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CHAPTER IV SOCIAL, CULTURE, ARTS and ECONOMIC SCIENCE

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Editor in Chief

: Prof. Dr. Drh. Darmawi (University of Syiah Kuala, Indonesia)

Editors

:

Prof. Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky (University Teknologi Malaysia) Prof. Gloria Sheila E. Coyoca (Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology, Philippines) Prof. Dr. Jamaluddin Iddris, M.Ed (UIN Arraniry, Indonesia) Prof. Dr. Abdul Hamid, M.Pd (State University of Medan, Indonesia) Dr. Gregory Vanderbilt (Department of History, UCLA/ CRCS) Natsuko Saeki, P.hD (Nagoya Gaekin University, Japan) Dr. Boriboon Pinprayong (AIT, Thailand) Dr. H.M. Sayuti, M.Sc (Malikussaleh University, Indonesia) Dr. Halus Satriawan, S.P, M.Si (Almuslim University, Indonesia)

ISSN : 2477-1899 Copyright © 2015 Printed November 2015

Message from the Rector Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. Greetings. Ladies and gentlemen, It is an honor indeed to open this conference, the 1stAlmuslim International Conference on Science, Technology, and Society (AICSTS). On behalf of Almuslim University (Umuslim), I would like to extend a warm welcome to all participants and our speakers who are with us to make this a notable and exciting event a success. At Almuslim University, we emphasize the best possible achievements in education and research and are also committed to innovation and technology. Today, we are faced with more challenges in these spheres, and therefore, as members of the academic community, we have a duty to find innovative research solutions for them. Hence, this conference is an excellent forum for experts, professionals, researchers, and students as well, to present, share, and discuss their knowledge and experiences with all of us. In line with such idealism, it is really a privilege for us to host you, not just this year, but for years to come, to give and provide opportunities to contribute lasting and practical solutions to the challenges that confront us from time to time. This conference includes keynote speeches, oral and poster parallel sessions on topics in the field of sciences, life sciences, engineering, social sciences and humanities. Finally, we know that in the origination of this conference there may be some shortcomings, for which we would like deeply apologize in advance to all of you. This is the University’s first experience in organizing an international conference like this. With deepest sincerity hereby we would also like to thank all the keynote speakers for your contribution, time and support for this conference. Our heartfelt appreciation goes to all the authors of the selected papers for their effort and hard work. I also would like thank the organizing committee of the conference for their hard work in making this event a success. I wish to encourage them to continue organizing more events and to take other initiatives as well in future. To support and sustain important research linkages for dialogue and facilitate exchanges of ideas such as this will certainly generate more new discoveries and innovations in years to come. It is everyone’s optimism that all we will learn from this first international conference in 2015 will be used as a reference for the development of research, as well as guidance for the readers in education and in academic profession. I am sure the committee of this conference has served you in the best way they can to make your brief stay with us a lasting memory.

Thank you. Dr. Amiruddin Idris, SE, M.Si

Message from the Committee Chairman Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. Greetings, Ladies and Gentlemen, I would like to take this occasion to cordially welcome all participants of the 1stAlmuslim International Conference on Science, Technology, and Society (AICSTS). This conference is held at our beloved campus of Almuslim University (Umuslim), Bireuen, from November 7th to November 8th, 2015. Almuslim University, the home of 7 faculties, is one of the major private universities in Aceh. We are assured that the 416 scientific participants will contribute to productive discussions and exchanges of scientific experiences that will bring about success to this conference. Participants from 9 countries, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, United States, India, Taiwan, England, and Qatar, have optimally marked an international scope to the conference. I would like to express my gratitude to the Coordination of Private Higher Education Regional XIII Aceh, the Institute of Research and Community Services of Almuslim University and the committee members for helping us in organizing the conference. The conference and proceedings are a credit to a large group of people and everyone should be proud of the outcome. We are delighted with the vast responses of 152 submissions from researchers and practitioners. The knowledge bases that we are aiming to generate in the conferences topics are overwhelming due to the involvement of these experts from various fields of studies. Their papers will be published in the proceedings to provide permanent records of what has been presented. The proceedings are divided into four, Life Sciences, Engineering, Social Sciences and Humanities (Science Educations), and Social Sciences and Humanities (Economics, Social and Arts), and the papers published here will exhibit the current state of development in all aspects of important topics that are instrumental to all researchers in the various fields. They have succeeded in bringing together various aspects of developments and innovations in knowledge and technology that will benefit not only the academic community, but the society itself as well. We realize that there are still many shortcomings in the implementation of the arrangements of this conference. Therefore at this opportunity we also expect criticism and constructive suggestions from all stakeholders so that the conference arrangements in future will be more successful. Finally we would like to thank you all for all the support and assistance you have contributed to making this conference and its proceedings successful.

Thank you, Drs. Marwan Hamid, M.Pd

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS Boriboon Pinprayong: ASEAN ICT Manpower: (Case Study of Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam)

1

Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky: Water Quality Evaluation System for Assessing the Status and Suitability of the Citarum River Water for Various Uses and Its Aquatic Ecosystem

12

Gregory Vanderbilt: Religious Memory and Scientific Ethics after Hiroshima and Nagasaki

28

Gloria Shiela E Coyoca: Undertaking Global Health Issues through Research and Innovation

36

Cornelis Johan (Keess) Stigter: Climate Change: Its Danger for Our Production and Why it Escapes

Our Prediction

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

ASEAN ICT Manpower: (Case Study of Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam) Boriboon Pinprayong Adjunct Researcher of Internet Education and Research Laboratory, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand

Corressponding Author: [email protected] Abstract This study investigates the situations of ICT manpower in Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam in 2012 and performs a projection of ICT manpower for 2018. This study involved both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. It describes the ICT development policies in the three countries to provide some context of the study. Indepth interviews and questionnaires were conducted to collect data from ICT manpower in core ICT industries, non-ICT industries and education sectors. The majority of ICT manpower in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam obtained a bachelor’s degree, and are currently officer/technician/ engineer. In addition, the average salary rate is 690 USD in Thailand, 630 USD in Indonesia, and 350 USD in Vietnam. In 2018, the number of ICT manpower in Thailand will have about 634,981 persons, 3,122,800 persons in Indonesia, and 868,136 persons in Vietnam. It is found in the study that the ICT manpower in these countries has the same weakness, which is English communication. Regarding AEC, most ICT companies in three countries will gain advantages from AEC by seeking business opportunities and expanding businesses. This is an empirical study which investigates cross-country the profile of the ICT Manpower in Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam in 2012. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses of ICT manpower in the three countries based on the survey data obtained. Based on the results, it offers some recommendations on how to develop ICT manpower for a global labour-market competition and ASEAN. Keywords: ASEAN, ICT Manpower, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, ICT Professional Standards

Introduction Nowadays, information technology has been rapidly changed with respect to an algorithm, structure and platform. In order to cope with the challenges of the waves of innovation and technological changes, ASEAN submitted ICT development in the next five years under the name “ASEAN ICT Masterplan 2015 1

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

(AIM 2015)”. This Masterplan is driven by six strategies of economic transformation, people empowerment and engagement, innovation, infrastructure development, human capital development, and bridging the digital divide to deliver 4 key outcomes: 1) ICT as an engine of growth for ASEAN countries, 2) recognition for ASEAN as a global ICT hub, 3) enhanced quality of life for peoples of ASEAN, and 4) contribution towards ASEAN integration (ASEAN, 2011). As a result, ASEAN Membership: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnamwill planto develop their ICT infrastructures and ICT manpower. Nevertheless, factors that affect the development and capacity of ICT manpower in ASEAN countries are: 1) the mechanisms of education and innovation, 2) the support for ICT infrastructure in the country, 3) facilities of education/training, 4) the wages of labour, 5) the desire for a country to move forward, 6) the level of the community's economy, and 7) Government policies related to ICT. The paper first describes briefly the ICT development policies of Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. Then, it discusses ICT professional standards, and describes the research methodology and data collection. After that, it provides the results of the quantitative and qualitative analyses on the current situations of ICT manpower, number of the ICT manpower, need for ICT manpower in market, strengths and weaknesses of ICT manpower, professional standards of ICT employees. Finally, it provides the impacts of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) and ICT business trends in Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam. ICT Development Policies in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam In 2011, Thailand had been upgraded income categorization from a lower-middle income economy to an upper-middle income economy by The World Bank, and rank sixty-seven in the Networked Readiness Index in 2015 by The World Economic Forum. In order to enhance the competitiveness of the Thai industrial sector and prepare Thailand for the ASEAN Economic Community, the Government has revealed the Masterplan under name “Digital Economy”. This Masterplan covers in four areas: Digital Commerce, Digital Entrepreneur, Digital Innovation, and Digital Content, and consists of five strategies, namely, Hard Infrastructure, Soft Infrastructure, Service Infrastructure, Digital Economy Promotion, and Digital Society (GSMA, 2015). According to Thailand ICT Development Policy, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT) has formulated the ICT 2020 Policy Framework. According to vision and goals of the ICT 2020 policy, “ICT is a key driving force in leading Thai people towards knowledge and wisdom and leading society towards equality and sustainable economy” (NECTEC, 2011). Furthermore, the ICT 2020 policy framework set five strategies: Strategy 1: Universal and secure ICT and broadband infrastructure, Strategy 2: ICT Human Resource and ICT Competent Workforce to emphasise the development of ICT employees’ knowledge and skills and the expansion of a number and quality highly-skilled ICT manpower based on international standard. Strategy 3: ICT industry competitiveness and ASEAN integration, Strategy 4: Smart government: ICT for government service innovation and good governance, and Strategy 5: ICT for Thailand competitiveness and vibrant economy.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Indonesia has the largest of population in ASEAN and ranks seventy-nine in the Networked Readiness Index in 2015. In order to develop Indonesia as one of the world’s main food suppliers, the Government has revealed the Masterplan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Economic Development of Indonesia (MP3EI). This plan is implemented for the period of 2005-2025 by focusing on eight main programs, namely the development of agriculture, mining, energy, industry, maritime, tourism, telecommunication, and development of strategic zones. The implementation strategy of MP3EI will integrate three main elements: 1) developing the regional economic potential in six Indonesia Economic Corridors: Sumatra Economic Corridor, Java Economic Corridor, Kalimantan Economic Corridor, Sulawesi Economic Corridor, Bali – Nusa Tenggara Economic Corridor, and Papua – Kepulauan Maluku Economic Corridor; 2) strengthening national connectivity locally and internationally; and 3) strengthening human resource capacity and national science & technology to support the development of main programs in every economic corridor (Ministry for Economic Affairs, 2011). According to ICT development, this Masterplan emphasises ICT industry development in Java Economic Corridor only. Furthermore, in order to link the producers and users of science and technology, the government of Indonesia established intermediary institutions to achieve this objective such as Business Innovation Center (BIC), Business Technology Center (BTC), Center for Innovation - LIPI, Center for Nuclear Partnership - BATAN, BPPT engineering, and Technology Incubator Center – BPPT. Meanwhile, Vietnam has quickly and continuously developed all ICT sectors, and ranks eighty-five in the Networked Readiness Index in 2015. In order to develop Vietnam into an industrialised and modernised country in 2020, the government has revealed Vietnam’s Socio-Economic Development Strategy for the period of 2011-2020 (Ministry of Planning and Investment, 2012). This strategy is aimed to stimulate investments in major industries through tax incentives, for example, goods export, agriculture and forestry, advanced technology industries (such as manufacturing computer software and components), environment, research and development, labour intensive industries, and natural resources and infrastructure. Regarding ICT development in Vietnam, Ministry of Information and Communication set the National strategies and plannings on ICT development to drive ICT sector during 2011-2020. . In 2013, the Government of Vietnam established the National Commission on Application Information Technology (NCAIT) to promote the use and development of IT in state agencies. Moreover, Vietnam expanded ICT sector to upcountry by establishing Department of Information Communication in 63 provinces (MIC, 2014). As for ICT manpower development, by the end of the year 2013, Vietnam had 290 universities and colleges and 228 vocational schools which offered training courses on telecommunications and IT majors with the total enrollment quota exceeding 80.000 students (MIC, 2014). ICT Professional Standards The ICT professional standards have been used to measure or evaluate each individual ICT employee in terms of potential, skills, attitudes, competency, and knowledge. In addition, the ICT professional standard can enable public and private organisationsto more effectively recruit and develop ICT 3

