large head, sadi of flowers or fruit. grandicornis with large horns. grandicuspis with large cusps or points grandidens, grandidentatus large-toothed, with large teeth grandiflorus -a -um grandiflor'us (gran-di-FLOR-us) large-flowered, with flowers larger than normal, New Latin, from grandis, full-grown, great, large, tall, -i-, and florus, floreo, to bloom, to flower grandifolius large-leaved, with large leaves, with leaves larger than normal. grandiformis on a large scale grandipunctatus with large spots grandis -is -e gran'de (GRAN-dee) large, big graniferus grain-bearing. graniticus granite-loving, as some lichens. grantianus -a -um grantia'nus (gran-tee-AY-nus) grantii grant'ii (GRANT-ee-eye) granul- granular, grainy, from Latin a little grain granularis -is -e granular, composed of grains, or divided into small knots or tubercules, as the roots of some Saxifraga, Latin granulum, granuli, a granule, a small grain, and –aris, pertaining to, resembling clusters of grains granulatus granulate, covered with minute grains, granular, composed of grains, or divided into small knots or tubercules, as the roots of some Saxifraga. granulosus granulate, granular, composed of grains, or divided into small knots or tubercules, as the roots of some Saxifraga. graph-, grapho, graphy, -graphy Greek write, writing -graph(...) referring to writing graps, grapsi Greek a crab grapt, grapto Greek inscribed, written Grass noun Probably from about 1150 gras, found in Old English graes, gaers, herb, plant grass (about 725), in Genesis A: earlier in the compound graesgroeni grass green); cognate with the Old Frisian gres grass, old Saxon and modern Dutch gras, Old High German gras (modern German Gras), Old Icelandic gras herb, grass and Gothic gras herb from Proto Germanic *grasan, from Indo-European *ghra-s. root grho. grat-, grati Latin pleasing; favor, wonderful, likeable gratianopolitanus from Grenoble, France Gratiola New Latin, diminutive of Latin gratia grace; from its alleged healing qualities gratioloides resembling Gratiola, Golden-pert. gratissimus very pleasing or aggreable gratus pleasing, aggreable Graue Witwe German cv. gray widow grav-, grave-, gravi- Latin heavy graveolens, (gen.), graveolentis graveo'lens (grav-ee-OH-lens) Latin adjective heavy- or strongly-scented, of strong or rank odor, strong-smelling, rank; from root grave-, often meaning oppressive, burdensome, or to pollute the air, and olens, (gen.) olentis, Latin with an odor good or bad, odorous, fragrant, stinking. See gravo, gravare. graveolentia, graveolentiae f. Latin noun, foul smell, from Pliny. gravid- Latin filled, full, swelled; pregnant gravidus -a -um Latin adjective, gravidus -a -um, fecund, heavy with young or child, pregnant; laden, swollen, or teeming; weighed down; rich or abundant. gravo, gravare, gravavi, gravatus Latin verb, load or weigh down; burden, oppress; pollute the air; accuse, incriminate; aggravate. grayi, grayii gray'i (GRAY-eye) after Asa Gray (1810-1888), the very rightous American botanist, also spelled grayi Grayia Gray'ia (GRAY-ee-a) for Asa Gray (1810-1888), botany professor at Harvard, for many years the preeminent American botanist. grayoides in reference to Cyperus grayoides, from New Latin grayi, which see, and Greek -οειδης, -oeides, resembling, like, for the appearance similar to C. grayi. greatae great'ae (GRAY-tee)

greenei green'ei (GREEN-ee-eye) after Edward Lee Greene (1843-1915), a churchman, professor of Botany at Berkley, later at the Catholic University of America in Washington, and an associate in Botany at the Smithsonian. See the discussion in http://www.calflora.net/botanicalnames/pageG.html under greenei. greg-, gregar, gregi Latin a flock, herd; collect gregalis companionable, belonging to a flock or growing together in company, but not matted. gregarius -a -um gregarious, companionable, belonging to a flock or growing together in company, but not matted. greggii greg'gii (GREG-ee-eye) gregorii greg'orii (GREG-or-ee-eye) gremi-, gremium, -gremium Latin the bosom gress, gressor Latin walk, walking grex, -grex Latin a flock, herd griffithii for William Griffith (1810-1845), British botanist Grimmia for J. F. K. Grimm (1737-1821), physician and botanist of Gotha, Germany Grindelia Grindel'ia (grin-DEL-ee-a) New Latin, from David Hieronymus Grindel (1776 –1836), German (variously Latvian or Russian) botanist, pharmacologist, physician, and professor of botany at Riga, Estonia, and New Latin –ia. grindelioides grindelio'ides (grin-del-ee-OH-i-dees) grinnellii grinnel'lii (grin-EL-ee-eye) griph-, gripho Greek a woven basket; a riddle gris- referring to the color gray griscolous grise Middle Latin gray griseus -a -um, grisëus gris'eus (GRIS-ee-us) gray, or pure pearly gray, perle-grey, somewhat grayish, from medieval Latin grīseus, grey, pearl grey, pure grey a little verging to blue. I had trouble finding a root for this word, and thought it was possibly from Greek grisôn, grisônis, pig, we all need Carex grisea PIG SEDGE, don’t we? grisellus perle grey, somewhat greyish. griso French gray-haired, a. French grison, f. gris grey grisophyllus grey leaved. grivanus from Griqualand South Africa. groenlandicus grurn-LAND-i-kus; of or from Greenland grom, groma a measuring rod, from Latin, grōma, grūma surveyor's measuring-rod. grona groove, channel. gronovii gross- Latin thick; an unripe fig, from Latin grossus, grossi, a green fig. grosse thickly, coarsely, a. French gros, fem. grosse big, thick, coarse (11th c. in Littré) = Pr. gros, Sp. grueso, Pg., It. grosso: late Latin grossus thick (freq. in the Vulgate). Grosse Fontäne German cv. big fountain grosseserratus -a -um large saw-toothed, from Latin grossus -a -um, great or large, thick, coarse, gross, and serratus -a -um, toothed like a saw, saw-toothed, serrated. grossul-, grossula-, grossular- New or Modern Latin a gooseberry, from Latin grossus, a green fig, alternately modern Latin grossulāria (Werner in 1811), an application of the specific name of the gooseberry, an allusion to the color of the fruit. Grossulariaceae Grossularia'ceae (gross-yu-lare-ee-AY-see-ee), plants of the Gooseberry family, from the specific epithet of Ribes grossularia, a gooseberry, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. grossularioides like gooseberry, Ribes grossularia, Modern Latin grossulāria. grossularius resembling small unripe figs, of the nature of, or resembling, the gooseberry. grossus -a -um, grossior -or -us, grossissimus -a -um Latin adjective, great or large, thick; coarse, gross. grossus, grossi Latin noun, common gender, young, green, immature, or abortive fig. gruis, gruis Latin noun, common gender, a crane; large bird; siege engine. groutianus for Grout family who were pioneer settlers in the type-region of Rubus groutianus gru-, grui-, gruss Latin a crane, from gruis, gruis, a crane gruinalis shaped like the bill of a crane. gruinus of or like a crane, resembling a cranes bill.

grum-, gruma Latin a little heap, ad. late Latin grūmus little heap, hillock; cf. obs. F. grume ‘a knot, bunch, cluster; clutter’ (Cotgr.), mod.F. grumeau clot, It. grumo lump, clot grumosus grumose, grumous, full of knobs, or diveded into little clusters of grains, granulated, modern Latin *grūmōs-us, from grūmus, grume. Grusonia for Hermann Gruson (1821-1895), German engineer, and his Magdeburg plant collections gryll, gryllus Latin a cricket, ad. L. gryllus a cricket or grasshopper, a. Greek γρὑλλος grylle from Gothlandic the black guillemot gryp-, grypo Greek curved, hooked, hook-nosed gryposepala From grypos, gryp-, curved, hooked, or hook-nosed, and sepela, sepal, having hooked sepals guadalupensis of or from Guadeloupe, an island in the West Indies. guan-, guano from Peruvian dung, Sp. guano, South American Spanish huano, ad. Quichua huanu dung guanchicus from the Canary Islands. Guapira Portugese guapirá, a Brazilian name more commonly applied to Avicennia species guara Brazilian an ibis, modern Latin, a. Tupi guará Guardiola For "M. le marquis de Guardiola" guatemalensis from Guatemala, Central America. gubern-, guberna- Latin a rudder; govern, adapted from Latin gubern-āre to govern gubernator Latin a pilot, governor, adopted from Latin gubernātor, agent from gubernāre, gubernāt-, to govern. guestphalicus from Westphalia, Germany. guianensis -is -e from Guiana, South America. Guilleminea for Antoine Guillemin (1796-1842), French botanist, author, and explorer Guillenia Guille'nia (gwil-EE-nee-a) guineensis -is -e from the coast of Guinea, west Africa. Guizotia for Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot (1787–1874), French historian, statesman, and politician. gul, gula Latin the throat, gullet, L. gula throat (hence, appetite) gulos Latin gluttonous, L., ‘glutton’, from gula gullet, throat, gluttony. gulosus from Latin gulosus, glutinous gumm-, gummi Latin gum, referring to gum gummiferus, gummifera gum-bearing, yielding gum or rubber. gummosis yielding gum in excess. gummosus gum or rubber-like. Gundlachia for John Gundlach (1810–1896), naturalist and traveler ginneraefolius?? gunnera-leaved Gunnera named for Johan Gunnerus, Norwegian bishop and botanist Gunneraceae Gunnera'ceae (gun-er-AY-see-ee), from the genus name, Gunnera, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. gunnii for Ronald Gunn (1808-1881), South African born Tasmanian botanist gurg-, gurgit- Latin a whirlpool; engulf gust-, gusta Latin taste Gustatus similis pullus tastes like chicken (Dog Latin) Gutierrezia Gutierre'zia (goo-tee-er-EE-zee-a) New Latin, from Gutiérrez, noble Spanish family, and New Latin -ia. Possibly for Pedro Gutierrez, Spanish nobleman, but not specified by Lagasca. gutt-, gutta a drop, Latin gutta a drop. Cf. gout n. gutta -ae f. Latin a drop; a spot or mark guttatim Latin drop by drop. guttattus -a -um gutta'tus (guh-TAY-tus) Latin dotted, spotted, or speckled, as if by drops. guttifer, guttiferus yielding gum, resin, or dye. Guttifera whose leaves exude water guttula -ae f. Latin a little drop. guttur-, -guttur, gutturi Latin the throat guttur -uris n. Latin the windpipe, throat; gluttony. guttus -i m. Latin a jug. Guzmania for A. Guzman, an 18th-century Spanish naturalist gyg, gyges, -gyges Greek a water bird gymn, gymn-, gymno- naked, bare, combining form of Greek γυµνός, gymnos, naked, bare

gymnanthus -a -um with naked flowers, denude of calyx or corolla, from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, naked, and ανθος, anthos, flower. Gymnocarpium Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and karpos, fruit, referring to the absence of indusia gymnocarpus -a -um gymnocar'pus (jim-no-KAR-pus) naked-fruited, bearing naked fruit, where the perianth does not adhere to the fruit, from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and καρπός, karpos, fruit. gymnocaulon naked stemmed (slender-stemmed? by LHB), Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and Latin caulis, caulis, a stem, a stalk, from Greek καυλος, kaulos, stem, stalk. gymnocephalus naked or bare headed (slender-headed? LHB), Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. gymnocladus bare-branched, with naked twigs, Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and Gymnocladus (gim-NO-kla-dus) from the combining form of Greek γυµνὸς, gymnos, naked, bare and κλάδος, klados, a branch, referring to the deciduous nature, or perhaps a reference to the primitive, open, naked, winter branch structure or the manner in which the leaflets fall leaving the yellow “stems” of the bipinnate leaves intact for a period in early autumn. (Leguminosae) gymnocomus with a bare, naked top (bald), from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and Headless alien found in topless bar! gymnogrammoides resembling Gymnogramme, Rue-leaved fern. Gymnopogon γυµνός, gymnos, naked, and πώγων, pogon, beard. (Gramineae) gymnopus with bare naked stalks, from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and gymnorrhizus having bare, naked exposed roots, from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. Gymnosperma from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and σπερµα, sperma, seed, alluding to the epappose cypselae gymnospermus bearing naked seeds, ie not enclosed in any seed vessel as with Conifers, from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and gymnospermoides like a naked seed, from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and σπερµα, sperma, seed, and -oides, resembling. gymnosporus with naked spores, without sporangia, from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and gymnostomus naked mouthed, destitute of teeth, from Greek γυµνός, gymnos, bare, naked, and gyn, gyn-, gyna, gyne, gyneco, gyno Greek a woman, female, referring to the female sex gynacanthus having pairs of thorns(?),from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. Gynandropsis from Gynandria, a Linnaean class, and Greek ὄψις. opsis, appearance. (Capparaceae formerly Capparidaceae) gynandrus -a -um combining both sexes, when the stamens are attached to the pistil as in orchids, from Greek gyne, female, and andros, male. gynantherous having the stamens converted into pistils. gynocrates dominant female, from Greek gyn-, gyno-, female or pertaining to female organs, and crato Greek strength, power, for the stout pistillate spike. gynura a stigma with a tail, from Greek, presumably gyne, a female, and ura, tail, possibly referring to the style branches gyp-, gyps Greek a vulture gyps, gypso Greek chalk gypseus limy white, like plaster Gypsophila (gip-SOF-i-la) New Latin, from Latin gypsum, a plaster figurine, gypsatus, covered with gypsum, whitened, from Latin gypso, chalk or gypsum, from Greek gypso-, gypsos, gypsum, and Latin –phila, -philus, adjective from Greek φιλοσεον, philoseon, philos, loved, loving, friendly, fond, in reference to some species growing on lime. (Caryophyllaceae) gypsophiloides resembling Gypsophila. gyr-, gyra, gyro Latin round; turning; a circle gyracanthus having twisted thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny.. gyrans revolving or moving in a circle, gyrating gyrantherus, gyrantherous with stamens converted into pistils. gyratus curved into a circle, circular. gyrin, gyrino, gyrinus Greek a tadpole gyrose concentrically twisted and plaited backward and forward. gyroflexus ring-shaped.

