Chapter 6 Cultural Social and Political Institution | Family | Kinship
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Kinship, Marriage and the Household Kinship by Blood What is the family? Family Basic social institution and the primary group in the society. Vary from culture to culture For Murdock (1949:1), it is a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction. For Burgess and Locke (1963:2) It is a group of person united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption constituting a single household, interacting and communicating with each other in their respective social roles of husband and wife, mother and father, son and daughter, brother and sister and creating and maintaining a common culture. Descent and Marriage Kinship Web of social relationships that form an essential part of the lives of most humans in most societies. Descent Origin or background of a person in terms of family or nationality. Descent Group Social group whose members have common ancestry. Unilineal society One which the descent of an individual is reckoned either from the mothers or fathers line of descent Matrilineal Descent Individuals belong to their mothers descent group Patrilineal Descent Individuals belong to their fathers descent group Marriage Important institutional element of the family Cultural mechanism that ensures its continuity Institutions consisting of a cluster of mores and folkways, of attitudes, ideas and ideals of social definitions and legal restrictions. Foundation of the family An inviolable social institution According to Bowman, people marry for combined reasons: Love, economic and emotional security The parents desires Escapes from solitude or forlorn home situation Money Companionship Protection Adventure or common interest August 3, 1998 – The family code of the Philippines took effect. It defines marriage as a special contract of permanent union between a man and a woman entered in accordance with law for establishment of conjugal and family life New family code has 2 aspects: Contract – applies to man and woman only
Status – created between parties
Kinship by Marriage Forms of Marriage 1. Monogamy Allows or permit a man to take only one spouse at a time. 2. Polygamy Form of plural marriage and can assume three forms: Polygyny – marriage of one man to two or more women at the same time. It is practiced by Muslims and considered as a status symbol for the man. Polyandry – marriage of a woman to two or more men at the same time. Group Marriage 3. Selection of Marriage Partners Two types of norms regarding to the selection of marriage partners. Endogamy – dictates one should marry within ones clan or ethnic group. Exogamy – one can marry outside ones clan or ethnic group Levirate Norms – widow marry the brother or nearest kin of the deceased husband Surrogate Norm - Men should marry the sister or nearest kin of the deceased wife Family Structures Has a bearing on person development Varies from one culture to another 1. Based on Internal Organization or Membership a. Nuclear, primary or elementary Family Composed of a husband and his wife and their offspring in union recognized by the other members of the society. Smallest unit responsible for the preservation of the value system of society Two Kinds of Nuclear Families according to Murdock: Family of Orientation One is born and where one is reared or socialized Consists of father mother brothers and sisters Family of Procreation Family established through marriage and consist of a husband, a wife, sons and daughters b. Extended Family Composed of two or more nuclear families, economically and socially related to each other May be through parent to child relationship. Linton distinguishes two types of family structures corresponding to the nuclear and extended families: ♣ Conjugal family – made up of the spouses and their underage children whose ties to relatives are voluntary and based on emotional bonds ♣ Consanguine family – consists of the nuclear family and their relatives who are living together under one roof 2. Based on Descent a. Patrilineal Descent - affiliates a person with a group of relatives related through either his or her father. b. Matrilineal Descent - affiliates a person with a group of relatives related through either his or her mother. c. Bilateral Descent – affiliates a person with a group of relatives related through either his or her parents.
3. Based on residence a. Patrilocal residence – newly married couple live with or near the domicile of the parents of the groom. b. Matrilocal residence - newly married couple live with or near the domicile of the parents of the bride c. Bilocal residence – gives the couple a choice of staying with either the grooms parents or the brides parents. d. Neolocal residence – permits the newly married couple to reside independently of the parents of either groom or bride. e. Avunculocal residence - prescribes that the newly married couple reside with or near the maternal uncle of the groom 4. Based on authority a. Patriarchal family – the authority is vested in the eldest male in the family, often the father. b. Matriarchal family – authority is vested in the mother or the mothers kin c. Egalitarian family – both the husband and the wife exercise a more or less equal amount or degree of authority. d. Matricentric family – usually found in places where the father commutes and is out for the greater part of the day. Functions of the Family 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
The family regulates sexual behavior and is the unit for reproduction The family performs the function of biological maintenance The family is the chief agency in socializing the child The family gives its members status The family is an important mechanism for social control The family performs economic functions especially in the simple societies
Structural Characteristics of the Filipino Family The basic social unit of the Philippine society is the nuclear family. The bilaterally extended kinship group is also common in our society The Christian Filipino family is described as a large family group, normally including three generation in the same house, and known as “extended” in term of membership. The joint family is the most common type among the Muslims. Blood kinship plays an important role in the Filipino family so that the family may be considered consanguineal.It is true in rural areas. Family alliance is extended by the “compadre or compadrazgo” system which is formed through the rituals of baptism, confirmation and marriage. Filipino family is said to be patriarchal in authority. The Filipino family is bilateral in terms of reckoning descent and social allocation. This is evidenced by the lack of distinction of terminology between the paternal and maternal groups. A reconstituted family also known as blended family is the sociological term of the union of two adults through marriage, cohabitation, or civil partnership, who have past relationship and children from them.