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

employees. Based on the existing relevant data and information, it is found that various ICT professional standards to implement in several countries.InEurope, the European Commission developed and implemented European Qualification Framework (EQF) and European e-Competence Framework (eCF).The EQF uses to compare the education standard levels between the European Union member countries. The e-CFaims to develop ICT manpower, and support all industries in Europe. In the United Kingdom (UK), government developed The ICT professional standards under name Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA). In Asia, Japan proposed standard under name Skill Standards for IT Professional (ITSS). Meanwhile, ASEANhave developed ICT professional standard, in order to measure ICT manpower knowledge and skills, and use to compare the ICT professional standard between the ASEAN member states. ASEAN ICT professional standard set ICT competency at three levels as follows: Level 1 Basic Level - Has basic knowledge and skills which is adequate to perform a given task(s) under supervision of management. Level 2 Intermediate Level - Has professional knowledge and skills to perform a given task(s) independently, and, if required, can supervise others; understand the number of comparative approaches to problems in their fields; and be able to apply them efficiently, and Level 3 Advanced Level - Has professional knowledge and skills in both technical and management to lead a team in inexperienced environment. Methodology This study used qualitative research, and quantitative research approaches. We conducted in-depth interviews with executives responsible for ICT management in public and private organisations, and then questionnaire surveys to collect relevant data during 2012 –2014 in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. The sampling respondents were selected from ICT manpower in core and non-core ICT industries sectors in the three countries. The total number of returned and usable questionnaires are 589 questionnaires and 87 interviews from Thailand, 214 questionnaires and 15 interviews from Indonesia, and 200 questionnaires and 15 interviews from Vietnam. Findings The results of the study on ICT manpower in Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam are presented as follows:

ICT Manpower in Thailand The study of demographic characteristics reveals that there were 589 respondents, 70.6% of which were male and 29.4% were female and the average age of the respondent was not over 33 years old. Most respondents are employed as technician/ engineer. Regarding education, most of them had a bachelor’s degree, followed by master’s degree, and their average work experiences are between 1-10 years. For salary rate, the average salary rate was 690 USD. 1.

The Number of ICT Manpower in Thailand. Base on the report of Thailand ICT manpower National Statistical Office of Thailand and Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board during 2001-2012, in order to forecast the number of ICT manpower in 4

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Thailand during 2013 – 2018, this study uses the Inverse Cobb – Douglas Production Functions, which uses Regression Analysis for the calculation to find the relationship between the number of manpower and gross capital stock, and time. Thus, if the Thai economy keeps expanding with consistent growth of GDP and CAP, the overall number of ICT manpower also tends to increase from 519,703 persons in 2013 to 540,947 persons in 2014, 563,065 persons in 2015, and 634,981 persons in 2018.

2. Need for ICT Manpower in Thailand Market. The result of interviews suggest that hardware sector needed for employees to fill in the position of product managers (who possess understanding and knowledge about ICT businesses and technology), network engineer, system engineer, developer, data communication specialist, security specialist, system manager, project manager, and system architecture specialist. The software and service sectors required employees in the level of software development specialist and project manager with the software specialist abilities. While telecommunication sector required employees in telecommunication engineering, radio network, database administration, IT security, network security and data analytic (Employee with IT knowledge and abilities to analyse data to find out customers’ needs which will enable the company to better respond to their needs).

3. Strengths and Weaknesses of ICT Manpower in Thailand. As for strengths of Thai ICT manpower when compared with those of other ASEAN countries, the executives of the sample organisations viewed that Thai employees are careful and can work effectively in programming. They have problem solving skills and can effectively develop systems. Also, they are flexible and helpful, which are good for consultation services. Meanwhile, the weaknesses mentioned by the interviewed executives include the following: lack of presentation skills, lack of management skills, lack of business knowledge, lack of overall business pictures, lack of discipline, lack of responsibilities, impatience, lack of determination, lack of motivation to seek more knowledge by themselves, and lack of English skill. All the executives advised that English texts are necessary. Thus, Thai ICT manpower must be increased English skills because English is important for development of knowledge and abilities since ICT technology originated from the West while Eastern countries adopted such technology from them.

4. Professional Standards of ICT Employees in Thailand. According to the professional standards of ICT Employees in Thailand, several government offices,such as Thailand Professional Qualification Institute (TPQI), Council of Engineers, Department of Skill Development, Office of the Education Council, etc.are attempted to develop professional standards to evaluate the potential of ICT manpower. This might affect the ICT manpower or entrepreneurs. Meanwhile, private sectoremphasised universal standards, such as ISO, ITIL and COBIT, as well as vendor certificates, such as MCITP (Microsoft Certificate IT Professional), CCNA (CISCO Certified Network Associate), VCP (VMware Certified Professional), SAP and ORACLE. However, the results of surveys and interviews suggested a advantages of ICT professional standards to support the ICT manpower and companies as follows: 1) increase potential: ICT professional standards enable employees to learn about their own knowledge and abilities, it is a way to encourage 5

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

themselves to learn and meet the set standards; 2) clear self-development strategies: ICT professional standard framework set requirements for ICT employees to pass criteria in each level so employees see how they can grow in their professions, set the goals for themselves, and learn which areas they need to develop to meet the goals; 3) reliability and acceptance: ICT professional standards are criteria for setting the minimum knowledge and expertise in professions, employee passing professional standards will receive certificates certifying the knowledge and abilities in accordance with what is specified in the professional standards; 4) employee planning: ICT certificates that an employee receives from passing the professional standards certifies skills, knowledge and the minimum abilities of that person, it is an additional information useful for recruiting employee for work to suit each position; 5) build mutual understanding: ICT professional standards enable all the sectors related with ICT systems in Thailand to understand correctly about ICT ability levels in different fields. This professional standard framework can also be used as a reference for developing ICT manpower; 6) upgrade industries: ICT professional standards help develop the ICT manpower in terms of knowledge and abilities, they can perform tasks better. Once employees possess knowledge and abilities in accordance with the set standards, the overall productivity of the industry will be better, meet the standards, and is more widely accepted. In addition, the results of the surveys and in-depth interviews showed disadvantages of ICT Professional Standards to impact ICT manpower and companies as follows: 1) lack of knowledge in the field of work: as professional standards encourage employees to have expertise; this may lead to the fact that ICT employees view the tasks only in the dimension of their own expertise. As a result, the overall Thai ICT employees may lack the comprehensive ICT knowledge; 2) higher expenses: Various businesses will have more expenses on employee as they are needed for supporting ICT employees to pass the professional standard tests.

5. The Impacts of AEC and ICT Business Trends in Thailand. AEC will bring advantages to Thailand in term of businesses, technologies and manpower. At the business level, most companies are expected to be able to rapidly expand business and outsource their business activities in the ICT service sector. Furthermore, they can recruit foreignmanpower with lower wage. On the other hand,In order to compete in AEC market, Thai companies should be developed and adjusted products quality to high standards, including technology change. At the same time, ICT manpower should be developed individual skills such as English language skill and working skills. Regarding the new ICT business in the future, the results of technology and customer behaviour continued to change in Thailand market. As a result, most of ICT companiesand non-ICT companies will adjust business plans and develop new products/services by focusing on Cloud Computing, Big Data, and Mobile Application and Business.

ICT Manpower in Indonesia The study of demographic characteristics found that there were 216 respondents, 74.10% of which were male and 25.90% were female and the average age of the respondent was 30 years old or below. Most respondents were employed as a technician/ engineer. Regarding education, most of them had a 6

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

bachelor’s degree, followed by diploma, and the experience was 1- 5 years. For salary rate, the average salary rate was 630 USD.

1. The Number of ICT Manpower in Indonesia. Based on the information of ICT manpower in Indonesia during 2005-2010 by The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP or ESCAP), this study used the method of Linear Regression to predict ICT manpower in Indonesia during 2011-2018. The result suggested that, the ICT manpower in Indonesia will increase from 2,042,000 persons in 2013 to 2,258,000 persons in 2014, and 2,474,000 persons in 2015. Moreover, Indonesia will have about 3,122,800 persons of ICT manpower in 2018.