haageanus named for J. Haage (1826-1878), German seedsman haastii for Sir Johann von Haast (1824-1878), German plant collector in New Zealand habeas corpus protection against arbitrary imprisonment, literally “you must have the body.” haben-, habena Latin a thong, rein Habenaria New Latin, from Latin habena rein of a horse, strap, thong, from habēre to have, hold, and New Latin -aria; from the rein orchid’s spur. Habershamia from Rafinesque as one of “those who have never published any thing, altho’ they collected herbals and were practical botanists”. habit Latin live, dwell; fleshy habitus, -habitus Latin the external aspect habr, habro Greek dainty, delicate, pretty Habranthus from Greek habros, delicate or splendid, and ανθος, anthos, flower. habrotrichus with soft hairs Hackelia possibly from Ernst H. Haeckel died 1919), German biologist, and English -ia; alternately Josef Hackel (1783-1869), Czech botanist. hadr, hadro Greek thick, stout hadriaticus of or from the Adriatic hadryn Greek ripen haed, haedus, -haedus Latin a young goat haem, haema, haema-, haemato, haemo Greek blood, referring to blood haem- blood-red haemanthoides resembling blood-flower, Haemanthus, from , and ανθος, anthos, flower. Haemanthus, haemanthus blood flower, with blood-red flowers, from Greek haimatos, blood, from , and ανθος, anthos, flower. haematochiton haematochi'ton (hee-mat-oh-KY-ton) haemastomus red-mouthed, having a blood-red throat. haematanthus having blood-red flowers, from , and ανθος, anthos, flower. haematinus of blood-red color (the coloring matter of Logwood). haematocalyx, haematocalycus with a calyx blood-red haematocarpus -a -um with blood-red fruits, from Greek haima, blood, καρπός, karpos, fruit. haematochilus with blood-red lips. haematochrous of blood-red color. haematodes bloody, blood-like. haematophyllus having blood-red leaves haematostigmus having blood red scars. Haemodoraceae plants of the Bloodwort family, from the genus name, Haemodorum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Haemodorum blood gift haer-, haeresi Greek take hafniensis, havniensis from Copenhagen. hagi, hagio Greek sacred haillensis from Hailla in West Africa. Hainardia Hainar'dia (hay-NAR-dee-a) hakëifolius with leaves like Hakea, the Wooden Cherry Tree of Australia. hakeoides hakea-like Hakonechloa named for Mount Hakone, Japan hakusanensis from Mount Haku in Japan hal- referring to salt hal-, hala, hale, halit Latin breathe, breathing, New Latin, from Latin halitus breath (from halare to breathe) and New Latin -osis halcyon, -halcyon Greek a kingfisher, Middle English alceon, alicion, from Latin halcyon, alcyon, from Greek haleana

halec-, haleco Latin a herring, alec, (alex) alecis n., Latin noun, herrings; a fish sauce; pickle. halensis from Halle, Germany. halpensis -is -e, halepicus halepen'sis (ha-le-PEN-sis) of Aleppo (Halep), (Beroea, Syria). A leading city of north Syria, on the caravan route between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean. Beroea was made a Macedonian city by Seleucus Nicator between 301 and 281 B.C. It was sacked by Chosroes in A.D. 540. hali-, halio Greek the sea halicacabus resembling Physalis, Winter-Cherry. halicensis from Galicia in Austria-Hungary. halimifolius halmium-leaved, with leaves lke Halimus. halimoides halimo'ides (ha-li-MOI-dees) halin-, halino Greek made of salt halla Greek an assembly haliaet, haliaete, haliaetus Greek a sea eagle, osprey halio Greek the sea halit Latin breathing halite modern Latin hālītes, from Greek ἃλος, halos, salt. halkyōn, alkyōn hallianus hallia'nus (haul-ee-AY-nus) hallii hall'ii (HALL-ee-eye) for Elihu Hall (1822-1882), who discovered Sand Bluestem, an organizer of the Illinois Natural History Society. hallo Greek other; leaping hallu-, halluc, hallux New Latin the great toe hallucinat- Latin to wander in mind halm-, haulm, haum the culm, or stalk of grasses or corn. halma-, halmato- Greek leap, spring halo- Greek the sea; salt; Latin: breathe halodendron Greek salt tree Halodule from Greek halos, salt Halogeton Greek hals, halos, salt, and geiton, neighbor, in reference to the habitat of the species halonatus having spotted border or margin. halophilus -a -um, Halophila halophi'lus (hal-o-FI-lus) salt loving (sea salt) Greek halo, sea, and philein, to love halophyllus salt-leaved; one source has this as salt-loving (?), which would properly be halophilus, see above. halophyte plants containing much salt, or growing in salt marshes. Haloragaceae Haloraga'ceae (ha-lo-ra-GAY-see-ee), from the genus name, Haloragis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. halter Greek a leaping weight halteratus with a stalked corolla. haltic Greek good at leaping, nimble halys-, halys, halysis Greek a chain, bond ham-, hamat-, ham-i Latin a hook; hooked, referring to a hook hama- Greek all together, at the same time hamamel-, hamamelis Greek a tree with pear like fruit Hamamelidaceae plants of the American Witch-Hazel family, from the genus name, Hamamelis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Hamamelis (ham-a-MAY-lis) from a Greek name used by Hippocrates ἁµαµηλίς, hamamēlis, medlar, from ἅµα, hama, with, and µῆλον, mēlon apple, fruit, meaning with flowers and fruit together on the tree. The medlar is a small Eurasian tree, Mespilus germanica Linnaeus, with fruits like a crab apple. (Hamamelaceae) hamarti, hamartia Greek a fault, sin, error hama-t Latin hooked Hamatocactus Latin hamatus, hooked, in reference to the hooked central spines, and Cactus, an old genus name hamatocanthus having hook-like thorns. hamatus -a -um hama'tus (ha-MA-tus) hooked, hook-shaped, barbed. hamosus hooked, hook-shaped, barbed. hami Latin a hook

hamiltonianus hamm-, hammo Greek sand hamma, -hamma, hammato Greek a knot, noose hammoniacus ammonia-yielding, ammonia-like. hammoniensis from Hamburg, Germany. hamosus hooked, hook-shaped from hamus, hook. hamul- Latin a little hook hamulatus beset with small hooks. hamuligerus bearing small hooks. hamulosus beset with small hooks hansenii han'senii (HAN-sen-ee-eye) hapal-, hapalo Greek gentle, soft hapalanthus -a -um bearing tender flowers, from , and ανθος, anthos, flower.. haph-, hapho- Greek touch, grasp hapl-, haplo- Greek simple, single haplo- referring to the number one haplocalyx with a single calyx haplocaulis with a single stem, from , and Latin caulis, caulis, a stem, a stalk, from Greek καυλος, kaulos, stem, stalk. haplom-, haploma Greek a coverlet Haplopappus New Latin, from hapl-, and pappus; alternately from Greek kaploos, (or haplos?), simple, and pappos, down, fluff. haplopetalus having only one row or whorl of flowers. haplophyllus, haplophylla one-leaved halpostachyus, haplostachys having a single flower spike. haplostemonous with only one whorl of stamens. haplostichus with a single row hapt, hapto Greek fastened harcynianus from the Harz Mountains of central Germany. harelda, -harelda Icelandic a sea duck harfordii harford'ii (har-FORD-ee-eye) hargeri harmala a kind of wild rue, Syrian Rue, possibly after Harmala, Syria; an old plant name in Arabia. harmo Greek a joint; harmony harmon, harmoni Greek music Harmonia for Harvey Monroe Hall (1874–1932), Californian botanist harp-, harpe, harpi Greek a sickle; a bird of prey harp- referring to a sickle shape harpa- Late Latin a harp harpac-, harpact- Greek rob, seize harpag-, harpag-i Greek a hook Harpagonella Harpagonel'la (har-pa-go-NEL-a) harpe, -harpe, harpi- Greek a sickle; a bird of prey. harpeodes harpoon-like, barbed. Harperocallis New Latin honoring Roland MacMillan Harper, (1878–1966), southeastern American botanist, and Greek kallos, beautiful, referring to the attractive flower. harpophyllus with sickle-shaped leaves, with hook-like leaves. Harrisella for William H. Harris (1860–1920), F.L.S., British botanist and prolific collector of Jamaican plants, and -ella, Latin feminine diminutive suffix. Harrisia for William H. Harris (1860-1920), Superintendent of Public Gardens and Plantations of Jamaica hartii Hartmannia hartwegii hartweg'ii (hart-WEJ-ee-eye) harwoodii harwood'ii (har-WOOD-ee-eye) Hartwrightia for Samuel Hart Wright (1825–1905), collector of the specimens from which the genus was described

harveyana Hassei Hass'ei (HASS-ee-eye) Hassiacus, Hessian from Hesse, a state in west-central Germany. hassleriana hast-, hasta, -hasta, hastat- referring to a spear, from Latin a spear; spear shaped hasta, hastae f. Latin a spear, pike, javelin; military, and in ceremonial use, at public auctions and weddings. hastatus -a -um Latin armed with a spear; masculine plural as subst., hastati, hastatorum, the front rank of the Roman army when drawn up for battle hastatus -a -um hasta'tus (has-TAY-tus) hastate, with a spear, spear-shaped, spear-like, halberd-like with equal more or less triangular basal lobes directing outwards, from Latin hasti-, hasta, spear. Among the Roman front line soldiers were the hastati, or spearmen. Hasteola spear-shaped, from Latin hasta, (asta), a spear, lance, pike, javelin, and -ola, diminutive, for the leaves of the type species. hastifera spear-bearing, halberd-bearing. hastifolius with spear-shaped or halberd-like leaves. hastilabius, hastilabium halbert-lipped, with spear-like tips. hastile, hastilis n. Latin the shaft of a spear; a spear; a prop for vines, etc. hastilis of a javelin or spear, spear shaped or lance shaped. Hastingsia For S. Clinton Hastings of San Francisco, supporter of S. Watson et al. (1876–1880) on California botany hastulatus somewhat spear-shaped, with small spears. hathr, hathro Greek heaped, assembled hattorianus haud not at all haulm, halm, haum the culm, or stalk of grasses or corn. haum, halm, haulm the culm, or stalk of grasses or corn. hauptiana haust, haustor, haustr Latin draw up, suck haustrum -i Latin n. a pump. havanensis, hauanensis from Havanna, Cuba. havniensis from Copenhagen. hawajensis from the Hawaiian Islands. hawkinsiae haydeniana, haydenii for Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (1829-1887), American geologist, paleontologist, mineralogist, climatologist, medical doctor, and explorer. hayesiana hayesia'na (hay-zee-AY-na) Hazardia Hazar'dia (ha-ZAR-dee-a) for Barclay Hazard (1852–1938), amateur botanist from Santa Barbara, California. hebdom-, hebdomat- Greek the seventh hebe-, hebett Latin blunt; Greek: youth, puberty Hebe, hebe- pubescent, downy, named after Ἡβη, Hēbē, the Greek goddess of youth, (Roman Juventas), daughter of Zeus and Hera, sister of Ares and wife of Hercules after he rose to Olympus. She was the youngest of the gods, and the cup-bearer to the gods and goddesses, serving ambrosia and a goddess of pardons or forgiveness. The name "Hebe" came from Greek word meaning youth or prime of life. hebecalyx, hebecalycus having blunt (?) calyx lobes or sepals. Hebecarpus –a -um herbecar'pus (heb-ee-KAR-pus) fuzzy or pubescent fruited, having fruit covered with downy pubescence, from Greek Ἡβη, Hebe, youth, manhood, καρπός, karpos, fruit, and –us, Latinizing suffix. hebecladus having down-covered twigs. heberhachis fuzzy or pubescent fruited, with downy fruit, from Greek hebe, youth, manhood, and rachis, axis of the inflorescence ?? possibly Greek echīs, echis, an adder, or viper. No, it is hebe-rhachis, not heberhachis hebelepis having downy membrane scales, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. hebepetalus with down petals hebephyllus pubescent-leaved, with down leaves hebetatus made dull or blunt, having dull, blunt or soft points, from habes, blunt. hebraicus as if inscribed.

