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The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2013 Official Conference Proceedings

Osaka, Japan

Altruism among Teacher Reza Olitalia, Erik Wijaya, Khadijah Almakiyah, Laksmiari Saraswati Tarumanagara University, Indonesia 0258 The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2013 Official Conference Proceedings 2013

Abstract Altrusim is an important aspect in a teacher. Altruism is an attitude to pay attention on other's well-being without concerning the self (Baston, 1987). Teachers need to pay more attention on their students' well-being rather than their personal well-being. Altruism, based on Batson (1987) consider motivations for benefiting others, altruism is a way that includes benefiting another as a means to benefit oneself, as long as the self-benefits are internally rather than externally administered. This research is aimed at obtaining teachers altruism in Jakarta associated with the teachers' attitude toward their students in education. Connectedness is measured based on a) duration of relationships, b) frequency of interaction, c) knowledge of the other person's goal, d) sense of intimacy, e) self-disclosure to others, f) familiarity to others (Starzyk et al, 2006). The result reflects altruism and connectedness in teachers' attitude in education in Jakarta. Discussions include considerations on educational program. Keyword: altruism, teachers, connectedness, education

iafor The International Academic Forum www.iafor.org

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The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2013 Official Conference Proceedings

Osaka, Japan

The development quality of a nation depends on the quality of human resources of its people, and the human resource quality depends on the quality of education The objectives of educating and developing the nation quality are the mission and responsibility to be accomplished from every professional teacher in Indonesia (Dimyati, 2002). There are various problem found in Indonesia's education, such as the declining of students moral (juvenile delinquency, school fighting), less unequal learning opportunities, low internal efficiency of the education system, status of educational institutions in Indonesia are not applying, educational management in line with national development, and unprofessional human resources engaged in education (Nurhadi, 2004). Thus, the impact of which can be observed is the result of unsatisfactory and poor education. The Indonesian education facts are need to be concerned (Stevanus & Mulat, 2005). With these reasons, Jakarta Education Government conducts a symposium for Jakarta's area teacher, with the Education With Heart topic. It aim is to improve the conditions of teachers to be more professional in teaching and using the "conscience". Thus, the phenomenon of declining morals learners can overcome after the teachers get the new knowledge about educate with heart & awareness. The second aim is to make a descriptive research about the psychological altruism motivation of their own, because as the heart of education, teacher supposed to have the altruism quality, as caring is one of the factors to increase the student's school connectedness. Teacher is a profession that has its job description to be an inspiratory, motivator, organizer, initiators and facilitator (Djamarah, 1997). To be a teacher as a professional job, need an intense motivation. There are two motivations in teacher, the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The extrinsic motivation rewards are as seen in public, external attraction of occupation, such as money, prestige, and power. The intrinsic motivation rewards are internal psychic and spiritual satisfaction from one's work, such as personal sense of accomplishment or an enjoyment of the work itself (Parkay, 2013). One of the most important reasons one's choosing a teacher profession is to have a desire to serve. Parkay (2013) said that a teacher wants their life's work to have meaning, to be more than just a job. Teacher profesion characteristic is a job that motivated by the need to help others, instead of the financial needs (Stinnett, 1968). Altruistic is one of the characters to be desire in a teacher. Scott and Dinham (1999) stated that the strongest motivational factors for teachers are altruism, commitment and personal improvement. Altruism is a concept used for identifying individuals who are self-sacrificing and directing their concern toward others. According to some theoreticians, altruism is helping others without an external award (Macaulay & Berkowitz, 1970). Mayers (1993) defined altruism as helping others without any expectations and concerning others. Altruism as caring for no obvious reward other than the belief that someone else will benefit or avoid harm (Fung, 1988). Altruism represents an amalgamation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which either permit or coerce individuals to take responsibility for or care for another and to sacrifice things dearly held. Traditionally the caring professions have been characterized by a self-professed altruism, that is, a selfless service on behalf of or for others (Thompson et.al, 1994). 303

The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2013 Official Conference Proceedings