2. Need for ICT Manpower in Indonesia Market. According to a study by the Economist Intelligence Unit conducted for British Council in June 2012, it was found that the Indonesian economy is experiencing changes, from the focus on agriculture to manufacturing industry. According to Indonesia’s economic plan for 2011 – 2023 (MP3EI), most of the budget is allocated for coal, mine, petroleum and natural gas. Meanwhile, the ICT industry is one of the ten industries the government aims to develop. The ICT industry development developed the broadband business to reach the growth of 8% in 2014 (from 0.5% in 2010) and aimed to stimulate four main businesses, including device manufacturing, professional and consulting services, content and applications development, and ecosystems innovation. In order to develop these businesses, Indonesia needs to have employees with a degree in computer science, which is still rare at present. For Indonesian market need, important knowledge and expertise for the ICT manpower were in network, databases, integrated systems, software engineering and the ability to analyse needs, system planning, quality assurance, filing system, and integration with Cloud Computing. However, there are some factors about how significant changes can affect demand for Indonesia ICT manpower: 1) when companies use computerized devices and modern tools, 2) the entry of foreign companies in the pioneering technology to Indonesia, 3) the flow of information and communication needs that are quite high in every work unit/institution/company, 4) started to use the system information in doing a job that is considered to be more practical and easier than the job manually.

3. Strengths and Weaknesses of ICT Manpower in Indonesia. According to a review of strength in ICT manpower in Indonesia when compared with other ASEAN countries, the executives of sample organisations who were interviewed gave the opinion that IT manpower in Indonesia is of high potential, particularly in software operation and adoption. Some Indonesian employees possess qualifications suitable for job positions in ICT large companies. The ICT manpower in Indonesia has some weaknesses, for instance, initiatives, innovation, diligence, access of information, lack of interest from the government sector to develop ICT knowledge and English skills, and breadth of knowledge. In order to increase ICT manpower performance, some organisationsrecognised the importance of aiding technology of developers, such as programming, education, knowledge and experience development, logics in problem solving, importance of computer systems, and organisation leadership. Moreover, mutual guidance for operation should be established, for example, arranging regular training to 7

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

develop new knowledge, undergoing training, workshops and seminars to gain modern knowledge and expertise by including the Employee training budget in the annual budget, and organizing internal and external training.

4. Professional Standards of ICT Manpower in Indonesia. For professional standards of ICT manpower in Indonesia, the standards mentioned by Indonesian respondents are for certificates issued by some companies like Cisco, Mikrotik, Microsoft and others. Furthermore, there are some standards in Indonesia which have received the international certification, for instance, standards for ICT graduates or SKKNI. It was mentioned that the standards should link with the international standards. The organisation with the role to set Indonesia’s professional standards is the Ministry of Communications and Informatics). In general, professional standards are one of the factors for determining the manpower’s salary rates. The sample respondents viewed that the current professional standards are good and sufficient, for example, certificates of various companies, such as CISCO, MSEE, ORACLE, JAVA, etc. which are accepted in Indonesia and internationally. In their view, The advantage of ICT professional standards are: 1) develop universal language system to facilitate ICT jobs without having to undergo long training 2) have manpower with widely accepted certification 3) potential of ICT manpower is determined by the same standard, and they have a chance to prove their potential both at national and international levels 4) professional standards help increase skills of ICT manpower. Despite a lot of advantages, ICT professional standards also had some loopholes, including 1) financial problems related with the certificate issuing organisations as they are not located in Indonesia. 2) ICT professional standards will not be taken into consideration or neglect to process the application portfolio. When ICT employees have the knowledge and accept their performance by their agencies. 3) It will be more difficult to search for employees which meet ICT professional standards. As a result, all the related organisations should involve ICT curriculum, including private and foreign organisations, in the same way as Indonesia’s governmental organisations.

5. The Impacts of AEC and ICT Business Trends in Indonesia. Regarding the impacts of AEC, most of the ICT executives thought that they can gain benefits from AEC by seeking business opportunity into AEC market, exchanging knowledge and technology, sharing technological development, and expanding cooperation. On the other hand, some ICT executives thought that they will not gain advantages from AEC. For the ICT business trends in the future, enterprise state and private sector firms have important roles to drive ICT industry in Indonesia. Most of companies expect changes in the ICT industry such as: 1) a more "user friendly" technology, 2) the establishment of strong technology-based companies, like Google, Microsoft or Macintosh, in Indonesia, 3) the ability to compete internationally, 4) the shift towards the use of mobile devices (mobile device), 5) the development of software industry as well as hardware industry. Based on telecommunication structure and ICT manpower skills, ICT companies in Indonesia will use joint venture strategy to develop new products/services by focusing on Cloud Computing, Mobile Business, ICT Outsourcing, and Call Center.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

ICT Manpower in Vietnam The study of demographic characteristics found that there were 200 respondents, 69.5% of which were male and 30.5% were female and the average age of the respondent was not over 30 years. Most of the respondents were employed as a technician/ engineer. Regarding education, most of them have a bachelor’s degree, followed by diploma, and their work experiencesare in the range of 1- 5 years. For salary rate, the average salary rate was 350 USD.

1. The Number of ICT Manpower in Vietnam. Based on Vietnam ICT White Book in 2009 - 2014, this study used the method of Linear Regression to predict ICT manpower in Vietnam during 2013 - 2018, and found that, Vietnam ICT manpower will have about 441,008 persons in 2013, 505,086 persons in 2014, 578,324 persons in 2015, and 868,136 persons in 2018. However, the ICT personnel development plan of the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) aims to increase the number of Vietnam ICT manpower to 1 million persons in 2020 in order to support ICT Industry and export ICT manpower to global market (Minister of Information and Communications, 2012).

2. Need for ICT Manpower in Vietnam Market. The result of in-depth interviews suggested that the ICT manpower should possess knowledge and expertise in hardware and software. Employees must be able to control themselves emotionally and be flexible in stressful working environment, develop specialisation and accomplish tasks assigned by the company. In addition, Vietnam market need manpower with good communication skills and could communicate with foreigners. Thus, the most important elements are foreign language skills, abilities to do research, management, team work and presentation skills. In other words, Vietnam has a lot of knowledgeable ICT manpower, but without expertise.

3. Strengths and Weaknesses of ICT Manpower in Vietnam. According to a review of strength in the ICT manpower in Vietnam when compared with other ASEAN countries, the executives of sample organisationsviewed that Vietnam has large number of ICT manpower who are youths with creativity, and love for learning and new experiences. They are active and dedicate themselves to work, and can learn fast. Its ICT manpower has high skills and the wages are lower than in other countries. Strength of Vietnam’s ICT is knowledge. Vietnam possesses knowledge and the ICT manpower with the right degree and potential in research and development in specialised ICT. In general, Vietnam manpower is hardworking and determined. Each employee has various abilities. For example, programmers can learn about network or system integration. For weaknesses, the ICT manpower in Vietnam has limitations in language and professional training. These include the lack of creativity, independence, teamwork skills, knowledge and experience. As a result, they are required for more technical training. Their working environment is not professional and there is no training in educational institutions. But the training in Vietnam is not systematically organised. Many training institutions have been established without trainers’ quality control. The ICT manpower can increase their skills only through work experiences. As a result, new graduates have low-level skills.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

4. Professional Standards of ICT Manpower in Vietnam. Based on the result of interviews, this study found that ICT professional standards do not affect the worker’s salary rate. The salary rate is dependent on the employee’s ability, knowledge and work experiences. However, the Vietnam government has a plan to develop professional standards of ICT manpower in the future.

5. The Impacts of AEC and ICT Business Trends in Vietnam. Most of the ICT executives believed that AEC will bring advantages in that Vietnamese ICT manpower will get to learn new technology more. Manpower with required skills will be easier to find, their wages will be cheaper than those in ASEAN, and more cooperation will be enhanced. The chance to export software and expand markets will also increase, with the focus on Indonesia or Malaysia market. The cooperation with other ASEAN countries can help promote the company among their overseas counterparts. In addition, there will be transfers of manpower, knowledge, new working methods, and exchanges of expertise or problem solving strategies. Regarding the new ICT business trends in the future, most of the ICT executives viewed that ICT companies in Vietnam will use joint venture strategy to develop and launchnew products/services. There are 1) Software Outsourcing Cluster 2) Data Center Service, and 3) Cloud Computing. Conclusion Regarding ICT demographic data of Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam, most of the ICT manpower in the three countries were male. Vietnam ICT manpower had a higher ratio of female manpower than Thailand and Indonesia, and most respondents in the three countries are employed as a technician/ engineer. Regarding education, most of the respondents have a bachelor’s degree, followed by master’s degree for Thailand, and diploma for Indonesia and Vietnam. Their ICT work experiences range from 1-10 years for Thailand and 1-5 years for Indonesia and Vietnam. For the average salary rate, Thailand has higher salary rates than Indonesia and Vietnam (690 USD in Thailand, 630 USD in Indonesia, and 350 USD in Vietnam). According the forecast of the number of ICT manpower in 2018, Thailand will have about 634,981 persons, 3.2 million persons in Indonesia, and 887,025 persons in Vietnam. Thus, Indonesia has the largest number of ICT manpower in ASEAN. As a result, Indonesia can quickly develop and launch ICT products/services to domestic markets and global markets. As for strengths and weaknesses of ICT employees in Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam, the interviewed executives of sample organisations viewed that the strengths of ICT employees in each country is different. Meanwhile the ICT employees in every country have the same weakness, which is English communication. Based on AEC in 2015, most ICT companies in three countries will gain advantages from AEC by seeking business opportunities and expanding businesses. However, they must be emphasised manpower skill development. For ICT businesses in the future, Thailand has planned to develop Cloud Computing, Big Data, and Mobile Application and Business. Indonesia will develop Cloud Computing, Mobile Business, ICT Outsourcing, and Call Center. Meanwhile, Vietnam has emphasiseddevelopment in terms of Software Outsourcing Cluster, Data Center Service, and Cloud Computing. Thus, these countries should plan to developed ICT manpower skills to serve new ICT businesses.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

In sum, the result of this study can help the public and private sectors in these three countries as well as in other countries in ASEAN to plan for the development of ICT manpower for a global labour-market competition and ASEAN. References ASEAN (2011),“We’re Stronger When We’re Connected: ASEAN ICT Masterplan 2015”, Jakarta,

Indonesia. Business Monitor International (2012), “Indonesia Information Technology Report Q3 2012”, London, UK. GSMA (2015) “Socio-economic impact of mobile broadband in Thailand and contribution to the digital economy”, London, UK. Information and Communication Technology Industry Promotion Bureau (2013), “A Study of ICT Professions to Create the ICT Professional Standards under the Thailand ICT Employee’s Potential Enhancement Project”, Bangkok, Thailand. Ministry for Economic Affairs (2011), “Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia Economic Development”, Jakarta: Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs, Republic of Indonesia. National Electronics and Computer Technology Center:

NECTEC (2011), “Thailand Information and

Communication Technology Policy Framework (2011-2020)”, Bangkok, Thailand. Minister

of

Information

and

Communications

(MIC)

(2009-2014),

“Vietnam

Information

and

Communication Technology White Book”, Information and Communication Publishing House, Ha

Noi, Vietnam. Ministry of Planning and Investment (2012), “Implementation of Sustainable Development”, National

Report at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO+20), Ha Noi, Vietnam. Soumitra Dutta, Thierry Geiger, and Bruno Lanvin (2015),“The Global InformationTechnology Report 2015”, World Economic Forum and INSEAD. Unesco Bangkok (2008), “Strategy Framework for Promoting ICT Literacy in the Asia-Pacific Region”,

Bangkok, Thailand.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Water Quality Evaluation System for Assessing the Status and Suitability of the Citarum River Water for Various Uses and Its Aquatic Ecosystem Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security, Research Institute for Sustainable Environment, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia

Abstract The Citarum river water is the most important water sources in Indonesia. The river that supports a population of 28 million people, delivers 20% of Indonesia's gross domestic product, and provides 80% of surface water to carry through the West Tarum Canal to the Jakarta’s water supply authority, is one of the most polluted rivers in the world. Water quality degradation of this river increases from the year to year due to the increasing pollutant loads when released particularly from Bandung region of the upstream areas into river without treatment. This will be facing the chronic problems of water pollution for supporting the suitability of water for different uses. This study used the Water Quality Evaluation System to asses the suitability of water in term of the Water Quality Aptitude (WQA) for five different uses and its aquatic ecosystem. The assessment of ten selected stations was found that the WQA ranges from the suitable quality for agriculture and livestock watering uses to unsuitable for biological potential function, drinking water production, and leisure and sport upstream the Saguling reservoir, generally. The role of Citarum river water in providing the demands of multipurpose uses particularly for Jakarta’s water supply will still be present in question for the years to come. The aptitude of water along the river is evaluated to contribute to decision support system for decision-making process and to provide as proper information for water users in allocating their water right wisely. Keywords: Citarum River, water quality aptitude, water quality evaluation system, water use. Introduction The problems of water quality degradation in the Citarum river will increase from the year to year due to the increasing of the pollutant loads particularly from Bandung region located in the upper areas of the river basin when released without treatment. Deterioration of water quality causing by the human activities in upper river basin reduces the usability of the resources for stakeholders in the down-stream 12

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

areas. Over the past 20 years, rapid urbanization and industrial growth have resulted in growing quantities of untreated domestic sewage, solid waste and industrial effluents being dumped in the river. Pollution levels now compromise public health, and the livelihoods of impoverished fishing families have been jeopardized by widespread fish kill (DGWR, 2007). To handle the problems in implementing of integrated water quality management are necessary to consider all the related aspects entire the basin to ensure the quality of stream water managed will improve gradually. For example, a refined the waste load allocation process is proposed with a reexamination of water quality violation to improve the allocation decision under uncertainty (Chen and Ma, 2008). Participatory surface water management is emphasized in order to achieve a holistic and sustainable water management decision-making process (Hartmann et al., 2006). The government of Indonesia has been acquainted with integrated approach since the Government Regulation No. 82 on water quality management and pollution control (PP No. 82/2001) was enacted in the year 2001. The PP No. 82/2001 serves as the national guideline to be referred in managing of water quality especially for water managers and operators who work at the national, provincial, and river basin level institutions. Although this regulation guides the role sharing amongst the related institutions and provides the technical arrangements including the classification of the national water quality criteria, the operational guidelines in implementing of the regulation to the specific characteristics of a river basin are still not envisaged properly. However, conducting an adaptive guideline in managing of water quality to the specific local condition is necessary (Fulazzaky, 2005). For example, salinity tolerance of macroinvertebrate communities varies in Eastern Australia; hence, water quality guidelines should be developed at a local or regional scale (Dunlop et al., 2008), and the nutrient pollution effects of moderate eutrophication to Runde river in Zimbabwe need to be addressed by appropriate agricultural and environmental policies that relate to water pollution and land use (Tafangenyasha and Dube, 2008). Water quality evaluation system (WQES) has been developed to aim two objectives that are (1) to classify the water quality in accordance with the actual condition of water in the stream and (2) to classify the water suitability for different uses and its ecosystem in accordance with the available water quality in the river (Oudin et al., 1999). Thus, the WQES serves to assess the status of water quality in the stream and to identify what the level of water is suitable to provide for the different uses and its ecosystem. This tool is considerable to a comprehensive approach in evaluating of water quality. The earlier study showed that a modeling approach can be used to estimate the impacts of water quality management programs in river basins (Holvoet et al., 2007). The models are possible to analyze the best recommendations needed for different levels of treatment derived in order to improve the water quality (Muhammetoglu et al., 2005). The results of water quality analysis using the WQES are offered to be considered in formulating of the water quality standards and the priority of measures needed to each region in the country, or anywhere, based on the specific local conditions. A systematical analysis of water quality data scientifically introduces to translate the data to actual explanations may be envisaged as decision support system (DSS). The accurate information obtained helps the decision makers in preparing the locally adaptive

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

policies and guidelines to water quality assessment and management besides serves as the proper tool to water users in allocating their water right wisely. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify the suitability of Citarum river water in providing the different water uses and its aquatic ecosystem, (2) to warn the water users in allocating their water right wisely based on the actual quality of water, and (3) to recommend the priorities of measures needed to be envisaged by the local authorities, central government, and all related stakeholders for improving water quality. The importance of WQES to assess the Citarum river water The Citarum river is the largest river in western Java, the region which contains Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia. The river originates in the mountain range near the southern coast of Java that includes many high volcanic peaks including Mount Wayang (elevation 2,200 m), and travels in a generally northwesterly direction for about 270 km until it empties into the Java sea east of Jakarta. Its drainage area is about 6,600 km2. The upstream reaches of the river run in mountainous to gently undulating hilly lands for about 200 km while the lower 70 km stretch drains a vast plat alluvial plain. The total area of the river basin to include certain bordering rivers and its tributaries as shown in Figure 1 is about 11,500 km 2 situated at latitude of 6°43′ S to 7°04′ S and longitude of 107°15′ E to 107°55′ E. The climate of the basin area is characterized by two distinct seasons: rainy season and dry season. The rainy season occurs during the months of November to April, while the dry season occurs during the remaining months. January is the wettest month, while August is the driest month. Naturally, runoff follows the same seasonal pattern. The average annual rainfall varies from 1,500 mm in the coastal areas to 4,000 mm in the mountainous areas in the upper part of the basin. This total runoff from the catchments is generally considered to be adequate to supply demands for all uses well into the future. To regulate surface water the Citarum river system has three cascade reservoirs, i.e., Saguling in the uppermost, Cirata in the middle, and Jatiluhur in the lower location. However, the spatial distribution of surface water resources is not uniform, and shortages do occur from time to time in certain areas.

Figure 1. Location of Citarum river basin 14

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

The population in the river basin area in 2003 was 17.8 million, with 4.1 million households – 30% derived livelihood from agriculture, 25% from industry and 45% from services. The population is projected to rise to 21.3 million by 2010. Industrial locations are generally interwoven with settlement and there is no clear zoning or separation of these land uses in the region. The area is a key rice producer for the country. There are a total of 390,000 ha of irrigated paddy fields, with 240,000 ha served by the Jatiluhur reservoir and canal system in the lower basin. Average annual demand from the Jatiluhur dam has increased from 140 m3/s in 1996 to 156 m3/s in 2004. The river that supports a population of 28 million people, delivers 20% of Indonesia's gross domestic product, and provides 80% of surface water to carry through the West Tarum Canal to the Jakarta’s water supply authority is one of the most polluted rivers in the world (DGWR, 2007). Urbanization in the last three decades was followed by rise in untreated household sewage, solid waste and industrial effluents. The more waste enters the river the more chances for spreading diseases, and already there are many fishing families that are starving because of tremendous decrease in fish population due to heavy pollution. Methodology General of quality evaluation system The assessment of river quality as shown in Figure 2 is commonly based on three choices, which are: (1) water choice, referred to as the WQES, to assess the physicochemical and biological quality of water in terms of the water quality index (WQI) and the suitability of water for supporting natural functions of the aquatic environment and water uses in terms of the water quality aptitude (WQA); (2) physical structures choice, referred to as the physical quality evaluation system, to assess the level of manmade change on the main channel, channel margins, and river banks; and (3) biological choice, referred to as the biological quality evaluation system, to assess the state of the biosciences of the aquatic environment (Oudin et al., 1999). The qualities of water and physical structures of a river influence the quality of biological aquatic substances component. This economically influences the exertions of water resources management in order to ensure the sustainable environmental development technicality. Water quality evaluation System

Physical quality evaluation system

(WQES)

(PQES)

(to assess water quality)

(to assess physical structure quality)

Biological quality evaluation system (BQES) (to assess biological quality)

Water uses and aquatic ecosystem environment (different impacts affecting by the river quality)

Figure 2. Global quality assessment of a river

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

The aims of the system are to assess river quality according to the qualities of each component, to identify the alterations in water quality or physical environment which are the cause of biological inbalances, and to assess the effects of an alteration of the river quality for human uses or on the natural functions of rivers. The tools for the assessment of the quality of rivers have been defined in a modular way and are adaptable to scientific and technical development as well as regional peculiarities. For example, water quality is assessed by reference to average alterations of parameter groups; new parameters can be included later in the description of quality by modifying the framework and functions of the evaluation tool. The evaluation tools for river quality consider three quality evaluations system that are: (1) common to all water partners consisting of the technicians, decision makers, and water users, (2) consistent with the international, regional, and local water regulations, and (3) help appreciate the environmental and asset problems. They make a link among partners. In this way, they are a tool for decision-making in the monitoring and the planning of the protection of rivers. Application of WQES is a part of river quality assessment that aims to convert the data of water quality to information is more suitable. This envisages possess the operational procedure standard generating the data to information based on all the parameters monitored. The information produced from the WQES as shown in Figure 3 provides two categories that are the water quality status and the water suitability for different uses and its aquatic ecosystem (Fulazzaky, 2009; Fulazzaky at al. 2010). Besides, to identify the critical parameter(s) affecting the quality of water and to verify the sources of pollution discharged to the stream water are reasonable (Fulazzaky, 2005). The WQES is based on the notion of indicators of modification from natural conditions. Parameters of similar nature and impact on environment are grouped into 15 alterations of indicators of water quality (see Table 1).