heca Greek far off Hecastocleis Hecas'tocleis (hee-KAS-toe-klise) from Greek hecastos, each, and cleios, to shut up, referring to one floret enclosed in each involucre. hecat, hecato, hecaton Greek a hundred hecatanthus profusely flowering (with 100 flowers), from , and ανθος, anthos, flower. hecist-, hecisto Greek least Hechtia heckrottii hect, hecto Greek a hundred; the sixth hed, hedi, hedo Greek a seat, dwelling place hede Greek sweet hedeom, hedeoma Greek sweet-smelling Hedeoma Hedeo'ma (hee-dee-OH-ma) from the Greek hedus, hēdys, sweet, and osmē, odor, smell, a classical name for a strongly aromatic mint. heder, hedera Latin ivy hederaceus like Hedera ivy, of the ivy, ivy-like in habit or form. Hedera Hed'era (HEED-er-a) from Latin hedera ivy, possibly from Celtic hedra, a cord, an allusion to the vining habit. (Araliaceae) hederae pertaining to Ivy, Hedera. hederifolius -a -um hederifo'lius (hed-er-i-FO-lee-us) with leaves like Hedera, ivy. hedi, hedo Greek a seat, dwelling place hedon Greek pleasure, delight Hedosyne from Greek hedosyne, delight hedr, hedra, -hedra hedrio Greek ἕδρα, hedra, a seat, base; the anus hedranophyllus with firm or hard leaves. hedreanthus flowering in bunches, from , and ανθος, anthos, flower. hedy-, hedyl Greek sweet, from ἡδύς, hedys, sweet hedy- sweet, fragrant, from Greek ἡδύς, hedys, sweet. hedyanthus having sweet flowers, from Greek ἡδύς, hedys, sweet, and ανθος, anthos, flower. hedycarpus having sweet fruit, from Greek ἡδύς, hedys, sweet, and καρπός, karpos, fruit. Hedycarya sweet nut, from Greek ἡδύς, hedys, sweet, and Hedychium sweet snow, from Greek ἡδύς, hedys, sweet, and chion, snow, referring to the fragrant white flowers of this member of the ginger family Hēdýosmon Greek ἡδύοσµον, hedyosmon, peppermint, lit. the sweet smelling one, from ἡδύς, hedys, sweet, pleasant, and ὀσµή, osme, smell, related to English odour, cf. Latin olere to smell, similar to Greek δυόσµος, diosmos. Hedypnois Hedyp'nois (hed-IP-no-is) an ancient name for an endive-like plant, attributed to Pliny, from Greek ἡδύς, hedys, sweet, and hedysaroides bearing sweet fruit (bad translation), from Greek ἡδύς, hedys, sweet, and (probably resembling Hedysarum) Hedysarum from Greek ἡδύς, hedys, sweet, and ἄσωµα, asoma, smell. (Leguminosae) heermannii heerman'nii (heer-MAN-ee-eye) Heidebraut German cv. heathland bride hel-, hela, heleo, helo Greek a bog, marsh helco Greek a sore; suck helcine pellitory. heldreichii for Theodor von Heldreich (1822-1902), German botanist helene f. Greek torch, basket; destroyer. heleni-, helenium Greek helenion, elecampane, a kind of plant Helenium Helen'ium (hel-EN-ee-um, or he-LE-nee-um) from Greek name for another plant named after Helen of Troy, from whose fallen tears these flowers are said to have sprung, or ‘who is said to have availed herself of its cosmetic properties” (Wood 1873). Alternately New Latin, from Latin, a plant, elecampane, from Greek helenion, perhaps from helene wicker basket; akin to Greek helix (adjective) twisted, (noun) spiral, anything of spiral shape, helissein to turn, wind, eilein to wind, roll, eilyein to enfold, enwrap. (Compositae) helenoides resembling Helenium, Sneezeweed. heleo-, helo- Greek a marsh, bog; pity

heleo- marsh, from Greek ἓλος, helos, ἓλεο-, heleo-, cf. ἓleo-, heleo-. Heleocharis, heleocharis marsh-favor, from ἓλεο-χαρις, heleo-charis, (Eleocharis) Greek ἓ- is transliterated as he-. Heleochloa heleomoloche marsh-mallow heleonastes heleosparagus kind of asparagus heli-, helia, helio Greek ἥλιος, helios, the sun, referring to the sun Helianthella from generic name Helianthus, from Greek ἥλιος, helios, the sun, ανθος, anthos, flower, and ella, Latin feminine diminutive suffix. (Compositae) helianthemoides resembling Helianthemum, Sun-rose. Helianthemum Helian'themum (hee-lee-AN-the-mum, or hay-lee-ANTH-e-mum) from the Greek ἥλιος, helios, the sun, and ἀνθεµον, anthemon, a flower, in reference to the flowers opening only in the sun. (Cistaceae) Helianthus Helian'thus (hee-lee-AN-thus) New Latin, from Greek ἥλιος, helios, the sun, and -ἄνθος, -anthos, flower, from the flower heads. (Compositae) helianthoides (hay-lee-anth-OI-deez) like or resembling Helianthus, Sunflower, from Greek ἥλιος, helios, the sun, and -ἄνθος, -anthos, flower, and οειδής, oeides, having the form or likeness of, from the flower heads. helic-, helicus, helico- Greek a spiral, coil helic- referring to a spiral, a coil helichrysoides resembling Helichrysum, Everlasting-flower. Helichrysum from helichrysos, a Greek name for a local species of Asteraceae, from Greek ἥλιος, helios, sun, and χρυσός, khrysos, gold. (Compositae) heliciform coiled like a snail’s shell. helicoides forming or arranged in a spiral, from Greek helikoeidēs of spiral form, from helik- helic- and Greek οειδής, oeides, having the form or likeness of, resembling. Heliconia after Mount Helicon in southern Greece, regarded as the home of the Muses heliconiifolius with leaves like False Plantain, Heliconia. helict- Greek wreathed, twisted heligma, -heligma, heligmato Greek a winding, wrapper; a curl of hair helio- from Greek ἥλιος,, helios, the sun heliolepis with glittering scales, from Greek ἥλιος, helios, sun, and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. Heliomeris Heliom'eris (hee-lee-OM-er-is) from Greek ἥλιος, helios, sun, and -merus, part. heliophilus sun-loving heliophobia sun and light avoiding. Heliopsis (hay-lee-OP-sis) from Greek ἥλιος, hēlios sun, and from ancient Greek ὄψις, opsis, appearance, sight, view, for similarity the radiant flower heads to the sun. (Compositae) Heliosciadium from Greek ἕλος, helos, marsh, and σκιάδιον, skiadion, an umbrella or umbell. (Umbelliferae) helioscopius turning towards the sun. heliot-, helioth, heliotus Greek the moon. heliotropioides resembling Heliotrope, Heliotropium. Heliotropium Heliotrop'ium (hee-lee-oh-TROPE-ee-um) turning towards the sun, New Latin, from Greek hēliotropion heliotrope, from hēlios sun + -tropion, from tropos turn. helix, -helix he'lix (HEE-lix) in a spiral, twining, to turn around spirally, as in Ivy, from Greek a spiral, coil helix-cyme a false raceme. hell-, hella-, hellado-, hellen- Greek Greece helleborifolius with leaves like helleborus, Christmas Rose. helleborine Helleborus Greek, helleborus, ancient name for this plant, from Ἑλὲιν, Helein, to injure, or to cause death, and βορὰ, bora, food, alluding to the well known poisonous qualities. (Ranunculaceae) hellenicus of Greek origin. hellu, helluo Latin a glutton helmin, helminas, helminth Greek a worm helminthoid worm-shaped, vermiform. Helminthotheca Helminthothe'ca (hel-min-tho-THEE-ka) from Greek helminthos, worm, and Latin theca, case or container; a possible reference to the shapes of cypselae.

helo Greek a nail, a wart; a marsh helo-, helod- Greek a marsh, modern Latin adopted from Greek ἑλωδες, helodes, marshy, from ἓλος, helos, marsh; or ἑλωδης, helodes, ἑλοδες, helodes. Helobiae marsh-life, from Greek ἓλος, helos, marsh, and βιοω, bioo, living. helobius growing or living in marshes, palustrine, Modern Latin helobius, from Greek ἓλος, helos, marsh, and βιος, bios, living, and -ous. Helodea vida Elodea. helodes marshy, growing in or of marshes, from Greek ἑλοδες, helodes. Helonias Greek helos, marsh, referring to the habitat helophorus bearing organs resembling nails. helv- Latin tawny, yellowish helvella, helvellae f. Latin noun, small pot-herb. helvenācus -a -um Latin helvenācus pale yellow, yellowish helveticus, helvetius Swiss, of or from Switzerland, from Helvētia (sc. terra) ancient name of Switzerland, from Latin Helvētius pertaining to the Helvētii, a people of the ancient Gallia Lugdunensis. helvinus Latin yellowish, (helvinum vinum Pliny), from helvus light bay. helvoalus honey-colored yellow, dun-colored. helvolus -a -um modern Latin yellow, pale yellow, grayish yellow; helvola sometimes spelled helvula helvus -a -um Latin light bay in color hem-, hema, hemato, hemia, hemo Greek mood hemer, hemera, hemero Greek a day; tamed hemero- referring to a day Hemerocallis Hemerocal'lis (hem-er-o-KAL-is) literally day beauty, the day flower, New Latin, from Greek hēmerokalles, a kind of lily, from hēmero-, from hēmera, hemeros, day, and -kalles, from kallos beauty; from the fact that the blossoms bloom and wilt in one day. hemi, hemi- Greek one-half, used in compound words, like hemicarp. Hemicarpha from Greek ἡµι, ἥµισυς, hemi-, hemisus, half, and κόρφος, korphos, straw chaff, or κάρφα, κάρφος, karpo, karpos, twig, straw, a bit of wool, inreference to the single scale on the flower. (Cyperaceae) hemi-onos half ass from Greek ἡµι, hemi-, half, and ὂνος, onos, ass, the south end of a north-bound donkey. hemiphloeus half-barked, half covered with bark, from phloia, bark. hemipterus with half wings. hemisphaericus half a sphere, hemispherical, in the form of half a globe. hemitrichotus hairy on one side only hemitrichus half covered with hairs. hemitropus half turned over or backwards. Hemizonella Hemizonel'la (hem-i-zon-EL-la) from the generic name Hemizonia and -ella, Latin feminine diminutive suffix. Hemizonia Hemizon'ia (hem-i-ZONE-ee-a) from Greek hemi-, half, and zona, belt or girdle, referring to the cypselae half enfolded by phyllaries hemsleyanus, hemsleyi for William Hensley (1843-1924), a botanist at Kew Gardens, London hen, heno Greek a year; a year old hendeca Greek eleven hendersonii henderson'ii (hen-der-SONE-ee-eye) henic-, henico Greek single henian-, heniano Greek humid heno Greek a year; a year old henryanus -a -um, henryi for Augustine Henry (1857-1930), Irish botanist and plant collector. hepa-, hepar-, hepat-, hepato Greek the liver hepat- referring to the shape of a liver Hepaticae plants of the Muscihepatici, Liverwort family. hepaticaefolius hepatica-leaved, with leaves like Hepatica. (h)epatites, -es (or, -ae) kind of aloes of liver shape, used as a drug (h)epatitis, -dos kind of aloes of liver shape, used as a drug hepaticoideus -a -um hepaticoid'eus (hep-at-i-KO-ID-ee-us)

hepaticus -a -um, Hepatica (he-PA-ti-ka) New Latin, from Medieval Latin, liverwort, from Latin hepatica, feminine of hepaticus of the liver, from Greek ἥπατος, hepatos, of the liver, for the shape and color of the leaves; liver-colored, puce with a greenish hue. (Ranunculaceae) hepatus, -i, m. fish of uncertain identity, from Greek. hepial, hepialo, helialus Greek a nightmare hept-, hepta- Greek seven, referring to the number seven heptagonus seven sided. heptandrous having seven stamens. heptangularis, heptangulare seven cornered, seven sided. heptangulatus seven sided. heptangulosus seven sided. heptangulus seven cornered, seven sided. heptangulus seven sided. heptagynius having seven pistils. heptalobus with seven lobes heptaphyllus seven-leaved, with seven leaves or leaflets heracleifolius heracleum-leaved, with leaves like hogweed, Heracleum heracle Greek mythology Hercules, a mythological hero heraclëifolius with leaves like Heracleum, Cow Parsnip. heracleoticus from Heraclia in Asia Minor. (h)eraclea vervain, plant probably from Ὴρα, Hera, wife of Zeus, and κλέος, kleos, glory, reknown, or ‘showing the glory of Hera’. Heracleum Herac'leum (classically hay-ra-KLEE-um, or her-AK-lee-um) after Hercules, Latin Hēraclēus, Hēraclīus, Greek, Herakles, Ἡράκλειος, Herakleios, a reference to his great size and the size of some rank species. (Umbelliferae) heratensis from Herat, Afganistan. Herb-, herba, herbi, herbo Latin grass herb- not woody herba herb, having a stem which dies down every year. herba, herba f. Latin noun, herb, grass. herba muralis pellitory = what the Greeks called parthenion or perdeikion, Bachelor's button, pellitory, also see: pyrethrum (Pyrethrum parthenion), from Celsus. herba sanguinalis blood herb; what the Greeks called 'polygonon'(?). herbae mirabiles magic herbs used against sickness. herbacanthus species of bear's-foot with spinous leaves imitated in the Corthinian capital, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny.. herbaceus -a -um herba'ceus (her-BAY-see-us) herbaceous, herb-like, not woody; with a succulent stem; grassy green herbago pondweed. (h)erbaria, -ae, f. fodder; woman who deals with herbs, witch. herbarium a collection of dried plants, from herba, herb; a herbal. herbeohybrid herbaceous-hybrid. Herbertia for William Herbert (1778–1847), prominent British botanist and specialist in bulbous plants. herbiola Herbstfeuer German cv. autumn fire Herbstfreunde German cv. autumn joy Herbstchnee German cv. autumn snow Herbstsonne German cv. autumn sun Herbstzauber German cv. autumn magic herbularia bindweed(?) herbulum, herulum groundsel. herburgius a curse. herc-, herco, hercus Greek a wall, fence hercegovinus from Hercegovina hercynicus, hercynianus from the Hartz Mountains. The Hartz Mountains are in Tasmania, while the Harz (occasionally Hartz) Mountains are in Germany.