Politics of Kinship (Political Dynasty, Alliance) Political Dynasty in the Philippines Philippine Laws Political Alliance
Political and Leadership Structures Political Organization
1. Creating formal norms Constitutional laws Statutory laws Common laws 2. Applying sanctions 3. Settling disputes among individuals 4. Settling disputes between nations Bands Tribes Chiefdoms States
Authority and Legitimacy Authority Types Traditional authority Charismatic authority Legal rational authority Legitimization Types of Legitimacy Traditional Legitimacy Charismatic Legitimacy Rational legal legitimacy Sources of Legitimacy Forms of legitimate government Communism Constitutionalism Democracy Fascism Monarchy Economic Institutions
Reciprocity (Cultural Anthropology) Transfer Redistribution (Cultural Anthropology) Market Transaction Market State
Non state Institutions Banks and Corporations ♣ Banks ♣ Corporation Cooperatives and Trade Union ♣ Cooperatives ♣ Trade Union
TUCP ( Trade Union Congress of the Philippines) Transnational Advocacy Groups ♣ Importance of Transnational Advocacy Groups ♣ Who participates Transnational Advocacy Groups? Development Agencies International Organizations ♣ International Non - Governmental Organization (INGOs) ♣ Intergovernmental Organizations
Education The primary function of educational institution is the socialization of children and the new members in the society Educational institutions keep children and youth occupied and out of labor force. Education in the Philippines Managed and regulated by the Department of Education (DepEd). Dep-Ed controls the Philippine education system, including the creation and implementation of the curriculum and the utilization of funds allotted by the central government. From 1945 – 2011, the basic education system was composed of: Elementary education – 6 years High School Education – 4 Years Further education provided by technical or vocational schools and colleges and universities. In the 1987 Constitution the elementary education was compulsory, this was never enforced. In 2011, the country started to transition from its 10 year basic educational system to a K to 12 educational system. The new 12 year system is now compulsory. All public schools in the Philippines must start classes on the date mandated by the DepEd. Must end after each school completes the mandated 200 day calendar prepared by the DeoEd. For more than three centuries, education in the Philippines was patterned after the Spanish and American System. Functions of Education in a society: 1. Giving training in specific skills or the basic general education literacy. 2. Prepare people for occupational roles. 3. Pressuring the culture from one generation
Formal Education Systematic and deliberate process of hierarchically structured and sequential learning corresponding to the genral concept of elementary and secondary level of schooling. Levels in basic Education Elementary Education -- first part of educational system. - includes first 6 years of compulsory education Secondary Education – - concerned primarily w/ continuing basic education of the elementary level and expanding it. Tertiary Education –
- most institutions of higher learning are regulated by the commission of higher education. Vocational Education – -accredited private institutions offer TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM offered vary induration from a few weeks to two years.
Non formal Education Special Education
Religion and Belief System Religion Animism Importance of Animism in the Study of Culture and Religion Monotheism Polytheism Institutionalized Religion Most of the world subscribes to one of the following religion:
Christianity Islam Judaism Hinduism Buddhism -
Types of Religious Groups Church Sect Cult Separation of Church and State
Health List of prohibited activities System of Diagnosis, prevention and healing Traditional medicine ♣ Complementary/ alternative medicine(CAM) Herbal medicine Traditional use of herbal medicine Therapeutic activity Active ingredient
Health as human right