Database River water condition

Water quality monitoring

WQES

Information 1. Water quality status 2. Water suitability for biology and uses

River’ condition

River’ info

Figure 3. Link of river water quality condition to river water quality information Sources: Fulazzaky 2009; Fulazzaky et al. 2010

Certain institutions have the different objectives of water quality standardized such as WHO’s water quality standards specifically aim to standardize drinking and recreational water qualities, it is not compatible to only use the standard formalized by an institution to assess all the criteria of river water quality for the different uses of aquatic biota, drinking water production, recreation and aquatic sports, irrigation, livestock watering, and aquaculture comprehensively. This study used the thresholds criteria of French Water Agencies Study No. 64 original from the different sources of water quality standards i.e., Directive European, France, EPA USA, WHO and Canada, and completed by the rational advices from 16

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

the water quality experts (Oudin et al., 1999). The WQES promotes a tool to synchronize the evaluation of all water quality parameters data monitored to convert to the WQI or WQA. Hence, this study only focused on the analysis of WQA for understanding the suitability of Citarum river water for the different uses and its aquatic ecosystem. The use of WQES in examining the valid data to assess the suitability of water for different uses and aquatic biota is systematized using an aggregation method. Since the aggregation method to study the data of water quality monitored from a river is not necessary to conduct with a statistical analysis, the probability of exceptional situation takes account into evaluation in excluding the inconvenient results of lower than 10% from the list of useable data when the anomalous consequences of samples monitoring were verified. To assess the classes of WQA of stream water in a river using the WQES is to carry out after screening of the data via the Rule of 90% that is

F = (i - 0.5)/N or i = 0.9 N + 0.5

(1)

where i is row of the results, N is total number of results; and F = 0.9 is percentage or 90% of acceptable data to evaluate. To assess the alteration of suspended particles, the withheld rule is the 50% percentage, to avoid qualifying water after rainfall events which no exceptional characteristics and with a frequency superior to 10%. The formula is then

i = 0.5 N + 0.5

(2)

The rules need to be implemented due to the results monitoring the same parameter(s) of water quality are numerous. For instance, the parameters used to be analyzed as the valuable data in preparation of water quality management plan are indispensable to monitor regularly for certain locations along the river. Table 1 Water quality parameters in accordance with their alteration No

Alteration

Parameters

1

Oxidized organic matter

O2, %O2, COD, KMnO4, BOD, DOC, NKJ, NH4+

2

Nitrogen matter

NH4+, NKJ, NO2-

3

Nitrates

NO3-

4

Phosphorus matter

PO43+, P-total

5

Suspended particles

SS, Turbidity, Transparency

6

Colour

Colour

7

Temperature

Temperature

8

Mineralization

Conductivity, Salinity, Hardness, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, TAC, Hardness

9

Acidification

pH, Dissolved Al

10

Micro organisms

Total

Coliforms,

Feacal

Feacal Streptococci 17

Coliforms,

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

11

Phytoplankton

∆O2, ∆pH, %O2, and pH, Chlorophyl a + pheopigments, Algae

12

Mineral micro pollutants

As, Hg, Cd, Cr-total, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se,

in raw water

Ba, CN

13

Metals in Bryophytes

As, Hg, Cd, Cr-total, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni

14

Pesticides in raw water

List of pesticides (see Oudin et al., 1999)

15

Organic

micro

pollutants

non

List of organic micro pollutants non pesticides (see Oudin et al., 1999)

pesticides in raw water Sources: Oudin et al., 1999 WQA assignment for different purposes The assignment of WQA as shown in Figure 4 is fixed to assess the suitability of water for different destinations of water uses and to verify the impact of pollution downgrading biodiversity. The biological potential function shows the suitability of water for aquatic life, when hydrological and morphological conditions of the habitat are good. The pollutants in the stream water such as metals and organic matters affect the declination of biodiversity and sediment quality. For instance, despite high metal concentrations associated with roots, the major part of the metals in the marsh soil is still associated with the sediment as the overall biomass of roots is small compared to the sediment (Teuchies et al., 2008). Five suitability classes of WQA have been defined. They indicate a gradual impoverishment of the biological structure, including the disappearance of the taxa most sensitive to pollution. Defining the suitability classes for drinking water production depend on (1) the related regulations which are held as priorities for defining the blue/green class thresholds associated with suitability for consumption and orange/red class thresholds associated with unsuitability for production of drinking water and (2) the opinion of the producers and of the suppliers in defining intermediary thresholds for simple and complex treatments of raw water. The definition of suitability classes is grouped into five classes. The use of leisure and aquatic sports is mainly applied in bathing areas and the legislation thresholds which principally relate to the turbidity of the water and the occurrence of microorganisms. Three suitability classes for recreation and aquatic sports have been defined. The main factors to classify the suitability of water for irrigation are: ground texture, irrigated crop, frequency, and duration of irrigation. Crops have been divided into four sensitivity groups, ranging from very sensitive plants to very hardy plants. The crops taken into account in these groups are liable to differ from one parameter to another, meaning that the composition of each group is also variable. For instance, the arsenic content in soil and plants is influenced by the degree of arsenic amount in irrigated water (Dahal et al., 2008). It is equally necessary to take into account the type of soils. These have been divided into two groups which overlap, i.e., (1) all soils including the most sensitive and (2) neutral or alkaline soils, which are the most resistant. Combinations of soil/plant groups have been limited to 18

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

sensitive-very sensitive plants/all soils and to resistant-very resistant plants/alkaline or neutral soils. Five suitability classes for irrigation uses have been defined. Water quality indices provide a simple and understandable tool for managers on the quality and possible uses for irrigation water (Almeida et al., 2008).

151 parameters of water quality

To group the parameter(s) into 15 alterations

15 alterations of water quality to include 151 parameters

To define the thresholds of each parameter in the alterations (Oudin et al., 1999)

5 classes of water quality, each class representing by an index

3 classes for aquaculture

To assign the suitable class to represent as the WQI or status of water quality

WQI or status of water quality

To define the thresholds of each parameter in the related alterations (Oudin et al., 1999)

5 classes for irrigation

3 classes for livestock watering

3 classes for leisure and sport

5 classes for aquatic ecosystem

5 classes for drinking water production

To assign the suitable class to represent as the WQA for different uses and aquatic ecosystem

WQA for differ uses and aquatic ecosystem

Figure 4. Flow chart of WQI and WQA class assignment Livestock watering use is the suitability of water to allow the watering of breeding animals. These can be classified according to three age classes and sensitivity i.e., (1) young animals as chicken, pigs, calves, which are growing fast and are very sensitive to all pollutants, (2) animals of mature age which have a slow growth and are less vulnerable, and (3) animals for reproduction, they have strict needs during the gestation and milking period. In the case of livestock watering, water has to be useable immediately by the breeder. If the water is not useable, the breeder will then turn to the water supply. Three suitability classes for livestock watering use are adopted (Oudin et al., 1999). Aquaculture use mainly shows the water suitability to be used in fish breeding. Water is the main factor of production in intensive fish breeding, particularly in salmon breeding. Water carries oxygen, eliminates 19

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

wastes, and conductions production performances by its physicochemical variability. Three suitability classes for aquaculture have been defined. WQES to assess the suitability of water for different uses Since the aggregation method is only performed to assess the suitability of river water for the different uses and its aquatic ecosystem, the following steps are carried out using the WQES that are: (1) grouping 151 parameters of water quality into 15 alterations that classify in accordance with their similar nature and its impact on environment (see Table 1); (2) defining the thresholds of each parameter into five classes with respective colors of blue, green, yellow, orange, and red to express the most suitable aptitude of unpolluted water, good suitable aptitude, moderate suitable aptitude, bad suitable aptitude, and unusable aptitude of very polluted water, respectively, except thresholds defining by three classes with respective colors of blue, yellow, and red to asses the water uses suitability for leisure and sports, livestock watering, and aquaculture; (3) formulating the classes that are five classes to assess the WQAs of aquatic ecosystem, drinking water production and irrigation uses and three classes to assess the WQAs of leisure and aquatic sports, livestock watering, and aquaculture uses, as shown in Figure 4 and the aptitude of water for the different uses and its ecosystem in accordance with the level of suitability or WQA that ranges from the most suitable to unsuitable water, as shown in Figure 5; (4) assessing the value of each parameter and put it into the respective classes of WQA for water suitability to the different uses and its ecosystem; (5) verifying the worst quality of parameter(s) and choose it to represent the aptitude of related alteration; and (6) identifying the worst quality of alteration(s) and choose it to represent the WQA for water suitability for the different uses and its ecosystem (aquatic biota). Suitability of water for: - aquatic biota

Blue

Most suitable

Green Uses of water that are already in place are: - production of drinking water; - aquatic leisure-time activities; - irrigation; - livestock watering; and - aquaculture.

Yellow Orange Red

Unsuitable

Figure 5 Classification of water suitability for different uses and aquatic biota Source: Oudin, et al., 1999 modified by Fulazzaky, 2008

Results and Discussions Application of WQES for the Citarum’ river The Citarum river segments distinguish into three different parts of water uses destination. The government of West Java province in the local regulation No. 39 Year 2000 (Perda Jabar No. 39/2000) enacted the water quality category in the upper and lower parts of the river as the standards Class C and D for the segments of main river in the upstream of Curug Jompong station and immediate the 20

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

downstream of Tanjungpura station. The middle parts from immediate the downstream of Curug Jompong to the upstream of Tanjungpura station as shown in Figure 6 is destined as the standards Class B, C and D. Whereas, the stream water in all the tributaries entire the river basin is the standards Class B, C and D. The Class B, C and D means the class of water which is suitable to provide the uses of drinking water production, aquaculture, livestock, agriculture, municipal and industrial affairs, and hydropower energy. The Class B and C means the class of water which is suitable to provide the uses of aquaculture, livestock, agriculture, municipal and industrial affairs, and hydropower energy. The stations of water quality monitoring were chosen at 10 locations that are: 01 Cijeruk, 02 Margahayu, 03 Nanjung, 04 Curug Jompong, 05 Saguling dam, 06 Cirata dam, 07 Jatiluhur dam, 08 Bendung Curug, 09 Tanjungpura and 10 Rengasdengklok along the main river (see Figure 6).