hered Latin an heir; inherit; hereditary hereroënsis from Herer, East Africa, possibly also spelled Hārer, Harer, Harar, Harrar, a city and major commercial center in eastern Ethopia. herinaceus, erinaceus hedge-hog-like. herm, herma, hermet Middle Latin male; secret herma, -herma, hermato Greek a prop, support hermaeticus completely closed. hermaphrodit Greek mythology with both male and female organs hermaphroditus combining the two sexes, having pistil and stamen in the sameflower. Hermbstaedtia for Sigismund Friedrich Hermbstädt (1760-1833), German botanist hermin, hermino, herminsm, -herminsm Greek a prop, support hermos Spanish beautiful herni, hernia, -hernia Latin a rupture Herniaria Hernier'ia (her-nee-ER-ee-a) New Latin, from Latin hernia rupture, and New Latin -aria, pertaining to, a reference to the plants use in the treatment of hernias. hero Greek a hero herodi Greek a heron herpes-, herpest- Greek creep, creeping; herpes Herpestis from Greek Ἑρπηστὴς, herpestes, creeper, in reference to the plant’s habit. herpet-, herpeto- Greek a reptile herpeticus of creeping habit. hérpyllos from Greek Ἕρπυλλος, Herpyllos, thyme. herrenhusanus from Herrenhauses, near Hanover, Germany. Herrickia for Clarence Luther Herrick (1858–1903), geologist and botanical collector in New Mexico, president of University of New Mexico hesit-, hesita Latin stick fast hesper-, hesperus, hesperi Greek evening, western, referring to the evening or the west, the direction of the sun during the evening Hesperaloe Western aloe, from Greek hesperos, western, and aloe, a kind of plant Hesperevax Hespere'vax (hes-per-EE-vax) Greek hesperos, western, and genus name Evax, a reference to the first discoveries from the western limits of Evax distribution hesperidiflorus with flowers like Hesperis, Sweet Rocket, Dame’s Violet. Hesperis New Latin, from Latin, dame's violet, from Greek ἕσεπρα, hespera,evening, from feminine of hesperios of the evening, from hesperos, hespera evening. the flower is most fragrant in the evening. Similar to Latin vesper, vespera, evening, or the evening star and Old High German westar, to the west. Eosphoros or Hesperos was also name for the planet Venus. Hesperos/Hesperus as the personification of Venus as the evening star. (Cruciferae) Hesperis matronalis Dame’s Rocket, Dames Violet of matrons; of March 1st, from Latin matronali, adjective, of a matron; Matronalia was a festival for Mars celebrated by matrons on March 1st where gifts were given to matrons and brides. The literal meaning of the scientific name is matron of the evening. Did Linnaeus have a sense of humor? hesperius -a -um hesper'ius (hes-PER-ee-us) of the West, western, towards evening. Hesperocallis Hesperocal'lis (hes-per-oh-KAL-is) Greek hesperos, western, and kallos, beauty Hesperochiron Hesperochi'ron (hes-per-oh-KY-ron) Hesperocnide Hesperoc'nide (hes-per-OK-nid-ee) from Greek hesperos, west, and knide, nettle hesperolinon hesperoli'non (hes-per-oh-LIE-non) Hesperomecon hesperos, evening or western, and mecon, poppy Hesperoyucca Hesperoyuc'ca (hes-per-o-YUK-ka) hesperus a -um hes'perus (HES-per-us) hestho Greek clothing, dress hesych, hesycho Greek still, quiet hesychast Greek a hermit heta, hetaer, hetair Greek a companion, from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, the other of two, other, different. heter-, hetero- Greek other, different, differing, various, variable, not-alike, combining form of Greek ἕτερος, heteros, the other of two, other, different.

heteracanthus various-spined, with differing or unequal spines, with thorns of more than one kind, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. heterandrus -a -um heteran'drus (het-er-AN-drus) Heteranthemis from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, the other of two, other, different, and anthemis, a genus name heteranthus having unequal flowers or flowers of more than one kind, from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, the other of two, other, different, and ανθος, anthos, flower. Heteranthera having unlike anthers in the flowers, New Latin, from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, the other of two, other, different, and ανθηρος, antheros, flowering, blooming. heteranthus diversely or variously flowered, with different kinds of flowers, such as sterile and fertile flowers on one plant, from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, the other of two, other, different, and ανθος, anthos, flower. heterocarpus -a -um heterocar'pus (het-er-oh-KAR-pus) various-fruited, with differing kinds of fruit, with fruits of more than one kind, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. heterocephalous having two kinds of flower heads on the same plant, male and female, from and Greek κεφαλή, kephale, head. heterochaetus having bristles of more than one kind, from Greek and χαιτη, chaite, bristle, long hair. heterochromus -a -um heterochro'mus (het-er-oh-KRO-mus) of more than one color, as in the flowers of Compositae. heteroclite irregularly or anomalously declined or inflected: chiefly of nouns heteroclitus abnormal, irregular, curious, out of the ordinary. Heterocodon Heteroco'don (het-er-oh-KO-don) heterodon, heterodontus various-toothed, with differing teeth, with teeth of more than one kind. heterodoxus heterodox, unorthodox, heretical, as in differing form other species in the genus, from Late Latin heterodoxus, from Greek heterodoxos, from hetero- heter-, other, different, and doxa opinion heterodromous coiling in two opposite directions (opposite to antidromous). heteroglossus variously tongued, from , and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue. heterogyna having flowers with differing pistils. heterolepis -is -e variably scaled, with differing scales, from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, the other of two, other, variable, different, not-alike, and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale, small plate, capsule. heteromallus turning in different directions (said of leaves) (a questionable translation from one source). More appropriate is differently or variously hairy, from Greek heteros, adjective, ετερος, the other, one of two, the second; different, another kind, -o-, botanical Latin connecting vowel, and Greek mallos, noun, m. µαλλος, a lock of wool, fleece. I can not find a Greek root word starting with µαλ- or µαλλ- with a reference to “turning” Heteromeles Hetero'meles (het-er-OH-mi-lees) heteromorphus various in form, with differing forms, of unusual form. heteronemus with unequal filaments, or with filaments of more than one kind. heteroneurus -a -um heteroneur'us (het-er-oh-NYOUR-us) with nerves or veins of more than one kind. heteropetalus various-petaled, with petals of more than one kind. heterophyllus -a -um heterophyl'lus (het-er-oh-FIL-us) various-leaved, with different forms of leaves on one plant. heteropodus various-footed or -stalked, from and Greek πους, ποδος, pous, podos. heteropterus having wings of more than Heterosperma from Greek, heteros, differing, and σπερµα, sperma, seed; probably for the contrasting outer and inner cypselae heterospermus having seeds of more than one type, as in Suaeda, Sea-Blite. heterostachya variously spiked heterostegius on different planes. heterotaxy with various arrangements. Heterotheca Heterothe'ca (het-er-o-THEE-ka) from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, different, and θήκη, theke, theka, envelop, container, ovary, referring to dimorphic cypselae of the ray and disk florets. (Compositae) heterotomus unevenly or variously serrate heterotrichus with hairs of more than one kind. heterozygous -a -um heterozy'gus (het-er-oh-ZY-gus) hetruscus, etruscus from ancient Etruria, Tuscany, Italy.

Heuchera Heu'chera (HOI-ker-a, or HOY-ka-ra) after 18th century botanist, botanic author, physician, and professor Johann Hienrich von Heucher (1677-1747), of Wittemberg, Germany. (Saxifragaceae) heur Greek invent, discover hex, hexa Greek six hex, hex, hexio, hexis, hexy Greek habit hexa- referring to the number six, from ἑξα-, hexa, six. hexacanthus with clusters of six thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. hexacoccus having six cells of kernels. hexaëdrophorus bearing hexagons. hexaëdrus hexagonal. hexagonus six-angled hexagonapterus with six-angled-wings. hexagonopteris with six-sided wings. hexagonus six-angled, six-sided. hexagynus bearing flowers with six pistils. Hexalectris Greek hex, six, and alectryon, rooster, referring to six longitudinal fleshy crests on the floral lip hexalepidus six-scaled. hexameris in sixes. hexandrus -a -um, hexandrous having flowers with six stamens, from Greek hex-, εξα-, six, and aner, ανηρ, ανδρος, man, male, husband. hexapetalus having flowers with six petals. hexaphyllus six-leaved, having six leaves or leaflets. hexapterus, hexapterous six-winged. hexasepalus having six petals. hexastemonus, hexastemonous, hexandrous six stamened. hexastichus having six rows or lines. Hexastylis Greek hexastylis, with six styles hians hi'ans (HI-ans) open, gaping open hiat-, hiatus Latin an opening, gap hiatus, hiatus m. Latin noun, an opening, cleft, fissure, split, crevice; (maybe rude); chasm; wide open jaw or expanse; hiatus; action of gaping, yawning, splitting open; greedy desire (for w/GEN). hibern-, hibernus Latin winter, referring to winter hibernaculum from Latin hībernāculum winter residence, usually in plural hībernācula, winter huts of soldiery, winter quarters, from hībern-us wintry (OED): in one source Latin hibernare, winter residence. hibernaculum, hibernaculi n. Latin noun, winter quarters; hibernalis -is -e of winter, wintery, Late Latin hibernalis, from Latin hibernus of winter, and -alis -al. hibernalis house leek hibernalis, hibernalis, hibernale Latin adjective, wintry; stormy, of or for winter time or rainy season; Hibernia, Hiberniae f. Latin noun, Ireland. hiberno, hibernare, hibernavi, hibernatus Latin verb, spend the winter; be in winter quarters; hibernum, hiberni n. Latin noun, winter camp (pl.); winter quarters. hibernicus -a -um of Ireland, Irish origin, from Hibernus, Hiberni m., Latin noun, Irishman; the Irish (pl.). hibernus -a -um New Latin of winter, winterly, pertaining to winter; Irish. hibernus, hiberna, hibernum Latin adjective, wintry; stormy, of or for winter time, or the rainy season; [hiberno => in winter]. hibisc-, hibiscus, -hibiscus Greek the marsh mallow hibiscifolius -a -um hibiscus-leaved, with leaves like Hibiscus, Musk Okra. hibiscum, hibisci n., hibiscus, hibisci f. Latin noun, marsh mallow, Althea officinalis, a shrubby herb, grows near salt marshes. Hibiscus Hibis'cus (hi-BIS-kus) New Latin, from Latin, hibiscum, hibiscus, marshmallow. (Malvaceae) hic here hicori-, hicoria New Latin hickory, short for pokahickory, from Virginia pawcohiccora, food prepared from pounded nuts and water. hidro Greek sweat hidry-, hidrys-, hidryt- Greek seated, fixed hiem-, hiemal- Latin winter

hiemalis -is -e, hiëmalis of winter, winter flowering, pertaining to winter; hibernating, from Latin hiemālis, from hiems, winter. hiemalis, hiemalis, hiemale Latin adjective, wintry; stormy; of or for winter time or the rainy season. hiemps, hiemis f., hiems, hiemis f., winter, winter time; rainy season; cold, frost; storm, stormy weather. hier-, hiero sacred, from Greek ἱερός, hieros, sacred, holy. hiera-, hierac, hierax Greek a hawk hiera [see also hiera, hieron and hieros plus combinations] vervain (holy). hiera obotane [see also hiera, hieron and hieros plus combinations] vervain (holy). hiera nosos [see also hiera, hieron and hieros plus combinations] epilepsy. hieraciifolius, hieracifolius -a -um with leaves like Hiercium, Hawkweed. hieracioides resembling Hieracium, Hawk-weed. Hieracium Hierac'ium (hee-a-RAH-kee-um, or hi-er-AS-ee-um) New Latin, from Greek hierakion hawkweed, from hierak-, hierax hawk, from hienai to hurry. No etymology was given in protologue; said to be from Greek hierax, hawk (fna). Alternately from Greek ἱέραξ, hierax, a hawk, referring the plant supposedly strengthening the vision of birds of prey (Wood). (Compositae) hieranthemis earth-apple; chamomile hieraticus, -a, -um adjective, also spelled ieraticus used by priests; Latin hierāticus, from Greek ἱερᾱτικός, hieratikos, priestly, sacerdotal, devoted to sacred purposes, from *ἱερᾱτος, hieratos, vbl. adjective from ἱεράοµαι, hieaomai, to be a priest (also??name? of a plaster, but what type, medical or construction ?) hieribulbum a plant used for arthritis and freckles. Hierochloë from the Greek, ἴερός, hieros, sacred, holy, and χλόη, khloë, young grass or a young green shoot, for the fragrance, similar to Greek khloos, light green, referring to the strewing of H. odorata before the doors of churches on festival days. Older references may use Hierochloa. The common name is from the distinctive sweet smell. (Gramineae) hierochunticus, hierochuntinus of or from Jericho hieroglyphicus marked as if with signs, emblematical, symbolical, allegorical. hieron ossum, [also: hiera, hieron; hiera = gera(?)] the os sacrum. hieros [also: hiera, hieron; hiera = gera(?)] a purgative. hieros obotane vervain (holy). hierosolymitanus of or from Jerusalem. Higasayama Japanese cv. parasol mountain hil-, hilum Latin a trifle, a little thing Hilaria Hilar'ia (hi-LARE-ee-a) hilar-, hilaris -is -e Latin gay, cheerful; or marked with a hilium, a scar on a seed where formmerly attached. hilendiae hilen'diae (HI-lend-ee-ee) hilisirica see also iris Illyrica iris hillierii named for Sir Harold Hillier (1905-1985), operator of Hillier Nurseries and creator of a world-class arboretum at his home, Jermyns House, Ampfield, Hampshire, UK. hillii for Ellsworth Jerome Hill (1833-1917). hillmanii hill'manii (HIL-man-ee-eye) hilocarpus -a -um bearing fruit marked with a scar or hilum, from Latin hilum, and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit.. hilum, hili n. Latin noun, trifle; (with negative) not a whit, not in the least. “according to Festus, thought to have originally meant ‘that which adheres to a bean’” (OED) himalaicus, himalayensis Himalayan, of or from the Himalaya Mountains. himant-, himanto- strap-shaped, from Greek a strap himati, cum Greek a cloak himer, himero Greek lovely; yearning himeros dried grapes, raisins. Himmelblau German cv. sky blue hinc hence hinc inde on this side and on that side hinnuleus -a -um fawn-colored, from Latin hinnuleus, hinnulei m., a young roebuck, fawn. hinnus, hinni m. Latin a mule. hipp-, hippe-, hippo, hippus Greek a horse, referring to a horse hippari, hipparium Greek a pony