Osaka, Japan

Altruism is also acting morally. It is a specific set of helpful acts-those that meet some standard of goodness or morality. The link between altruism and morality appears to be based on the juxtaposition of each to self-interest, as helping in order to gain internal rather than external rewards. Altruism, based on Batson (1987) consider motivations for benefiting others, altruism is a way that includes benefiting another as a means to benefit oneself, as long as the self-benefits are internally rather than externally administered. According Batson theory (1987) altruism is a helping behavior which have two basic motivation. First is an empathic concern, the motivation of reducing the difficulties of others and sympathy for the troubles of others. Second, personal distress is a concern for any inconvenience oneself in the face of difficulties of others and motivation to reduce tension or discomfort. In school setting as a teacher there's no day without altruistic behavior needed. Altruism and its motives seem to permeate the teaching profession itself. Mateer (1993) said that in everyday teaching profession there are countless work such as reports and stories about teachers working after-school hours tutoring struggled students, providing advice or even comfort to students in challenging situations, and willing to do these things despite a low standard wage. Teachers were overwhelmingly concerned with the needs of their students, and they were willing to address these needs, being focused on intrinsic rewards, not material extrinsic rewards. Connectedness appears to be related to one`s opinion of self in relation to other people. In particular the scale focuses on the emotional distance or connectedness between the self and other people, both friends and society, taps those aspects of belongingness that Kohut (1984) describes as an "intense and pervasive sense of security" and the sense of being "human among humans. A sense of teacher's connectedness is one of the most important factors in promoting socio-emotional well-being and positive youth development (Stracuzzi & Mills, 2010). Strong scientific evidence demonstrates that increased student connection to school decreases absenteeism, fighting, bullying and vandalism while promoting educational motivation, classroom engagement, academic performance, and school attendance and completion rates. In order to succeed, students need to feel they "belong" in their school (Stracuzzi & Mills, 2010). In the value of connections theory, school connection is the belief by students that adults in the school care about their learning and about them as individuals. Students are more likely to succeed when they feel connected to school. Individual students who perceive their teachers and school administrators as creating a caring, well - structured learning environment in which expectations are high, clear and fair are more likely to be connected to school. Increasing the number of students connected to school is likely to improve critical accountability measures (Blum, 2004). There are seven qualities that influence students' positive attachment to school: having a sense of belonging and being part of a school, liking school, perceiving that teachers are supportive and caring, having good friends within school, being engaged in their own current and future academic progress, believing that discipline is fair and effective, participating in extracurricular activities (Blum, 2004). While each has its own nuance, school connectedness is influenced through the 304 relationships; first, Individuals (students interaction of three dynamic concepts and

The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2013 Official Conference Proceedings

Osaka, Japan

and school staff), second thing is Environment (School climate and school bonding), third thing culture: social needs and school learning priorities. Relationships formed between students and school staff members are at the heart of school connectedness (Blum, 2004). This research is aimed at obtaining teachers altruism in Jakarta associated with the teachers' attitude toward their students in education. Connectedness is measured based on a) duration of relationships, b) frequency of interaction, c) knowledge of the other person's goal, d) sense of intimacy, e) self-disclosure to others, f) familiarity to others (Starzyk et al, 2006).

Measurements Respondents/Participants characteristic and research methods The research respondents are the Jakarta teachers (preschool to high-school teacher) who attend a national symposium in Jakarta on November 29th 2012. The symposium is held by the corporation Jakarta Education Government and KataHati Institute, with the theme of ‘The awareness to educate with heart'. 714 questionnaires are to be filled by the teachers who attend to the symposium. The research design is quasi experiment (non-experimental) with convenience sampling. The reasons, that the research samples are accordance to the existing research on the current symposium.

Results The research results are analyzed with the SPSS Statistic Programs. From 714 respondents, the altruism among teacher are above average. The empiric mean is higher than the hypothec mean (hypothec mean = 3, with Likert scale 1-5). The empiric mean is 3,1491, with the specific of emphatic concern dimension is high (4,0373) and personal distress dimension is low (2,2609).

Table 1 Respondents' altruistic description Altruism

Empiric Mean

Hypothetic Mean

Altruism variable

3,1491

3,00

Emphatic Dimension

4,0373

3,00

Personal Distress Dimension

2,2609

3,00

Altruism variable analysis from various data control 305

The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2013 Official Conference Proceedings

Osaka, Japan

In this research, with the aim to correlate with the connectedness variable, the researchers use the control data to analyze the differential measurement from the respondents. The differential testing from various measurements are to be reviewed from the altruistic level of respondents. The data control aspects are gender differences, teaching level, education level, teaching experiences, income, interactions media with students, discussion topics with students, and the frequency interaction with students. The results can be seen in the table below Table 2 Altruism differential measurement/test from Control Data Differential Test Mean Difference Test Sig (p)

Explanation

Gender Education level

Male (3,1697) t = 1,200 Primary educationF =13,220 (3,1876)

0,230 0,000*

Not significant Significant

Educational background Teaching experience Income

Doctoral (3,3460) F = 0,991

0,435

Not significant

0,007*

Significant

0,122

Not significant

0,912

Not significant

0,137

Not significant

0,001*

Not significant

16-20 yearsF = 2,567 (3,2405) 15-20 millionF = 1,825 rupiah/month (3,6255) Interaction media Other mediaF = 0,092 (3,1653) Discussion topic Other topicsF = 1,754 (3,2154) Frequency Other (3,2297) F = 5,846 Interaction The Altruism Frequencies

From the data processing results, there are 477 respondents classified to have a high altruism level (66,8%) and the 237 respondents to have low altruism level (33,2%). This classification obtain from classified the altruism mean of the respondents; >3,00 = high, 3,00 = average,
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