Figure 6. Water quality monitoring stations along the Citarum river The rules in the Equations (1) and (2) need to implement due to the results of water quality monitoring along the Citarum river are numerous. Since 1990, the Jasa Tirta 2 Public Corporation (PJT2) as the institution in charge to monitor water quality of this river has been traditionally monitored at 10 locations, as shown in Figure 6. This study specifically uses the data that were monitored by the Centre for Water Resources Research and Development of the Indonesian Ministry of Public Works in 2005 to concentrate in the upstream areas of river segment. The data monitoring as shown in Table 2 were tested of 33 parameters. To assess the classes of quality and water suitability in the river were used the data monitored from 10 stations that are: 01a Wangisagara, 01b Majalaya, and 01c Sapan as the additional stations in the upstream of Cijeruk, 01 Cijeruk, 03a Dayeuhkolot and 03b Brujul as the additional stations in the upstream of Nanjung, 03 Nanjung, 08 Bendung Curug, 09a Bendung Walahar as the additional stations in the upstream of Tanjungpura, and 09 Tanjungpura along the main river. This is due to the pollutant loads are more important to discharge the river coming form the Bandung region. The need to insert three additional stations in the upstream of Cijeruk and two stations in the upstream of Nanjung is to investigate the impacts of untreated household sewage, solid waste and industrial effluents on the quality of stream water. One more additional location was also monitored in the upstream of Tanjungpura to understand the impact of industrial pollution loads discharging from the industries located in the 21

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

downstream areas. Because of the lack of data monitoring, two alterations i.e., pesticides in raw water and organic micro pollutants non pesticides in raw water as shown in Table 2 were no included to evaluate in this study. To assess WQA, this study examines 3,960 testing results that were specially monitored from 10 selected stations above along the main river during the period of 1 year with the frequency of monitoring was one per month. WQA of the Citarum River The excessive pollutants in the stream water will face the problems of biodiversity degradation. The earlier study supports the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity (Castela et al., 2008). The effects on zooplankton were caused by changes in habitat structure due to the strong decline of macrophytes. The slow degradation of metazachlor combined with the absence of recovery in both chlorophytes and macrophytes is likely to cause long-lasting effects on aquatic ecosystems (Mohr et al., 2008). Considering the results of WQA analysis, this study remarks that the stream water in the upper part of Saguling dam as shown in Table 2 is unusable to conduct the sustainability of aquatic ecosystem, judging the WQA class is red. This translates water capability of considerably reducing the number of sensitive taxa or eliminating them with a very low diversity. In the downstream areas of Jatiluhur dam, water quality causing the disappearance of certain sensitive taxa with adequate diversity is evident, see location 09a Bendung Walahar, judging the WQA class is green, or water capabilities of considerably reducing the number of sensitive taxa with adequate diversity are manifested, see locations 08 Bendung Curug and 09 Tanjungpura, judging the WQA classes are yellow. To improve the quality of the stream water particularly in the upper part of the basin is still will be suitable for aquatic biota this study recommends to the related local authorities including all the stakeholders to envisage as high priority the problems of river pollution. This suggests the need to have a specific legal instrument of integrated water quality management plan in order to guide all the participatory of multiparty entire the river basin to involve in improvement of water quality in accordance with the role and responsibility of each participant. A deeper understanding of the practical and theoretical underpinnings of risk management can be made between organizational capabilities in the essential water business process (MacGillivray and Pollard, 2008). This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water (Hrudey et al., 2006). Referring to this study, water in the upper Citarum river as shown in Table 2 is not recommended to produce drinking water generally excluding in the stream water from the upper part of Bandung city see upper part of the station 01a Wangisagara and at the station 03a Dayeuhkolot, judging the WQA classes are red. Because of no more industries located in the upstream areas of Bandung city, water quality upper the station 01a Wangisagara was justified as moderate (yellow). The improvement of water quality at the station 03a Dayeuhkolot was verified as orange due to a good water quality from Ciwidey river penetrates the water quality of Citarum’ river. Utilization of Citarum river water from the upstream areas of Bandung city is acceptable to produce drinking water. This study recommends to perform the conventional technologies in producing of drinking water for raw water in the stream from the

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

upper Bandung and the advanced technologies to treat water from the station 03a Dayeuhkolot. Because the intake of raw water from the Jatiluhur dam to supply water for the Jakarta city in the downstream area is still operated, the study recommends to the Jakarta water supply authority to use conventional technology in treating the water since the closed conveyance is used to transport the water from the Jatiluhur dam to Jakarta. This recommendation based on the moderate quality of river water, judging the WQA class as show in Table 2 is yellow. Unfortunately, to date the transport of water is still operated in the open canal. The use of this system will face the risk of pollution discharged from the industrial and domestic wastewaters along the canal when water flows. The contamination of water eventually declines the WQA of such as from the yellow classes at the stations of 08 Bendung Curug and 09a Bendung Walahar to orange class at the station of 09 Tanjungpura so the advanced technologies should be considered to be implemented by the Jakarta water supply authority in treating the river water purposed to public consumers. Table 2. Application of WQES to assess the WQA for the Citarum river water Type of water uses

Results of WQA analysis 01

01

a

b

Aquatic ecosystem

r

r

Drinking

water

y

and

01c

0

03

03

0

0

09

0

1

a

b

3

8

a

9

r

r

y

r

r

y

g

y

r

r

r

o

r

r

y

y

o

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

y

y

r

Irrigation

b

g

g

g

g

g

g

b

b

g

Livestock watering

b

b

y

y

y

y

y

b

b

b

Aquaculture

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

y

y

r

33

33

33

3

33

33

3

3

33

3

3

3

production Leisure aquatic sport

Number

of

parameters

3

3

Notes: 01a Wangisagara, 01b Majalaya, 01c Sapan, 01 Cijeruk, 03a Dayeuhkolot, 03b

Brujul, 03

Nanjung, 08 Bendung Curug, 09a Bendung Walahar, 09 Tanjungpura, b = blue, g = green, y = yellow, o = orange, and r = red. Water in the main river as shown in Table 2 is not acceptable to be used for leisure and aquatic sports excluding the stations 08 Bendung Curug and 09a Bendung Walahar, judging the WQA class is red. A moderate water quality at these stations caused by self purification occurs in three cascade reservoirs, i.e., Saguling, Cirata, and Jatiluhur. Due to the pollutant loads from industries discharging the river in the downstream area are evident, degradation of water quality as shown in Table 2 increases gradually in the stream towards the sea. Considering the strategic role of Citarum river regulated effectively by three cascade reservoirs functioning as the potential recreational parks, hydropower generation, sources of 23

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

water for domestic, municipality and industry, as well as the source of irrigated water for paddy fields and fishponds, delivers 20% of Indonesia's gross domestic product, this study recommends to the central government of Indonesia to envisage as first priority the problems of this river pollution. This suggests the need to install correctly the wastewater treatment plants for each industry and for each city of the entire the Citarum river basin particularly for the upstream areas of the basin to reduce the pollutants of organic matter, microorganisms, and suspended particles. Besides to improve the quality of water related to suspended particles, there is a need to consider the occupation of lands to implement the best practice of soil conservation effectively. To analyze the suitability of water for irrigation purpose is summarized in Table 2. This informs that water quality in the river is still suitable to irrigate especially for paddy fields of as the major part of water uses in the region, judging the WQA classes for all the station selected are classified as blue or green aptitude. It is remarkable that the Jatiluhur dam serves suitably water for 240,000 ha of paddy fields in the downstream areas. Unfortunately, the overflow of irrigated water is usually to drain back into the river. The runoff from paddy field as verified in the Ile de Camargue, France, carries important loads of dissolved pesticides to the wetlands including river (Comoretto et al., 2008). Drinking water pollution in the Evros region Northern Greece can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources (Nikolaidis et al., 2008). For more accurate assessment of the effects of water quality, for a given livestock production system the format should be based on ingestion levels, as opposed to a mg/l basis, and should take into account site-specific synergistic and antagonistic interactions within and external to the water to a greater extent (Meyer et al. 1997). The aggregation method of WQES using in this study led to the formulation of a water quality guideline index system based on WQA basis. Referring to the classification in the literature (Oudin et al., 1999), this study concludes that utilization of Citarum water to provide the livestock watering of all animals including the most sensitive such as young animals, animals in gestation or milking is still suitable for the stream waters from the upper Bandung city (see the stations 01a Wangisagara and 01b Majalaya) and the downstream of Jatiluhur dam (see the stations 08 Bendung Curug, 09a Bendung Walahar, 09 Tanjungpura), judging the WQA classes are blue (see Table 2). The stream water along the river segments between Bandung city and Saguling dam is suitable to provide the livestock watering of mature animals that are less vulnerable such bovine and ovine and needs to control strictly the quality of water used, judging the WQA classes as shown in Table 2 are yellow (see the stations 01c Sapan, 01 Cijeruk, 03a Dayeuhkolot, 03b Brujul, 03 Nanjung). Fish and crayfish perform all bodily functions in water which include eating, breathing, excreting wastes, reproducing and taking in or removing salts. Water quality can affect these functions and therefore will determine the health of the fish and consequently the success or failure of a fish farming operation. For example, carbohydrate addition in water affects to (1) increase the nitrogen retention in harvested shrimp biomass, (2) reduce the demand for feed protein, (3) reduce the concentration of NKJ and NO 2−, and (4) reduce nitrogen discharge making extensive shrimp farming more ecologically sustainable and economically viable (Hari et al. 2006). Despite the stream water in the river is unsuitable for direct use in 24