Hippeastrum from Greek hippeus, rider, and astron, star, the allusion obscure hippocampus, -hippocamus Greek a fabulous sea monster Hippocastanaceae Hippocastana'ceae (hip-oh-kas-tan-AY-see-ee) plants of the Horse-Chestnut family, from the ????, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. hippocastanus -a -um (hip-oh-KA-ste-nus) Latin for horse chestnut, Hippocrateaceae plants of the West Indian Wild Almond family, from the genus name, Hippocratea, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. hippocrepiformis horseshoe-shaped. Hippocrepis horse-shoe, like a horseshoe hippoglossa a plant, lit. horse's tongue, from , and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue.. hippomanes an aphrodisiac, maidenhair(?), from hippomanes, hippomanis n., Latin noun, discharge of mares in heat; (used for love potion); plant to put mares in heat; small black membrane on forehead of foal; (for love potion/to arouse passion). hippomarathrum Water-fennel or Horsebane. hippophaëfolius with leaves like Hippophaë, Sea-buckthorn hippophyes a knd of spurge. Hippuridaceae Hippurida'ceae (hip-er-i-DAY-see-ee), plants of the Mare’s Tail family, from the genus name, Hippuris, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Hippuris New Latin, from Greek hippouris, horsetail, from ἵππος, hippos, and οὐρά, oura, tail. The name occurs frequently in Homer, and is also used for Equisetum, also known as Horsetails. (Hippuridaceae, formerly in the Onagraceae) hippuroides resembling Hippuris, Mare’s-tail or Bottle-brush. hippurus, hippuri m. Latin a fish, perhaps a goldfish. hirc-, hircin-, hircus Latin a goat, from hircus, hirci m., a he-goat. hircinus -a -um like a goat, smelling goaty, with the odor of a goat, from Latin hircinus -a -um, of a goat; goatlike. hircus, hirci n. Latin noun, he-goat. hircosus -a -um smelling like a goat, from Latin hircosus -a -um, of a goat; goatlike. Hirschfeldia Hirschfeld'ia (hersh-FELD-ee-a) hirculus -a -um smelling somewhat like a goat. hirne-, hirnea Latin a jug, from hirnea, hirneae f., a can or jug. hirnea, hirneae f. Latin noun, a jug; hernia or rupture; especially an enlarged scrotum as result of scrotal hernia). hirneacus -a -um, hirneosus -a -um, hirniacus -a -um, hirniosus -a -um Latin adjectives, having an hernia a rupture, or an enlarged scrotum. hirp-, hirpex, -hirpex, hirpic Latin a harrow hirs-, hirt- referring to hair hirsut- Latin hairy, rough hirsuticaulis -is -e from , and Latin caulis, caulis, a stem, a stalk, from Greek καυλος, kaulos, stem, stalk. hirsutissimus -a -um hirsutis'simus (her-soo-TI-si-mus) very hairy hirsutellus -a -um hirsut'ulus (her-SOO-che-lus) New Latin hirsutus, hairy, and –ellus, diminutive suffix, covered with tiny hairs. One source has this as shaggy, thickly covered with hair (poor translation) hirsutulous -a -um somewhat hairy, from Latin hirtus, rough, hairy, shaggy, or rude, rough, unpolished, uncultivated, and -ulus -a -um, adjectival diminutive suffix meaning little, -tending to, -having somewhat. hirsutus -a -um hirsu'tus (hir-SOO-tus, or her-SOO-tus) hirsute, hairy, covered with hair, with straight hairs, having long distinct hairs, rough, stiffly hairy; from Latin hirsutus -a -um, rough, shaggy, hairy, bristly, prickly, hirsute, or rude, unpolished, and -utus -a -um, Latin adjectival suffix indicating possession, from hirtus -a -um, hairy or shaggy. hirt-, hirta Latin hairy, rough hirtellus -a -um hirtel'lus (her-TEL-us) somewhat or rather hairy, covered with short stiff hairs, minutely hairy, pubescent. hirtiflorus hairy-flowered, with hairy flowers hirtifolius -a -um with hairy leaves, from Latin hirtus, rough, hairy, and folium, leaf, for the hairy leaves hirtiformis bristle-like, like stiff hair. hirtipes hairy stalked or hairy-stemmed, with a hairy or bristly foot or stalk.

hirtus -a -um hir'tus (HER-tus) New Latin hairy, with short or stiffish hairs, hairy but shorter than hirsute, from Latin hirtus, rough, hairy, shaggy, or rude, rough, unpolished, uncultivated. hirtus, hirta, hirtum Latin adjective, hairy or shaggy, covered with hair or wool; thick growth of plants; rough or unpolished. hirud-, hirundin-, hirundo, -hirundo Latin a leech, from hirudo, hirudinis f., a leech. hirund-, hirundin, hirundo Latin a swallow, from hirundo, hirundinis f., a swallow. hirundinina a plant, eryngo; swallowwort; the greater celandine. hirundo chestnut; callosity on foreleg of horse. hisc Latin open hispan-, hispani Latin Spain; Spanish hispanicus, hispanica, hispanicum, hispaniensis, hispanus from Latin Hispanicus, of or pertaining to Hispania, of Spanish origin. hispid, hispid- Latin hairy, bristly, referring to bristles hispidissimus -a -um most bristly, very bristly, extra rough or bristly, from Latin the superlative of hispidus, bristly, rough hairy. hispidulus -a -um hispid'ulus (his-PID-yoo-lus) minutely hispid, somewhat bristly, somewhat rough, with small bristles, from Latin hispid, bristly, and -ulus adjectival diminutive suffix meaning little, -tending to, -having somewhat. hispidus -a -um his'pida (HIS-pi-dus) Latin bristly, fine hairy, hairy rough, with stiff hairs or bristles. hissopum, hissopi m., hissopus, hissopi f. Latin noun, an aromatic herb, perhaps various species of origanum; Hyssopus officinalis. hist-, histo Greek a web; tissue hister, -hister an actor, from Latin histrio, histriones, an actor histero Greek behind histi-, histio, histium Greek a little web; a sheet histo Greek a web; tissue histor-, histori- Latin historia, history, a narrative of past events. historia, historiae f. Latin inquiry; the results of inquiry; learning; historical narrative, history; in general, a narrative or story, from Greek ἱστορία, historia, a learning or knowing by inquiry, an account of one’s inquiries, from ἵστωρ, ἵστορ-, histor, histor-, knowing, learned, wiseman, judge, from *ϝίδτωρ, *widtor, from ϝιδ-, ἰδ-, wid-, id-, to know. histricus, histrionicus from Istria in Austria-Hungary. The latter entry is inaccurate. Hister, Histri, (Ister) m. Latin, the name of the lower part of the Danube River. histrio, -histrio, histrioni- Latin an actor histricus -a -um Latin of actors. histrio, histrionis m. Latin an actor. histrionalis -is -e Latin of actors. hitchcockiana after Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864), Massachusetts botanist and geologist Hocine bibo aut in eum digitos insero? Do I drink this or stick my fingers in it? hoclamsani name of a plant (?). hod-, hodo, hodus, -hodus Greek a way, path Hoffmanseggia Hoffmanseg'gia (hof-man-SEG-ee-a) Hoita Hoi'ta (ho-IT-ay) hol-, holo Greek whole holboellii holboel'lii (hol-BEL-lee-eye) from the Danish name Holbøll, the ø being pronounced like 'e' in 'let'. holc-, holco- Greek a furrow, trail; attractive; a grain Holcus New Latin, from Latin, wall barley, Hordeum murinum, from Greek holkos wall barley, furrow, altermately ὁλκός, something which draws, application obscure. (Gramineae) hollandicus of or from Holland Hollisteria for William Welles Hollister (1818-1886), California rancher holmesiana for Joseph Austin Holmes (1895-1915) holacanthus beset with spines or thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. holciformis resembling Holcus, Dart-grass, or Duffel-grass. holocyron ground pine. holo- entirely, completely, wholly, from Latin prefix hol-, holo-, meaning whole, from Greek, from ὁλος, holos, complete, whole, entire, all.

Holocarpha Holocar'pha (ho-lo-KAR-fa) Greek ὁλος, holos, whole, complete, and karphos, chaff, for the paleate receptacles holocarpus whole-fruited, with entire or undivided fruits, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. holochrysus wholly-golden, completely holodasys, holodasyus silky, woolly, from Greek ὁλος, holos, complete, whole, entire, all, and dasus, with a shaggy surface. Holodiscus Holodis'cus (ho-lo-DIS-kus) hololeucus -a -um hololeu'cus (ho-lo-LYOO-kus) completely white, also as silky-white(?), a transcriptural error; from Greek holo-leukos, all white. holophus -a -um holop'terus (ho-LOP-ter-us) with a silky tuft(?) holopterus having silk-like(?) wings. holopyllus with entire or undivided leaves holosericeus -a -um holoseric'eus (ho-lo-se-RIS-ee-us) completely silky, but seen listed as woolly-silky (?) in LHB, thickly covered with a fine silky pubescence, velvet-like; from holosericus -a -um, Latin adjective from Erasmus, meaning all silk, made entirely of silk, from holosericum, holoserici n., Latin noun, silk; velvet. holosteus, Holosteum hard or boney, New Latin, from Greek holosteon, a plant, from hol-, holos, whole or all, and osteon bone, a humorous allusion to the frailty of the plant. holothur-, holothuri-, holothurum, -holothurum Greek a kind of zoophyte Holozonia Greek holos, whole or entire, and zona, belt or girdle; a referencce to each phyllary fully (or mostly) investing a ray ovary (cypsela), in contrast to the half-invested cypselae of Hemizoni holsaticus from Holstein, Germany. holus a vegetable; figuratively, under the influence of (?). holusatrum, holus atrum parsley; (Cretan) alexanders: Smyrnium holusatrum (L.). holzingeri hom, homeo, homo, homoeo, homoio Greek like, same, of the same kind, alike hom-, homin, homo Latin man homalo Greek homalês, even, level homalocarpus bearing flat fruit, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. homalophyllus with flat, level, or horizontal leaves. homalotropus with organs growing in a horizontal direction. homar Old French a lobster homeo Greek like, resembling alike homin, homini Latin man homo, -homo Latin man homo, homieo, homio Greek like, resembling, of the same kind, alike homo unius libri (timeo) "(I fear) a man of one book" Attributed to Thomas Aquinas Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto. I am human, I regard nothing human as foreign to me. homocarpus with fruit of only one kind, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. homochromus of uniform color. homogamous bearing one kind of flower only, or having all florets, hermaphroditic. homolepis homologous scales, with uniform scales, having scales of one kind, from and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. homomallus, homotropus all turned in the same direction (?) homomallus turning in the same direction, used in describing leaves. See heteromallus. homomorpheus being all of the same form, as in the florets of Compositae. homonemeus growing together in colonies in the woods. homostegius equally covered. homotrichus, homotricha Honckenya for Gerhard August Honckeny (1724-1805), German botanist hondaensis from Honda, on the banks of the Magdalena in South America. hondoensis from Hondo, Japan hoodii after Robert Hood (1797?-1921?? (very old man) (www.calflora.net/botanicalnames/pageHIHY.html), a midshipman with the first Arctic Land Expedition of 1819-1822), died October 1821. honestus ornamented, beautified. hookeri, hookerianus -a -um hook'eri (HOOK-er-eye) for Sir William Hooker (1785-1865), or his son Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911), successive directors of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. The younger Sir

Hooker collected plants in Asia, Africa, and the Rocky Mountains of North America, and was a friend of Charles Darwin. hookerianus -a -um belonging to Hooker, from the above and -anus adjectival suffix indicating position, conection, or possession by. hopl-, hopli, hoplo, hoplum Greek armor, weapon hople Greek a hoof hoplist Greek armed hoplit Greek heavily armed hoplo, hoplum Greek armor, weapons horarius horary, lasting only an hour or two (as the flowers of Cistus, Rock-rose.), from Latin hōrārius, from hōra, hour. horde-, hordeum from Latin hordeum, barley hordëaceus -a -um hordea'ceus (hor-dee-AY-see-us) resembling Barley, Hordeum. hordëiformis resembling Barley, Hordeum. hordëistichus resembling an ear of Barley. Hordeum Hor'deus (HOR-dee-um) New Latin from the ancient Latin name for H. vulgare, Barley; akin to Old High German gersta barley, Greek kri, Albanian drith, and probably to Latin horrere to bristle. (Gramineae) hordiacius barley bread(?). hordior verb meaning to suffer indigestion from excess of barley diet. horiz- Greek horizon; bound horizontalis -is -e horizonta'lis (ho-ri-zon-TAH-lis, or hor-i-zon-TAY-lis) horizontal, spreading horizontally, level, usually for the prostrate habit, from Latin L. type *horīzontāl-is, from horīzōn, horīzont-, from Greek ὁρίζωυ, horizon, (sc. κύκλος, kyklos) the bounding circle, horizon. hormathodes hormi Greek start, onset hormo Greek a chain hormon Greek excite hormophorus with a necklace hornus of this year, annual. Horkelia Horkel'ia (hor-KEL-ee-a) horo Greek a limit, boundary; season, hour, time horologicus with flowers that open and close at certain hours. horre, horren, horres Latin dreadful; bristle, stand on end, tremble horre-, horreum, -horreum Latin a storehouse horri Latin terror; to bristle horrib- Latin terrible, fearful horribilis horrible, offensive, or bristly. horricomus bristly, shaggy horrid- Latin root word rough, prickly horridulus standing up, projecting horridus -a -um hor'ridus (HOR-i-dus) prickly, standing on end, horridly armed, horrible, offensive. horripilus rough haired, ruffled. Horsfordia Horsford'ia (hors-FORD-ee-a) hort- Latin urge hort-, horti-, hortus Latin a garden hort-, hortensis, hortulanus, hortulalis, hortulorum referring to a hortus, or garden, of or to gardens, raised in a garden (cultivated) hortaria, -ae pimento, from Apicus. Hortensia hortensis pertaining to the garden. hortis siccus New Latin, literally, dry garden, a collection of dried botanical specimens hortorum of gardens hortulanorum of gardeners Hosackia Hosack'ia (ho-SAK-ee-a) hosp-, hospit Latin a guest hospitus hospitable (to parasites).

