Well Foundations | Deep Foundation | Civil Engineering
Briefly explain the causes and remedies for tilts and shifts in well foundations. Define and explain the 'grip length' o...
WELL FOUNDATIONS Advantages of Well Foundations
The following are the advantages of well foundations over other types of deep foundations such as pile foundations: 1. The effect of scour can be better withstood by a well foundation because of its large cross-sectional area and rigidity. 2. The depth can be decided as the sinking progresses, since the nature of the strata can be inspected and tested, if necessary, at any desired stage. Thus, it is possible to ensure that it rests upon a suitable bearing stratum of uniform nature and bearing power. 3. A well foundation can withstand large lateral loads and moments that occur in the case of bridge piers, abutments, tall chimneys, and towers; hence it is preferred to support such structures. 4. There is no danger of damage to adjacent structures since sinking of a well does not cause any vibrations. Elements of a Well Foundation
The elements of a well foundation are: (i) Cutting edge (ii) Curb (iii) Concrete seal or Bottom Plug (iv) Steining (v) Top Plug, and (vi) Well Cap.
Cutting Edge: The function of the cutting edge is to facilitate easy penetration or sinking into the soil to the desired depth. As it has to cut through the soil, it should be as sharp as possible, and strong enough to resist the high stresses to which it is subjected during the sinking process. Hence it usually consists of an angle iron with or without an additional plate of structural steel. It is similar to the sharp-edged cutting edge of a caisson shown in Fig. Steining: The steining forms the bulk of the well foundation and may be constructed with brick or stone masonry, or with plain or reinforced concrete occasionally. The thickness of the steining is made uniform throughout its depth. It is considered desirable to provide vertical reinforcements to take care of the tensile stresses which might occur when the well is suspended from top during any stage of sinking. Curb: The well curb is a transition member between the sharp cutting edge and the thick steining. It is thus tapering in shape. It is usually made of reinforced concrete as it is subjected to severe stresses during the sinking process. Concrete Seal or Bottom Plug: After the well foundation is sunk to the desired depth so as to rest on a firm stratum, a thick layer of concrete is provided at the bottom inside the well, generally under water. This layer is called the concrete seal or bottom plug, which serves as the base for the well foundation. This is primarily meant to distribute the loads on to a large area of the foundation, and hence may be omitted when the well is made to rest on hard rock. Top Plug: After the well foundation is sunk to the desired depth, the inside of the well is filled with sand either partly or fully, and a top layer of concrete is placed. This is known as ‘top plug’. The sand filling serves to distribute the load more uniformly to the base of the well, to reduce the stresses in the steining, and to increase the stiffness of the well foundation. However, as this adds to the weight and load transmitted to the foundation stratum, the engineer has to consider the desirability or otherwise of providing the sand filling from the point of view of bearing power and settlement. The top plug of concrete serves to transmit the loads to the base in a uniform manner. Well Cap: The well cap serves as a bearing pad to the superstructure, which may be a pier or an abutment. It distributes the superstructure load onto the well steining uniformly.
Sinking of Wells
The operation sinking of a well consists of the following steps:
(1) Construction of the Well Curb If the river bed is dry, the cutting edge over which the well curb is to be built is placed at the correct position after excavating the bed for about 150 mm for seating. If there is water, with a depth upto 5 m, a sand island is created before placing the curb. The size of the island should be large enough to accommodate the well with adequate working space all round In case the depth of water is more than 5 m, it is more economical to build the curb on the bank and float it to the site.
Wooden sleepers are usually inserted below the cutting edge at regular intervals to distribute the load evenly on the soil. The shuttering of the well curb is erected — the outer one with steel or wood and inner with brick masonry. The reinforcements for the curb are then placed in position, the vertical bars projecting about 2 m above the top of the curb. Concreting of the curb is done in continuous operation. After the curb is cured and allowed to cure for at least seven days, the shuttering may be removed as also the sleepers.
(2) Construction of Well Steining The Steining is constructed with a height of 1.5 m at a time and sinking done after allowing at least 24 hours for setting. Once the well has acquired a grip of about 6 m into the ground, the steining can be raised 3 m at a time. The height of any lift is restricted such that the well does not lose stability.