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

aquaculture generally, judging the WQA classes are red (see stations 01a Wangisagara, 01b Majalaya, 01c Sapan, 01 Cijeruk, 03a Dayeuhkolot, 03b Brujul, 03 Nanjung, and 09 Tanjungpura), Table 2 shows that the river water immediate the downstream of Jatiluhur dam is suitable for all adult fishes which are not very sensitive to pollution, judging the WQA classes are yellow. Conclusion This study used the WQES to assess the suitability of water for different uses and its ecosystem for the Citarum river water. The suitability of the river water was examined through WQA assessment to forbid strongly the uses of water in the upstream the Saguling dam to provide (1) the suitability of biodiversity growth and productivity, (2) drinking water production except the stream water upper Bandung city, (3) leisure and sport activities, and (4) aquaculture uses. Although the stream water of the river segment between the Bandung city and Saguling dam needs to be controlled strictly, the quality of water is still suitable to be used for irrigated lands and livestock watering. The improvement of water quality was verified immediate the downstream areas of Jatiluhur dam due to the self purification occurs in three cascade reservoirs, i.e., Saguling, Cirata, and Jatiluhur, consecutively. This gives the advantage to supply raw water from the Jatiluhur dam to Jakarta city for drinking water production with adequate quality since the closed conveyance is used for transporting the water. The stream water upstream the Suguling dam (see upper the station 03 Nanjung) is totally prohibited for supporting the biological potential function, leisure and aquatic sports, and aquaculture purposes judging the WQAs of these water uses are unsuitable, indicating as red color (see Table 2). This study justifies that the factual water quality of the river no matches the standards regulated in Perda Jabar No. 39/2000. This gives the rational argument to urge the local authorities, central government, and all related stakeholders to concern for improving the river water quality. This study shows that the use of WQES practically remained comprehensive in evaluating water quality systematically. There is the analysis of water quality data to convert into the usable information that serves as DSS in managing of available water comprehensively. References Almeida, C., Quintar, S., González. P., & Mallea, M. (2008) Assessment of irrigation water quality: A proposal of a quality profile. Environ Monit Assess, 142(1), 149-152 Castela, J., Ferreira, V., & Graça, M.A.S. (2008) Evaluation of stream ecological integrity using litter decomposition and benthic invertebrates. Environ Pollut, 153(2), 440-449 Chen, C.F., & Ma, H.W. (2008) The uncertainty effects of design flow on water quality management. Environ Monit Assess, 144(1), 81-91 Comoretto, L., Arfib, B., Talva, R., et al (2008) Runoff of pesticides from rice fields in the Ile de Camargue (Rhône river delta, France): Field study and modeling. Environ Pollut, 151(3), 486-493 Dahal, B.M., Fuerhacker, M., Mentler, A., et. al., (2008) Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal. Environ Pollut, 155(1), 157-163 25

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Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR). (2007) Integrated Ciatrum water resources management project: Report on roadmap and program development. In: Technical assistance consultant’s report. Dunlop J.E., Horrigan N., McGregor, G., et al., (2008) Effect of spatial variation on salinity tolerance of macro-invertebrates in Eastern Australia and implications for ecosystem protection trigger values. Environ Pollut, 151(3), 621-630 Fulazzaky, M.A. (2005) Assessment of river water quality degradation of the Citarum and Brantas rivers by using a new developed water quality index system. In: Proceeding of The 2 nd Southeast Asia Water Forum:, Bali, Indonesia, 31 August to 3 September 2005 Fulazzaky MA (2008) Water quality evaluation system to assess the river water quality. In: Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Colloquium. Fulazzaky MA (2009) Water quality evaluation system to assess the Brantas river water. Water Resour Manage, 23(14), 3019-3033 Fulazzaky, M.A; Teng, W.S; & Mohd Masirin, M.I. (2010) Assessment of water quality status for the Selangor river in Malaysia. Water Air Soil Pollut, 205(1): 63-77. Hari, B., Madhusoodana Kurup, B., Varghese, J.T., et al., (2006) The effect of carbohydrate addition on water quality and the nitrogen budget in extensive shrimp culture systems. Aquaculture, 252(2-4), 248-263 Hartmann, J., Lev, J.K.,& Okada, N. (2006) Managing surface water contamination in Nagoya, Japan: An integrated water basin management decision framework. Water Resour Manage, 20(3), 411-430 Holvoet, K., Gevaert, V., van Griensven, A., et al., (2007) Modelling the effectiveness of agricultural measures to reduce the amount of pesticides entering surface waters. Water Resour Manage, 21(12), 2027-2035 Hrudey, S.E., Hrudey, E.J., & Pollard, S.J.T., (2006) Risk management for assuring safe drinking water. Environ International 32 (2006) 948–957 MacGillivray, B.H., & Pollard, S.J.T., (2008) What can water utilities do to improve risk management within their business functions? An improved tool and application of process benchmarking. Environ International 34: 1120-1131 Meyer, J.A., Casey, N.H., & Coetzee, C.B. (1997) Water quality guidelines for livestock watering in Southern Africa. Water S.A. 23(1), 7-12 Mohr, S., Feibicke, M., Berghahn, R., et.al., (2008) Response of plankton communities in freshwater pond and stream mesocosms to the herbicide metazachlor. Environ Pollut, 152(3), 530-542 Muhammetoglu, A., Muhammetoglu, H., Oktas, S., et. al., (2005) Impact assessment of different management scenarios on water quality of Porsuk river and dam system – Turkey. Water Resour Manage, 19(2), 199-210 Nikolaidis, C., Mandalos, P., & Vantarakis, A. (2008) Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (Northern Greece) by GIS analysis. Environ Monit Assess, 143(1), 43-50

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Oudin, L.C., Meybeck, M., & Roussel, P. (1999) Système d’évaluation de la qualité de l’eau des cours d’eau. Rapport de presentation SEQ-Eau (version 1), Agence de l’eau Loire-Bretagne, France. Tafangenyasha, C., & Dube, L.T. (2008) An investigation of the impacts of agricultural runoff on the water quality and aquatic organisms in a Lowveld Sand river system in Southeast Zimbabwe. Water Resour Manage, 22(3), 119-130 Teuchies, J., de Deckere, E., Bervoets, L., et. al., (2008) Influence of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in a contaminated tidal freshwater marsh soil colonized with common reed. Environ Pollut, 155(1), 20-30

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Religious Memory and Scientific Ethics after Hiroshima and Nagasaki Gregory Vanderbilt

Department of History, UCLA/ CRCS Abstract 2015 has been a year of anniversaries, notable for the 70th anniversaries of the events of the last year of World War II (or the Asia-Pacific War) and the advent of our still postwar world. Japan’s surrender on August 15th, 1945, followed a series of heavy firebombings of Japanese cities, including Tokyo on March 10th; the fall of the German Reich in April; the invasion of Okinawa in April and its surrender in June, culminating in mass, coerced suicides; the Potsdam Declaration promising “complete and utter destruction” in July; and then, on August 6th, and again on the 9th, the destruction in a flash of two Japanese cities.

Because Indonesian independence was declared

immediately after the collapse of the Japanese empire and because Americans were anticipating an invasion of the main islands as intensive as the one in Okinawa, the general perspective in both countries has been that the Atomic Bombs were somehow necessary, a perspective we can call “from above the mushroom cloud.” At the same time, to consider what happened “below the mushroom cloud” and even begin to recognize the sheer horror of the instantaneous destruction and annihilation also forbid us to think only from that perspective, as this events as two more in the long history of hostilities, but rather as unparalleled, as also outside history. I went back to Hiroshima and Nagasaki this August. I went partly to grapple with what happened there and how it is remembered in the present and partly to try to see how religion and religious studies can be a helpful framework for examining the process of memory, which is at once deeply situated in political contexts and transcending such limits for the taste of existential destruction that happened there. In this paper, I attempt to ask about religion and memory after seventy years and to then raise the questions of science and ethics, given that Hiroshima (like Auschwitz) was a marvel of science, the result of intensive and secretive scientific inquiry, the largest in world history to that date. Religious Memory On August 6th 1945, 90% of Hiroshima was incinerated.

Thousands in the immediate zone of the

hypocenter disappeared, sometimes leaving a shadow of carbon on concrete or a bit of metal—a lunchbox, a watch, a tricycle. 140,000 were dead by the end of 1945 and as of this year a total of almost 28

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

300,000 victims—called in Japanese hibakusha-- have been entered into the memorial books. This was a city with military operations but it was a city and the victims were men, women, and children; Japanese citizens and Korean forced laborers, Southeast Asian students, European prisoners of war. A smaller city in the far southwest, Nagasaki was not the first target for the 9th but cloud cover over Kokura led the plane carrying the second atomic bomb to be redirected. Nagasaki has a long history as a trading port, the one place the Dutch were allowed to maintain a base during the 250 years during which the country was closed to the West, and a center for Catholics who just thirty years earlier had dedicated a cathedral barely a kilometer from where the bomb was detonated.

70,000 were dead by the end of 1945 and the

memorial books now record close to 170,000. The average age of the survivors is now past 80 but it still possible to hear their testimonies directly, of the flash and the boom (pika and don in Japanese), of the blistering bewildering heat, of making their way home to discover who among their family and community was still alive, of health problems without end, of discrimination. Memory can be understood in at least three interconnected senses here. First, memory as an operation of the human mind to store and recall the past in the present is paired with the two operations which disrupt this humanly fallible process: forgetting, on one hand, happens to us all and trauma, on the other, follows injury to the body, the psyche, the community. Such memory is also at times set against history that is defined and seemingly supported through a documentary basis and bias. As in the case of the socalled comfort women or jugun ianfu whose memories of sexual enslavement by the Japanese military have challenged the documented and often male official narrative, it can be what the subaltern possesses in order to make claims on dignity and justice. Second, as famously explicated by Pierre Nora and his research team in their search for the lieux de memoire that define the French nation, memory can mean the explicitly political narration of a past that holds together a nation or other community. Two decades ago, a controversy over the exhibition of the B-52 called Enola Gay, from which the atomic bomb was detonated on Hiroshima, was reduced to simplistic terms and then reached the United States Senate which felt compelled to pass a resolution declaring the use of the A-bomb morally good and force the elimination of nuanced historical explanation, an indication of the moral ambivalence still pervading the U.S. Third, memory can mean remembrance, the obligation to the dead to hold onto and honor their existence until it too, with us, slips into oblivion.

Memory is pursued through the activities of

memorialization and commemoration, of holding rituals and erecting monuments, of visiting graves and memorials as a moral and emotional obligation. This is one of the tasks of religion, though one it often rejects. To inquire into religion likewise means to take on two interconnected meanings. First, there are the ways that religious language and ritual patterns pervade memory and the ways of commemoration, particularly at sites and on occasions that are sanctified with reference to memory and the community—which remains, by design, not clearly designated.