Hosta New Latin, after Nicolaus Thomas Host 1761-1834 Austrian botanist and physician to Emperor Frances II Hostes alienigeni me abduxerunt. Qui annus est? I was kidnapped by aliens. What year is it? hosti- Latin an enemy hostiana hostilis -is -e hostile, strange, antagonistic. houghtoniana in reference to Carex houghtoniana, in some texts, this is “incorrectly corrected” to C. houghtonii. According to Voss, this sedge is named after Douglass Houghton (1809-1845), who discovered the sedge on Friday the 13th, July (1832), on sandy jack pine ridges near Lake Itasca, shortly before he and Henry Rowe Schoolcraft first visited that lake, the source of the Mississippi River. houghtonii Houstonia New Latin, honoring Dr. William Houston died 1733 Scottish (English) botanist who collected in tropical America, friend and correspondent of Miller, and New Latin -ia. (Rubiaceae) howei howellii how'ellii (HOW-ell-ee-eye) hubbyi hub'byi (HUB-ee-eye) Hudsonia New Latin, from William Hudson, died 1793, English botanist, and author of Flora Anglica, and New Latin -ia. (Cistaceae) hudsonianum hudsonicus -a -um from near the Hudson River, New York. hugonis -is -e named for Father Hugh (1851-1928), Irish missionary in China for many years hulêeis Greek, woody, wooded, dwelling in the woods Hulsea Hul'sea (HUL-see-a) for Gilbert White Hulse (1807–1883), physician and plant collector. Hulteniella for Eric Hultén (1894–1981), Swedish botanist, specialist of the circumpolar flora, and -ella, Latin feminine diminutive suffix. hum-, huma-t, humi- Latin earth, ground; bury human Latin of a man humer-, humero-, humerus Latin the shoulder humesc- Latin grow moist humi- Latin ground, earth humid-, humidi- Latin moist; moisture humifusus -a -um humifu'sus (hew-mi-FEW-sus, or hum-i-FEW-sus) sprawling on the ground, low growing, creeping on the surface of the ground. humil-, humili- Latin low, dwarf humilis -is -e humil'is (HEW-mil-is) low growing, of low growth, dwarf, from Latin humilis, humble; submissive; on or near the ground, low, shallow. humilifolius -a -um hop-leaved, with leaves like Humulus, hop humistratus -a -um humistra'tus (hew-mis-TRAY-tus) prostate, lying flat on the ground. humor Latin moist; a fluid humul, humulus Latin the hop plant Humulus (HUM-ew-lus) from the Old German name humela, from Latin humulus, applied to hop plant hungaricus Hungarian, of Hungarian origin. hupehensis of or from Hubei province, China Huperzia For Johann Peter Hupzeria (1816), a 19th century German botanist and fern horticulturist???? huronensis husboldtii hus'boldtii (HUS-bolt-ee-eye) Hutchinsia Hutchin'sia (hutch-IN-see-a) hutchinsifo'lius -a -um hutchinsifo'lius (hutch-in-si-FO-lee-us) hy Greek U-shaped, Y-shaped hy-, hyaen, hyen, hyo Greek a pig, hog hyacinthiflorus with flowers like Hyacinth. hyacinthinus -a -um hyacin'thinus (hi-a-SIN-thin-us) hyacinth-like, of or belonging to the hyacinth, like or resembling Hyacinthus; deep purplish-blue, from hyacinthus, hyacinth, from Hyacinthos, pre-Greek name in mythology, and -inos, -ινος, Greek adjectival suffix, Latinized as inus, indicating material or color, hence possession or resemblance Hyacinthoides like Hyacinthus, from genus Hyacinthus and Greek -oides, resembling

Hyacinthus from Hyacinth of Greek mythology. Hyacinth was a handsome and athletic Spartan prince, who was courted by Apollo and Zephyrus, the west wind. When Apollo and Hyacinth were throwing a discus, Zephrus caused the wind to blow at them, and the discus struck hyacinth in the head, killing him. Apollo created the hyacinth flower from his blood. Very similar to the Anemone myth. hyal-, hyali, hyalin-, hyalo- Greek glass; transparent, from Latin hyalin-us, (also hyalus, hyali m. Latin noun, glass) from Greek ὑάλινος, hyalinos, of glass or crystal, from ὕαλος, hyalos, ὕελος, hyelos, (η?) glass, said to be an Egyptian word in origin. hyalinobulbus with internal knobs faintly visible in outline, from hyalus, hyali m., Latin noun, glass, and . hyalinus colorless, transparent, translucent, glass-like, from hyalus, hyali m., Latin noun, glass. hyalinolepis -is -e New Latin transparent scales, from Latin hyalin-us, from Greek ὑάλινος, hyalinos, of glass or crystal, and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale, flake. hyalocarpus -a -um New Latin with pale(?) or transparent fruit, from Latin hyalus, hyali m., glass, and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit. hyalotrichus -a -um with pale(?) or transparent hairs, from hyalus, hyali m., Latin noun, glass, and . hyalus, hyali m. Latin noun, glass. Hybanthus from Greek ὕβος, hybos, hump, ὑβός, hybos, hump-backed, bent outward, a hump, and ἄνθος, anthos, flower, referrring to the anterior pouched petal. (Violaceae) hybernus Irish hybo Greek a hump; hump-backed hybocentris with curved, bent thorns. hybogonus with a wavy margin. hybrid, hybrida, -hybrida Latin a mongrel, hybrid hybridus -a -um hybrid, mixed, of mixed parentage, mongrel, between two species, sharing characteristics of both, from Lation hybrida, hybrid, noun, from hibrida, a mongrel or hybrid, and –us, adjectival Latinizing suffix. hydat, hydatin Greek water; watery hydn, hydnum, -hydnum Greek a fungus hydnoides resembling Hydnum, a fungus. hydr, hydr-, hydra, -hydra, hydri, hydro Greek water, referring to water, from ὑδρ-, hyd-, ὑδρο-, hydro-, water. hydra, -hydra Greek water; a sea serpent Hydrangea (hi-DRANG-gee-a) from Linnaeus, Modern Latin from the Greek ὔδωρ, ύδρ-, hydor, hyd-, water, and ἄγγος, aggos, (angos) or αγγεῖον, aggeion, (angeion), a jar, or vessel, for the cup-shaped seed capsules, or in reference to their requirement for an abundance of water. (Hydrangeaceae, formerly Saxifragaceae) Hydrangeaceae plants of the Hydrangea family, from the genus name, Hydrangea, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. hydrangëifolius with leaves like Hydrangea. hydrangeoides hydrangea-like Hydranthelium from Greek Ὕδωρ ἀνθήλιον, Hydor anthelion, little flower. hydrargyr-, hydragyro, hydragyrus, -hydragyrus Greek Mercury Hydrastis New Latin, probably irregular from Greek ὕδωρ, hydor, water, for the plant growing in watery places; alternately referring to superficial resemblance to some species of Hydrophyllum. (Ranunculaceae) Hydrilla Greek hydr-, water, and -illa, diminutive hydro- waterHydrocharis from Greek hydr-, water, and chari, grace Hydrocharitaceae Hydrocharita'ceae (hy-dro-kare-i-TAY-see-ee) plants of the Frog-bit family, from the genus name, Hydrocharis, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. Hydrocleys from Greek ὑδρο-, hydro, water, and clavis, club-shaped, presumably from shape of pistils Hydrocotyle water cup, New Latin, from ὔδορ-, hydor-, and Greek κοτύλη, kotylē cup; probably from the watery habitat and the cuplike shape of the leaves that often hold water. (Umbelliferae) hydrocotyloides resembling Hydrocotyle, Indian Penny-wort. hydrolapathum Horse-sorrel or Water-Dock, Rumex. hydrophilus water-loving hydrophorus containing water, watery, succulent, from Greek ὑδροφόρ-ος, hydrophor-os, water-carrying.

Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophylla'ceae (hy-dro-fil-AY-see-ee) plants of the American Waterleaf family, from the genus name, Hydrophyllum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. hydrophyllus -a -um, Hydrophyllum water-leaf, New Latin, from Greek ὑδρο-, hydro, and φύλλον, phyllon, a leaf. (Hydrophyllaceae) hydrophytes water plants. hydropiper water pepper, from Greek Ὑδροπέπερι, Hydropéperi, ὕδροπέπερι, hydropéperi, WATER PEPPER or WATER-WORT, Elatine. hydropiperoides resembling water pepper, from Greek Ὑδροπέπερι, Hydropéperi, ὕδροπέπερι, hydropéperi, Water pepper or Water-wort, Elatine, and ancient Greek -οειδής, -oeides, adjectival suffix indicating having the form or likeness of, like unto, like something else, or resemble. Hydrotrida hydrus, -hydrus Greek a water snake hyem-, hyemal, hiem- Latin winter, referring to winter hyemᾱlis -is -e hyema'lis (hi-eh-MAY-lis) of winter, wintery, by inference flowering in winter, may be spelled hiemalis in older literature; Latin hyemalis, of winter, from hiemalis, of winter, wintery,from hiems, hiemis, winter. hyen-, hyena, -hyena Greek a pig, hog; a hyena hyet-, hyeto Greek rain hyg-, hygei, hygie, hygio Greek health hygr-, hygro- Greek damp, moist, wet, from ὑγρο-, hygro, ὑγρ-, hygr-, combining form of ὑγρός, hygros, wet, moist, fluid. hygrometricus taking up water; moisture showing. hygrophilus moisture loving. hygroscopicus one source has this as indicating humility! A substance that absorbs moisture from the air and changes length, form, or consistency, that is moisture sensitive. From Greek ὑγρός, hygros, wet, moist, fluid, and σκοπος, skopos, observing. hyl-, hyla, hȳlē, hylo matter, stuff, substance; wood, woods, referring to wood, medieval Latin hȳlē, from Greek ὓλο-, hylo- combining form of ὕλη, hyle, wood, material, matter. hylact Greek bark, yelp hylaeus of woods Hylocereus Greek ὕλη, hyle, ……., and Cereus, the genus from which this segregate was removed Hylocereus woody cactus, a climbing, night-blooming cactus with eventual woody stems hylodes modern Latin from Greek ὑλώδης, hylodes, woody, a genus of American toads. Hylodesmum New Latin from hylo-, wood, woods, referring to wood, medieval Latin hȳlē, from Greek ὓλο-, hylo- combining form of ὕλη, hyle, wood, material, matter and Greek δεσµὸς, desmos band, bond, from δειν, dein to bind; also an abbreviated form of Desmodium. hylophilus forest-loving, from medieval Latin hȳlē, from Greek ὓλο-, hylo- combining form of ὕλη, hyle, wood, material, matter. hylurg-, hylurgo-, hylurgus Greek a carpenter hymen, -hymen, hymen-, hymeno- a membrane, referring to a membrane, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane. Latin Hymen, Greek Ύµέν, Hymen, was the god of marriage. hymenandrus having membrane-like anthers, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and modern Latin -andrus, from Greek -ανδρος, -andros, adjective ending, from ἀνδρ-, andr-, stem of ἀνήρ, aner, man . hymenanthus membranaceous-flowered, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and ανθος, anthos, a flower. hymenelytra hymenely'tra (hy-men-o-LIE-tra) Hymenocallis beautiful membrane, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and Greek καλλος, kallos, beauty, beautiful, referring to the corona or the membrane which connects the base of the anthers in this genus of the spider lily Hymenoclea Hymeno'clea (hy-men-OH-klee-a) hymenodes, hymenoides hymeno'ides (hy-men-OH-i-dees) membrane-like, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and -οειδες, oides, suffix for nouns, like or resemble. hymenolepis with a skinny membrane scale, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale. Hymenopappus Hymenopap'pus (hy-men-o-PAP-us) from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and πάππος, pappos, pappus, referring to the membranous pappus scales. (Compositae)