(3) Sinking Process The sinking process is commenced after the curb is cast and the first stage of steining is ready after curing. The material is excavated from inside manually or mechanically. Manual dredging is feasible when the depth of water inside the well is not more than 1 m. An automatic grab operated by diesel winches is used when the depth of water is more. Blasting with explosives is used when weak rock is encountered. Additional loading, known as ‘Kentledge’ is used, if necessary. Kentledge is generally in the form of sand bags placed on a suitable platform on top of the well. Water jetting on the exterior face is applied in conjunction with kentledge. Pumping water from inside the well is also effective in sinking a well. But this should be resorted to only when the well has gone sufficiently deep into the ground, so as to avoid tilts and shifts. Also dewatering is not used after the well has sunk to about 10 m. ‘Blow of sand’ may occur if dewatering is resorted to in the early stage of sinking, inducing sudden tilting, and posing hazards to the workmen. Scrap gunny bags and grass boundles are placed round the periphery of the well to prevent sand blow. Shifts and Tilts
The well should be sunk straight and vertical at the correct position. It is not an easy task to achieve this objective in the field. Sometimes the well tilts onto one side or it shifts away from the desired position. The following precautions may be taken to avoid tilts and shifts:
i. ii. iii. iv.
The outer surface of the well curb and steining should be smooth. The curb diameter should be kept 40 to 80 mm larger than the outer diameter of the steining, and the well should be symmetrically placed. The cutting edge should be uniformly thick and sharp. Dredging should be done uniformly on all sides and in all the pockets.
Tilts and shifts must be carefully noted and recorded. Correct measurement of tilt is an important observation in well sinking. It is difficult to specify permissible values for tilts and shifts. IS:3955-1967 recommends that tilt should be generally limited to 1 in 60. The shift should be restricted to one percent of the depth sunk. In case these limits are exceeded, suitable remedial measures are to be taken for rectification. Remedial Measures for Rectification of Tilts and Shifts
The following remedial measures may be taken to rectif y tilts and shifts: i.
Regulation of Excavation: The higher side is grabbed more be regulating the dredging. In the initial stages this may be all right. Otherwise, the well may be dewatered if possible, and open excavation may be carried out on the higher side Eccentric Loading: Eccentric placing of the kentledge may be resorted to provide greater sinking effort on the higher side. If necessary a platform with greater projection on the higher side may be constructed and used for this purpose. As the depth of sinking increases, heavier kentledge with greater eccentricity would be required to rectify tilt. Water Jetting: If water jets are applied on the outer face of the well on the higher side, the friction is reduced on that side, and the tilt may get rectified. Excavation under the Cutting Edge: If hard clay is encountered, open excavation is done under the cutting edge, if dewatering is possible; if not, divers may be employed to loosen the strata. Insertion of Wood Sleeper under the Cutting Edge: Wood sleepers may be inserted temporarily below the cutting edge on the lower side to avoid further tilt. Pulling the Well: In the early stages of sinking, pulling the well to the higher side by placing one or more steel ropes round the well, with vertical sleepers packed in between to distribute pressure over larger areas of well steining, is effective. Strutting the Well: The well is strutted on its tilted side with suitable logs of wood to prevent further tilt. The well steining is provided with sleepers to distribute the load from the strut. The other end of the logs rest against a firm base having driven piles. Pushing the Well with Jacks: Tilt can be rectified by pushing the well by suitably arranging mechanical or hydraulic jacks.
In actual practice, a combination of two or more of these approaches may be applied successfully.
A well foundation should be sunk below the maximum scour depth such that there is adequate lateral stability. The depth of the bottom of the well below the maximum scour level is known as the ‘Grip Length’. Thus, one of the important factors governing the depth of a well foundation is the criterion of the minimum grip length necessary to provide adequate lateral stability, besides the other factor of placing the bottom on a stratum with sufficient bearing power. For the first criterion, it is necessary to obtain the depth of scour from hydraulic consideration. The scour depth can be ascertained by one of the following approaches: a. Actual sounding at or near the proposed site immediately after a flood, at any rate before there is any time for silting up appreciably. b. Theoretical methods taking into account the characteristics of flow like the direction, depth, and velocity, and those of the river bed material. In case the first approach of taking soundings is not feasible, the second approach may be used and the normal depth of scour may be calculated by Lacey’s formula:
( ) d = normal scour depth, measured below high flood level (m), Q = design discharge (m3/s), and f = Lacey’s silt factor =
d m = mean size of the particle (mm).
Previous Year University Questions
1. Define: (i) well steining; (ii) Grip length (iii) Kentledge. (December 2009) 2. What are the various components of a well foundation and what are their uses? (May 2009) 3. What is grip length of a well? What are the considerations in the determination of the grip length? (July 2008) 4. What are the problems associated with well sinking? Mention any two methods [with sketches] of rectifying the same. (May 2007) 5. Define and explain the ‘grip length’ of a well foundation(December 2006) 6. Explain Sand island method of construction of well foundation 7. What are the various components of well foundation? What are their uses? 8. Explain the procedure for construction and sinking of wells [with the help of sketches] 9. Briefly explain the causes and remedies for tilts and shifts in well foundations. 10. What are the problems encountered in the sinking of wells foundations? 11. What are the precautions to be taken to prevent tilt and shifts in a well foundation 12. Sketch and describe the various components of a well foundation including the functions of each.