Hymenophyllaceae plants of the filmy-fern family, from the genus name, Hymenophyllum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names; from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and . hymenophylloides resembling filmy-ferns, Hymenophyllum, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and . hymenophyllus -a -um, Hymenophyllum with membranous or skin-like leaves, from Greek hymen, membrane, and phyllon, leaf hymenorrhizus membranous-rooted, with a membranous root, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and ῥίζα, rhiza, root. hymenosepalus -a -um hymenose'palus (hy-men-oh-SEE-pal-us) with sepals membranous, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and . Hymenospora membraneous seed, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and . hymenostephanus with membranous or skin-like corolla, from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and . Hymenothrix Hymeno'thrix (hy-men-OH-thrix) from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and thrix, hair, probably referring to the scarious-aristate pappus scales. Hymenoxys Hymenox'ys (hy-men-OX-is) from Greek ύµήν, ύµένος, hymên, hymenos, thin skin, membrane, and ὀξυς, oxys, sharp, referring to aristate pappus scales. (Compositae) hymettus from Mount Hymettus, now Trelowuno, in Greece. hymn, hymno Greek a hymn, song hyo Greek a pig, hog; "U"-shaped, "Y"-shaped; hyoid. Modern Latin hyoïdes, from Greek ύο, in ύοειδής, shaped like the letter υ. hyo- referring to a hog/swine Hyophorbe swine food Hyoscyamus New Latin, from Latin, henbane, from Greek hyoskyamos, literally, swine's bean, from hyos, genative of hys swine, and kyamos bean hyoseridifolius resembling Hyoseris, Swines-Succory. hyp-, hypo- under, beneath, from Greek ύπο-, ύπ, from ύπό, preposition and adjective, under, as in Latin sub. hypacanthus -a -um having thorns beneath (the leaves), from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. hypargyreus -a -um silvery beneath (of leaves). hypen-, hypena, -hypena Greek a moustache hypenanti- Greek opposite hyper- Greek over, above, beyond; excessive hyper-, hypero- Greek the palate; a pestle hyper- above, far, extreme hyperbore Greek of the extreme north hyperboreus -a -um, hyperborealis -is -e northern, of or from the far north hyperic-, hypericum, -hypericum Greek St. John's-wort Hypericaceae Hyperica'ceae (hy-per-i-KAY-see-ee), plants of the St. John’s-wort family, from the genus name, Hypericum, and -aceae, the standardized Latin suffix of plant family names. hypericifolius hypericum-leaved, with leaves like Hypericum, St. John’s-wort. hypericoides hypericum-like Hypericum Hyper'icum (hy-PEER-i-kum, or hi-pe-REE-kum) from Greek, hyper above and ekion picture. The plant was hung above pictures or an image in the home to ward off evil spirits during the summer festival Walpurgisnacht (the eve of May Day), later St John’s Day. Or, Latin hyperīcum, hyperīcon, from Greek ὑπέρεικον (ὑπέρῑκον), hypereikon (hyperikon), from ὑπέρ, hyper, over, and ἐρείκη, ereike, heath. Alternately New Latin, from Latin hypericum, hypericon a plant, St.-John's-wort, ground pine, from Greek hyperikon, hypereikos, a plant, St.John's-wort, probably from hypo- and ereik, heath, heather. Common name from some species blooming on St. John’s Day, June 24, a sacred day for the Templars; Walspurgisnacht was April 30th. (Hypericaceae) hyph-, hypha, hypho a web; weaving, from Willdenow, Modern Latin from Greek ύφή, web. hyphaem-, -hyphaemo Greek bloodshot hyphaen- Greek weave hyphant-, hyphantr Greek woven; a weaver hypho- Greek a web; weaving hyphydr- Greek found in water, under water

hypn-, hypn-o Greek sleep; a moss hypnoides like moss, resembling Feather-moss, Hypnum, from Theophrastus, Modern Latin from Greek ὓπνον, hyonon, ‘moss growing on trees’. hypo, hypo- Greek under, beneath, from Greek ύπο-, ύπ, from ύπό, preposition and adjective, under, as in Latin sub. Hypobrichia (Lythraceae) hypocarpogean maturing fruit underground, as in the Groundnut. Hypochaeris Hypochaer'is (hy-po-KEER-is) Greek hypo, beneath, and choiras, pig, referring to pigs digging for roots. This is suspiciously like χαριεις, kharieis, beauty, charm, as in Eleocharis, Ammocharis, etc. Which you should check for your self, this is an iDocument, search, you dolt! Also the hogs digging reference is suspiciously like one meaning of Sisyrinchium, which see. hypochionaeus -a -um below the snowline. hypochlorus pale green beneath (of leaves). hypochondriacus sombre. hypocrateriformis salver-shaped, salver a tray used especially for serving food or beverages, a term applied to a corolla of flat horizontal expansion. hypocyrtiflorus having somewhat curved flowers. hypocyrtis somewhat curved. hypogaeus underground, growing underground hypoglaucus glaucous beneath, greenish blue beneath (of leaves). hypoglossum resembling the uvula of the throat (a fleshy conical body hanging in the back of the mouth), from , and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue. hypoglottis under-tongued, from and γλωσσος, glôssos, tongue hypogynus sepals with petals and stamens arising beneath the pistil or ovary, from ύπό, under, and γυνή, woman, wife. hypogyrus growing beneath the pistil or ovary(?), marked with ringlets beneath. hypolamprus -a -um shiny beneath (of leaves). Hypolepis Greek hypo, below, and Greek λεπίς, λεπιδο-, lepis, lepido-, scale, in reference to position of sori under the revolute leaf margin hypoleucus -a -um hypoleu'cus (hy-po-LEW-kus) whitish or pale beneath (of leaves). hypolithicus growing beneath stones. hypomalacum soft beneath. hyponom Greek underground; mine hypetalus with petals beneath the ovaries. hypophegeius, hypophegeus growing beneath Beeches. hypophyllus under the leaf, growing on the underside of a leaf; or having an abortive leaf under another leaf as in asparagus. hypopithys hypothëius sulfur-yellow beneath. Hypoxis (hi-POX-is) from Greek upoxus, meaning subacid, an old name for a plant with sour leaves, also from ὑπό, hypo, under, beneath, below and οξύς, oxys sharp, for the pointed base of the fruit capsule, or the pointed base of the ovaries. (Amaryllidaceae or Hypoxidaceae) hyppophaïflolius with leaves like Hippophae, Sea-Buckthorn. hyps-, hypsi-, hypso Greek high, on high, from ὕψι-, ὑψο-, ὕψος, hypsi-, hypso-, hypsos, high, aloft hypsiginus pale red, or dark reddish pink. hypsipes with a tall stalk or stem. hypsophyllus lofty leaf, with a leaf of bract towards the upper end of a shoot. hyptiacanthus with claw-like thorns, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny.. Hyptis Hyp'tis (HIP-tis) hyra-, hyra-c, hyrax Greek a shrewmouse, ὕραξ, ὕρακ-, hyrax, hyrak-. hyrcanium, hyrcanus from Hyrcania, an ancient region near the Caspian Sea, thought of as the “wild region” from Latin Hyrcānus, Greek Ὕρκανός. hyssop-, hyssopus from Latin hyssōpus, hyssōpum, from Greek Hýssōpos, Ὕσσωπος, ὕσσωπος, ὕσσωπον, Hyssopos, hyssopos, hyssopon, an ancient name for an aromatic herb, an eastern word, represented in Old Hebrew by esob, ēzōb, majarom, cognate Arabic azzufa, the hyssop.

Hyssopifolius, hyssopifolius -a -um hyssopifo'lius (his-op-i-FO-lee-us) hyssop-leaved, with leaves like Hyssopus officinalis, hyssop hyster-, hystero- Greek latter, lower, from ὓστερος, hysteros, later, latter, inferior; the uterus, womb, from Greek ὑστέρα, hystera, womb. hysteranthous -a -um New Latin with the leaves appearing after the flower, as in Almonds, from Greek latter, lower, from ὓστερος, hysteros, later, latter, inferior, and . hystericina, hystricina Greek hystrix, porcupine, and -inus, belonging to, for resemblance to a porcupine hysterophorus hystri-, hystric, hystrix a porcupine, porcupine-like or hedgehog-like, from Greek ὕστριξ, ὑστριχ-, hystrx, hystrich, porcupine. hystrichacanthus with spiny bristles, from Greek and ακανθος, akanthos, spiny, thorny. hystrichocentrus with speary bristles(?). hystrix porcupine-like, bristly Hystrix New Latin, from Latin, porcupine, spiny from Greek from Greek ὕστριξ, ὑστριχ-, hystrx, hystrich, porcupine. As well as a grass, it is a genus of terrestrial porcupines that is the type of the family Hystricidea. iachr-, iachro Greek softened -iama,iamato Greek a medicine, remedy ianth-, ianthin Greek violet-colored, ad. Latin ianthin-us, ad. Greek ἰἀνθιος, violet-colored ianthinus violet, violet-blue, amethyst colored, from Latin ianthin-us, from Greek ἰάνθινος. iapy, iapyg, iapyx Greek the west-northwest wind -ias m. Greek suffix indicating a close connection used with a noun base. -iasis Greek treatment, cure; formation of, presence of iaspideus with spots of many colors, from iasper or jasper, from Latin iaspide, iaspidem, from Greek ἴασπις, ἰασπιδ-, an oriental word, cf. Hebrew yashpeh. iati Greek healing iatr-, iatra, iatric, iatro, iatrus Greek a physician, adopted from Greek ἰᾱτρικός, from ἰᾱτρὀς healer, physician, from ἰαςτθαι to heal: cf. obs. F. iatrique. iatreus, iatreis Greek a treatment iatrophoides resembling Iatrophe, Nux-vomica. iatrophifolius with leaves like Nux-vomica. iber-, iberi, iberia, ibero Greek Spain, from Latin Ibēria the country of the Ibēri or Ibēres, adopted from Greek Ἵβηρες, Iberes, the Spaniards, also an Asiatic people near the Caucasus in modern Georgia. ibericus, iberideus Iberis, of Iberia, Spain and Portugal, from the Iberian peninsula, ad. Latin Ibēricus (Hibēricus) Spanish, from Ibērī: ibericus from Georgia or Grusia (ancient Iberia) in Transcaucasia, mostly corresponding to modern Georgia.. iberidifolius iberis-leaved, with leaves like Iberis, Candy-tuft, New Latin, from Latin, peppergrass, from Greek iberi, iberid, iberis, a kind of cress, perhaps from Iberia. Iberis, iberis -is -e modern Latin (J. J. Dillenius in Linnæus Systema Naturæ (1735)), probably from Greek Ἵβηρες, Iberes, Iberians, as several species come from Spain, but cf. Greek ἰβηρίς, iberis, Latin iberis, a kind of cress. (Cruciferae) ibex, -ibex Latin a kind of goat, from L. ibex (ibic-em) a kind of goat, a chamois. ibi, ibid, ibis Latin an ibis, from Latin ībis (gen. ībis, ībidis, pl. ibēs), a. Greek ἶβις (gen. ἴβεως, ἴβεδος) the ibis, an Egyptian bird. So in F., Sp., and Pg.; It. ibi. ibid., ibidem Latin the same, in the same place, from Latin, in the same place; from ibi there + demonstr. suffix -dem, as in īdem, tandem, etc. -ibilis -is -e Latin adjectival suffix indicating capacity or ability, used with a verb base when the root infinitives end in -ere or -ire. ibycinus liked by cranes, from Latin ībis. -icans Latin adjectival suffix indicating the process of becoming or resemblance sometimes so close to be almost identical; participal base from verb base from noun base. icel-, icelo Greek resembling ichni, ichni, ichnio Greek track, trace ichneum, ichneumon Greek a tracker; a kind of wasp ichnocarpus with slender fruits, from and Greek καρπός, karpos, fruit..

ichor Greek juice, lymph, serum, from ἰχώρ. ichoratus yellowish-red. ichthy, ichthyo, ichthys Greek a fish, from ίχθύς ichthyostomus resembling a fish’s mouth. -icius -a -um Latin adjectival suffix indicating the result of an action, from a verb base. -icle Latin little icma, icmale Greek fluid, moist ico Greek likely icon, -icon iconi, icono Latin an image iconicus from Iconium or Konia in Anatolia Asia Minor. icos-, icosi Greek twenty, from εἴκοσι, twenty icosanthus twenty-stamened, having flowers with twenty or more stamens, from , and ανθος, anthos, flower. icosigonus twenty or more sided. icter-, icteri, ictero, icterus Greek jaundice; an oriole, from Latin Icterus, L., a. Greek ἴκτερος jaundice; also, a yellowish-green bird, by looking at which jaundiced persons were supposed to be cured. The oriole is Icterus vulgaris. ictericus, icterinus jaundice-yellow, jaundiced, the color of a person suffering from jaundice. icti, ictid, ictis Greek a marten, weasel ictin, ictinus Greek a kite -icul, icula, iculum, iculus Latin small -icus -a -um Greek adjectival suffix idicating ‘belonging to’, used with a noun base. -id Latin a condition of id est that is, used to expand on an example Id imperfectum manet dum confectum erit. It ain't over until it's over. -idae the suffix used to form animal family names. idaeus of Mt. Ida, in Asia Minor; or of Mount Ida, the highest mountain in Crete, now know as Psiloratis, where Jupiter was hidden as an infant. Psiloratis means smooth, or treeless mountain. Idahoa for the state of Idaho, USA. idahoensis idahoen'sis (eye-da-ho-EN-sis) from or pertaining to Idaho ida-maia for Ida May Burke (19th-century plant collector in California ident, identi Latin repeatedly identidem repeatedly ideo Greek form, appearance ideo Latin on that account, for that reason, therefor -ides f. Greek suffix indicating resemblance used with a noun base. -idi-, -idia, -idia, idium, -idium, idius, -idius small, from post-classical Latin and scientific Latin -idium (formations in which are found from at least the late 18th cent.) and its etymon ancient Greek -ίδιον, -idion, diminutive suffix, from -ιδ-, -id-, stem of nouns in -ις, -is, and -ιον, -ion, diminutive suffix, by reanalysis of words where -ιον, -ion, had been added to noun stems ending in -ιδ-, -id-. idio Greek one's own, peculiar -idium n. Greek diminutive suffix used with a noun base. ido Greek sweat idol, idolo Greek an image, phantom idolatricus idol-like. idr, idro Greek sweat; gum, resin idri Greek skilled Idria Id'ria (ID-ree-a) -idus -a -um Latin adjectival suffix indicating a state or action in progress, from a verb, noun or adjectival base. -ies f. indicates a thing formed, used with a verb base. -ifoli(...) with leaves of…., used with a generic or specific prefix, such as hypericifolius, with leaves of Hypericum ign- igne, igni Latin fire igne natura renovatur integra "through fire, nature is reborn whole" An alchemical aphorism invented as an alternate meaning for the acronym INRI.

igneous incandescent red, bright scarlet. ignescens flame-colored. igneus fiery, fiery-red, fire colored igniarius fire-giving, pertaining to fire (as tinder derived from puff-balls). ignoratus ignored, unknown, neglected. ignota igno'ta (ig-NO-ta) ikariae from the Greek island Ikaria il Latin not, without; in, into ile, ileo Latin: the intestine; Greek: twist, roll; twisted ilema, -ilema ilemat Greek a covering, wrapper; a coil; a vault ilex, -ilex Latin the holm oak ilex, ilicis f. holm oak, evergreen. Ilex (EE-leks) From Ilex the Latin name for Holly Oak, Quercus ilex. ilia, iliaco Latin the flank, loin Iliamna derivation unknown, but there is a volcano by that name northeast of Iliamna Lake in sw Alaska. ilic Latin the holm oak ilic- referring to the holly tree (plant) ilicifolius ilicifo'lius (il-is-i-FO-lee-us) Ilex- or holly-leaved; Ilex-leaved, from ilex, red or holly oak, Quercus ilex, -i-, and folius, folium, leaf. iliensis from the region of the river Ili, in western Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China, and southeastern Kazakhstan. -ilis -is -e Latin adjectival suffix indicating capacity or ability, hence a property or quality, from a verb base. -ill-, illus -a -um Latin adjectival diminutive suffix, small, used with a noun base, like -cellus. illaen Greek squint illat Latin inferred illecebrosus of the shade Illegitimati non carborundum. Don't let the bastards grind you down. illegitimus spurious, unreal. illepidus denude of scales. illic- referring to fragrance/seduction illici Latin allure, entice illicita from Latin illicitus, from il- (assimilated form of negative prefix before l), and licitus past participle. of licēre to be allowed. Illicium New Latin, from Latin illicere, to allure. (Magnoliaceae) illigat Latin fastened illinitus varnished; spread over as if painted. illinoensis -is -e, illinoiensis, illinoinensis of or from Illinois Illiud Latine dici non potest. -- You can't say that in Latin. illo Greek squinting illot Latin dirty, unwashed -illum Latin small illumina Latin light up -illus, -illa, -illum Latin small, little, a diminutive suffix, used with First Declinsion nouns. illusi Latin mocking illustr, illustra, illustri Latin bright, made clear; distinguished illustratus pictured; lit up. illustris lustrous, bright, brilliant, lit up, clear, notable, excellent, superior. ilvensis from the isle of Elbe. illyricus of or from Illyria, on the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia and Dalmatia. illyrus of or from Illyria, on the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia and Dalmatia. ily, ilyo, ilyas Greek mud im Latin not; in, into imag, imagin, imagno Latin an image, likeness imatophyllus with ribbon-shaped leaves. imb, imber, imbr Latin rain imbecill Latin weak, feeble

imbecillus weak, frail, limp. imberbiflorus flowers beardless imberbis without beards or spines, beardless, devoid of hairs. imbric-, imbrica, imbrici Latin a roof tile, shingle imbricans im'bricans (IM-bri-kans) imbricating, imbricate, from Latin imbricans, adjective, from imbrico, to cover with gutter tiles. imbricarius -a -um im-bri-KAH-ree-us covered spirally with broad scales arranged like the tiles of a house, from the Latin imbrex, a tile, roofing tile, in Quercus imbricarius for the woods use as shingles or roof tiles. imbricatus -a -um imbrica'tus (im-bri-KAY-tus) imbricated, shingled, overlapping regularly like tiles, covered spirally with broad scales arranged like the tiles of a house imbut Latin stained imereticus also ibericus from Imeretia (Imeritia) in Georgia or Grusia (ancient Iberia?) in Transcaucasia, east of the Black Sea, a province in Georgia along the Rioni river. At one time a part of Colchis. imita Latin imitate, copy immaculatus spotless, free from spots, immaculate, unstained. immarginatus without margin or border. immaturus unripe, premature. immersus plunged, under water, dipped in water; imbedded in the substance of a leaf or thallus. immortelle French short for fleur immortelle, feminine of immortel, one of various composite flowers of a papery texture which retains color after being dried, an everlasting flower. immun, immuni, immuno Latin safe, free; immunity impar, impari Latin unequal impari-pinnatus unpaired pinnate, i.e. without a terminal leaflet. Impatiens (im-PAT-ee-enz) Latin for impatient, for the explosive release of seed when a ripe seed capsule is touched. (Balsaminaceae) impeditus hindered, obstructed imperator regal, imperious, commanding imperfectus -a -um imperfe'ctus (im-per-FEK-tus) lacking or wanting in organs usually present. imperialis showy, imperial, kingly, majestic. impet-, impetus Latin an attack implex Latin twisted implexus interwoven, entangled, wrapped around. implicatus -a -um implica'tus (im-pli-KAY-tus) entangled, woven in. impolitus -a -um impol'itus (im-POL-i-tus) matt perhaps as in without luster or dull: unfinished, lacking, having a dull appearance. importunus annoying impressus impressed, sunken in, marked with small depressions. impubus denude of hairs, bare. impudicus shameless. imus lowest. Imus ad magum Ozi videndum, magum Ozi mirum mirissimum. -in Latin in, into; not, without; on in- un..., not .... without In flagrante delicto caught red handed, literally “in the middle of a burning crime.” In loco parentis in the place of a parent in media res in the middle of things in memoriam in memory of In nimone Patris et Filii et Spritus Sancti In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. in rem to one’s advantage. in vino veritas In wine, the truth. The truth comes out when your drunk. in vitro in glass, artificial, opposed to in vivo in vivo in life -inae the ending of animal subfamily and plant subtribe names. inaequabilis uneven, not level. inaequal, inaequali Latin unequal inaequalifolius unequal leaves

inaequalis unequal, irregular, unsymmetrical, uneven in size. inaequidens with uneven irregular teeth. inaequilaterus, inaequi-lateralis unequal-sided, with uneven irregular sides (as the leaves of Begonia) inamoenus lacking in beauty, unsightly. inan-, inani, inanis empty, free (as a stem without pith), from Latin inānis, inane. inapterus, inapertum not open, therefore closed, without an opening. inarticulate not jointed, continuous. inca from Peruvian of Peru, Incan Latin hoary, gray incanescens turning hoary, from Latin incānēscent-em, present participle of incānēscĕre to become white, from in- and cānēscĕre to become white, cānēre to be white. incanus -a -um inca'nus (in-KAY-nus) pale, hoary, whitish gray, gray, hairy, gray with age, like gray felt, from Latin incānus, hoary. incantans enchanting, bewitching, charming, from Latin incantāre, to chant, make incantation, charm, enchant, bewitch, from in and cantāre, to sing, chant. incarnatus -a -um incarna'tus (in-kar-NAY-tus, or in-kar-NAH-tus) flesh-colored, flesh-pink, from Middle English incarnat, from Late Latin incarnatus, past participle of incarnare, to make flesh, make fleshy, incarnate, from Latin in- in- and carn-, caro flesh, akin to Greek keirein to cut. Contrary to some sources, it does not mean blood-red. incarnatum referring to the color flesh pink, from Latin in-, prefix in, into, for, contrary, and caro, noun, flesh, and –atus, adjectival suffix for nouns, meaning possessive of or likeness of something, or with, shaped, made. Incarvillea for Pierre d’Incarville, French missionary and botanist incert Latin uncertain incertus uncertain, doubtful, from Latin incertus, uncertain. incest Latin Impure, sinful, polluted incho Latin begin inchoatus rudimentary, not established, only begun, from Latin inchoāt-us, incohātus, past participle of inchoāre, incohāre, to begin. incil, incili Latin a ditch; cut in incis- Latin cut in, cut into incisifolius having leaves with incisions. inciso-crenatus cut with notches. inciso-dentatus slashed(?), toothed. incissusifolius cut-leaved. incissura Latin incision, from incidere, to cut into, and -ura suffix indicating the results of an action. incisus -a -um inci'sus (in-SY-sus) cut, incised, cut deeply into irregular lobes, from Latin verb incido, incidere, incidi, incisum, cut into, cut open; to inscribe, engrave an inscription; to make by cutting; to cut through; figuratively to cut short, bring to an end, break off ; from participle, n. subst. incisum, incisi = incisio; adv. incise = incisim. inclaudens never-closing, from in- and claudo, to shut, close, stop; closing inward. inclinatus, inclinata bent-downward, inclined, slanting inwards or downwards. inclusus enclosed, if the style and stamens do not exend beyond beyong the mouth of the corolla. incol-, incola Latin an inhabitant, from the noun incola, incolae, c., inhabitant; resident, dweller; resident alien. incomparabilis incomparable, excelling incomperta incompletus incomplete, lacking as if flowers are denude of calyx or corolla. incomptus -a -um incomp'tus (in-KOMP-tus) crude, unadorned, lacking in adornments. inconspicuous inconspicuous, very small, barely visible. inconstans variable, departing from the type. incrass Latin thickened incrassatus thickened, becoming thick by degrees, tapering, from Latin incrassātus, past participle of incrassāre to thicken. increscentifolius with ingrown leaves. incrustatus incrusted, covered with a rind or shell. incubaceus dormant, sleeping, from Latin incubāt-, incubit-, participle stem of incubāre to lie on, to hatch.

incultus fallow, uncultivated, from Latin adjective incultus, from in- and cultus, past participle of colĕre, to cultivate. incumbens prostrate on the ground, from Latin adjective incumbent-em, present participle of incumbĕre to lie upon, to lean or press upon, to apply oneself to, etc., from in- and cumbĕre to lie. incurvatus bent inward incurvus -a -um incur'vus (in-KUR-vus) curved in inde from that place, thereafter indecorus -a -um indecor'us (in-de-KOR-us) unadorned. index, -index Latin that which points out indehiscens not opening, said of seed carpels which do not open when the seed is ripe, from Latin in- and dēhiscĕre, to open in chinks, gape, yawn. indi Latin in; indigo indic Latin that which points out; Indian; indigo indicus -a -um in'dicus (IN-di-kus) of Indian origin, the subcontinent, of or from or referring to India; often used as a general reference to the Far East -ind(...) referring to India indentatus indented indianese Indiansommer German cv. Indian summer indig Spanish deep violet blue indigen Latin native; need, want indigenus native grown (opposite to exotic), from late Latin indigen-us, born in a country, from indigen-a, a native. indigestus disordered, from Latin adjective indigest-us unarranged, confused, not digested. Indigofera indigo-bearing, from Latin Indigo, and fero, to bear. (Leguminosae) indigoticus deep, dark blue indivisus undivided, unsevered. indo Latin of India; indigo indu-, indut Latin clothe; clothed indutus covered, clothed )as the hairy cap of certain stigmas). induplicate with margins folded inwards. induratus hardened by degrees, incrassate (of thickened or swollen form). indusiatus veiled. Indusiella Latin indusium, tunic, and -ella, Latin feminine diminutive suffix, referring to inrolled hyaline leaf margins industri Latin diligent -ineae (the ending of plant suborder names) inebri, inebriat Latin drunk inept Latin absurd, foolish inerbians intoxicating. inermis unarmed, as without thorns or awns, defenseless, denude of thorns. -ineus -a -um Latin adjectival suffix indicating material or color close resemblance, with noun base, like -eus. inexpansa unexpanded infan, infanas, infanti Latin a child, Infant; speechless infarct Latin filled in, stuffed infauste unfortunately, unluckily infaustus unfortunate, unhappy, unfavorable, bewitched. infectorius pertaining to dyes and the process of dyeing, dyeing, dye-yielding. infelic Latin unhappy, unfortunate infer, infero Latin low, underneath inferior situated below. inferus growing below, being below. infestans injurious, dangerous. infestus unsafe, dangerous, injurious. inflatus -a -um, inflatior -or -us, inflatissimus -a -um Latin adjective, inflated, puffed up; bombastic; turgid; swollen up, blown up. inferne below

infidelior insecure, treacherous. infidelius insecure, treacherous infimus the lowest. infirmus -a -um infir'mus (in-FIR-mus) weak, feeble, sickly, brittle. inflatus -a -um infla'tus (in-FLAY-tus) distended, puffed up, swollen. inflexus bent inward, turned in, bent abruptly, incurved. infloresc Latin begin to bloom infortunatus unfortunate, unhappy, unlucky. infosus sunk in, buried (as the veins in some leaves) infra- Latin below, beneath infra-axillary below the axil. Infra dignitatem beneath your dignity. It is shortened to infra dig. to mean rude. infract Latin broken, bent infractus broken, bent. inful, infula Latin a band, bandage infumat Latin smoked, smoky infundibul, infindibulum Latin a funnel infundibuliformis funnelform, funnel-shaped, trumpet-shaped infundibulum a funnel infundulum a funnel infus Latin pour in infuscat Latin darkened ingen, ingens, ingenti Latin large, remark-able ingens massive, tremendous, enormous, exceptionally large. ingluv, ingluvi Latin the crop, stomach ingratus ungrateful, thankless. ingricus from Ingria or Ingermanland, an ancient district of Russia now St. Petersburg (Leningrad), an area of an ancient Finnic people, the Ingers. inguin, inguino Latin the groin ini (the ending of animal tribe names) ini, inia South American a kind of porpoise ini, inia, inio, inisum Greek the occiput, nape initio at first innatus imbedded, grown in (as of anthers, etc.). innoc, innocen, innocu Latin harmless ino Greek a fiber; muscle; the occiput inocul, inocula Latin implant innominatus unnamed, nameless. innovans sprouting, having newly formed fruits. innoxius -s -um (in-OKS-ee-us) not spiny, not injurious, New Latin from Latin innoxius, from in-, prefix expressing negation or privation, classical Latin noxius harmful, injurious, guilty, from noxa harm, injury, and classical Latin -ōsus (-a, -um), forming adjectives, with the sense of ‘abounding in, full of, characterized by, of the nature of’. (OED) inocarpus having fruit covered with filaments. inodoratus -a -um unscented, scentless, without odor, inodorus -a -um in-o-DO-rus inodorous, without scent, from in-, contrary, and odorus, sweet smelling, fragrant; ill smelling. inornatus without ornament inops, inopis, inope Latin poor, helpless, in need, insignificant, puny, weak. inophyllus having leaves with pronounced veins or nerves. inopleus unarmed, deficient. inordinatus disordered, untidy. inornatus without adornments, modest. -inos, -ινος Greek adjectival suffix, Latinized as inus, indicating material or color, hence possession or resemblance. inprimis, imprimis among the first, chiefly, especially

inquilin, inquilinus Latin a tenant inquilinus acc