Second, there are the activities of specifically religious

groups that extend beyond this occasion and which bring religious and inter-religious purposes to the project of memory. Though Robert Bellah reportedly described “civil religion” in response to questions from Shinto priests visiting Washington in the 1950s and asking how it could be that American 29

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

nationalism was so full of God-talk while the American occupiers had banned the State Shinto of the prewar state, this is not quite his civil religion because it does not make clear who it defines—indeed it is generally, on one hand, a specific community of experience transposed onto a modern city, often at odds with the national government, and, on the other, a “universalized” experience that could easily be the fate of any person anywhere, regardless of the specificities of culture or history. It does however retain the prophetic potential pointed to by Bellah to make demands from its own logic and sense of what is right In the first category, I can point to four ways religious forms pervade these commemorations. 1. Prayer. In the official ceremonies, “prayer” occupies a prominent place in the name and function of the ceremony. Consider the very names of the official annual ceremonies held on the anniversaries of the two atomic bombings: (in my literal translation; the usual English is simply “Memorial”) the Hiroshima City Atomic Bomb Dead Spirit Consolation Ceremony and Peace Prayer Ceremony and the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Sacrificed Spirit Consolation Peace Prayer Ceremony. There is a homonym at work here as well: ki’nen, with one of two other characters pronounced ki, ones meaning to record, indicates memory in the sense of memorial: such a ki’nen appears in the names of the museum and park at Hiroshima though not at Nagasaki: the setting for transcendent memory is within secular memory.

Prayer, in

the form of silent prayer (mokutō), is at the heart of the official ceremonies which are timed such that the moment of the detonation of each bomb—8:15am, 11:01am—is one of silence and/or the tolling of a bell. Wordless and led by no one, no direction is suggested for this prayer and it concludes as the moment of the detonation passes. In both locations, silence is immediately followed by speech act by the central event of the commemoration: the peace declaration read by the mayor. Beginning in 1947 and 1948, these declarations have issued annually without interruption since 1951. They are appeals to world leaders to enact and enforce treaties against nuclear weapons and to the Japanese government to provide adequately for the surviving hibakusha. One might also see prayer in the practice of folding origami cranes and bringing strings of a thousand to lay before the children’s monument recalling the story of Sadako Sasaki, a girl who was exposed to radiation in the womb and died of leukemia. 2. The concept of witness is also key to the memory of the atomic bombs and of particular importance at this juncture of 70 years, for as was noted repeatedly the average age of the survivors has now passed 80. Because of instant annihilation of untold thousands followed by the agonized deaths from internal and external burns of thousands more, many beyond recognition (totaling, by the end of 1945, 140,000 in Hiroshima and 70,000 in Nagasaki), the physical presence of those who did survive has come to be of great importance. As Lisa Yoneyama has shown, the process of narrating memory as kataribe or testifiers is fraught with a kind of politics of recognition as survivors (for whom access to specialized health care 30

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

was contingent on proving where one was at the moment of the blast or if one entered the city later) but at the same time it carries a kind of urgency on behalf of others who cannot speak and on behalf of a future peace in which nuclear weapons will not be used again. 3. A third way religious concepts are central to memory is in the hallowed ground of the memorial sites, the two Peace Parks and adjacent areas. In the delta of Hiroshima, the park was built between two branches of the river, below a T-shaped bridge said to have provided the target, and a central memorial was put in place in line with the ruins of one of the few structures to have survived the blast, the Prefectural Products Exhibition Hall now known as the A-Bomb Dome.

It is now known that the architect Tange Kenzō’s cenotaph is the

repurposing, on a smaller scale, of an earlier design that was meant to align with Mt. Fuji and commemorate Japan’s victory in Asia. Few other traces of the mostly wooden neighborhood remain in Hiroshima, though one of the many smaller ceremonies each year commemorates that neighborhood. Instead, a new park was built on the burned out grounds, centered on the museum and the cenotaph, but with space for a variety of monuments that met certain “universalizing” gestures.

Famously, the monument to Korean victims was constructed

outside the park, on the facing river bank, and was moved into the grounds only in the late 1990s. At Nagasaki, the Peace Park or grounds for the annual official ceremony face a statue of a seated man with arms and legs in different directions, echoing in that way a Buddha but looking more like a Greek god. (for years I assumed it represented Prometheus who brought down fire from the heavens to the earth) This “sacred ground” is in fact the site of a prison, the foundations of which remain visible, in striking contrast to the structure that parallels most closely the A-bomb dome: the Urakami Cathedral which was reconstructed with only a few pieces of its previous existence preserved in statuary. The monuments that fill this peace park are of two types: memorial greetings primarily erected in the 1980s by socialist states and recent monuments to the diversity of the victims, including for example the Chinese (forced laborers) who died in the prison.

On the anniversaries, these grounds and the

surrounding streets become the site of multiple commemorations as well as protests. Perhaps because of its more central location and its historical position, there were far more groups in Hiroshima, high school students with petitions, leftists with alternate publications, religious groups considered outside the mainstream, peace commemorators seeking out foreigners, and so on.

Most moving were the hibakusha who came to speak without a

platform other than their story. There were also government directed memorial activities in the twilight: the famous floating lanterns in Hiroshima echoed by wax candles at Nagasaki.

4. The language of “comforting souls” irei is present in the titles of the Hiroshima cenotaph and the memorial ceremonies in both cities. It is linked to what we might call a Japanese “mystic 31

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

synthesis,” in which the spirits of the dead are present alongside the divinity within nature and do need consolation, especially when they have died traumatically. One unique and moving addition to atomic bomb commemorations is water imagery, recalling how those who were badly burned but not killed instantly sought water to relieve their unquenchable thirst and cool their burned flesh. They were often heard crying “ mizu kure” “give me water” but often their badly shocked systems could not accept the water they did find and they died immediately. When water is poured from individual containers—as in those carried by various religious leaders into their shared ceremony in Hiroshima or when, in the official ceremony in Nagasaki, brought from springs in various corners of the city—into one bowl, it can be a reminder of the collectivity of life itself. The second is that the most material remains honored in these places is a set of books containing the names of the atomic bomb dead. These books have been and will be updated annually until the last hibakusha has died.

This

August, 5,359 names were added to bring the total to 297,684 (recorded in 109 books) in Hiroshima and 3,373 names were added in Nagasaki to bring the new total to 168,767 (recorded in 170 books). Each city maintains an office to manage the books and to process applications for inclusion and the names of non-Japanese are also included. Curiously, the other place this act of memorializing through names handwritten in books is at the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo, where nearly 2.5 million war dead from Japan’s modern wars from 1868 to 1945 are enshrined as kami. There are significant differences in that the Yasukuni Shrine is formerly part of a state civil religious apparatus and now technically a private religious organization that uses religious language a ritual, which, when patronized by government officials, potentially violates the Constitution’s proscription against government use of religious activities. Moreover, there have been no new entries into enshrinement register since 1978, when the top-level officials executed as a class-A war criminals were added, ratcheting up the controversy over the lack of remorse the shrine represents to the countries in Asia Japan invaded.

Still, the same question of how physical presence following the

devastation of war, either through the advanced weaponry or through death in distant lands and oceans, is part of memorialization. These books, stored deep inside monuments, are also different from the Cornerstone of Peace in Okinawa, an extensive black granite monument carved with the names of combatants and civilians from all sides killed in the Battle of Okinawa (April to June 1945). The second meaning of religion and memory is, of course, the activities of religious groups and surrounding the official ceremony in each place are both joint and specific memorial services and actions. At Hiroshima, this took the form of first a joint Buddhist-Shinto-Christian service early on the morning of the 6th, followed throughout the day by various sects of Buddhism as well as Catholicism and Protestantism. Not included are the so-called new religions which originated in Japan (some of which, 32

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

like Tenri, date to the nineteenth century). These services face the genbaku kūyōtō, a mound-style grave containing unclaimed hibakusha remains, with a list nearby inviting families to take these ashes back to the family graves. Kuyō is Buddhist language originating in the concept of pūja or reverence for the presence but seemingly shared here. At Nagasaki, the 43rd Genbaku Junnansha Ireisai (Festival to Console the Spirits of those who Suffered from the Atomic Bomb) was held on the night of the 8th in the park surrounding the hypocenter, at the base of the hill where the peace ceremony would be held the next day. While this service had many of the same elements as the public ceremony, each was led by a different religious leader and member of the sponsoring organization which translates its name to English as the Fellowship of Religionists in Nagasaki for Dialogue. According to its roster, it is made up of clergy of Japan’s religions including eleven Christians (among them the organization’s advisor, the archbishop), eight Shinto priests, thirty-six Buddhist priests, and nine “miscellaneous,” including Tenri which invited a Turkish Sufi to do whirling meditation. This category of religionist ( shūkyōsha) was a new one for me, invoking a category as reified in law and academia as agama but one which most Japanese reject as requiring some kind of extreme doctrinal loyalty that takes them into dangerous territory, as with AUM Supreme Truth which launched apocalyptic terror in the subways in 1995: it seems to recognize that religion has a definite interest in certain issues, especially peace and the memory of atrocity (regardless of the religious identities of the victims) and it is always plural. The most prominent use of the terms is in the name of the global network Religions for Peace which was launched in Kyoto in 1970, but its Japanese branch dates to 1951 and a sense of the shared responsibility of religious organizations for the war, an opportunity for penitence (metanoetics). Scientific Ethics In the weeks following this commemoration, from the perspective of many Japanese, the memory of the A-bomb victims was violated in two ways by the actions of the current Liberal Democratic Party-led government of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe. First, two days after the Nagasaki memorial, the Sendai Nuclear Power plant 100 miles to the south was restarted, the first nuclear power plant to go back into operation since all were taken offline in the wake of the triple disaster that hit northeast Japan on March 11th, 2011.

In its wake, and in the fears of long-lasting radiation contamination over a wide area,

Fukushima has become a third disaster in which a city name is written with phonetic syllabary. But this requires a redefinition of what happened at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, from technologically advanced atrocities that have not been repeated and serve as warning to the use of nuclear weapons and the need for disarmament to a broader warning against nuclear energy in all forms. While the Nagasaki Museum and the Nippon Myozan (Buddhist) peace marchers already included those exposed to radiation from nuclear weapons tests in the South Pacific and elsewhere (most famously the Japanese fishing boat Lucky Dragon #5, exposed in the Marshall Islands in 1955), Fukushima is something new and unresolved (and part of a history in which the U.S. foisted “atoms for peace” onto the same country it had used two atomic bombs on just years earlier.). Where the appeals remain directed against nuclear weapons and in 33

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

support of the non-proliferation treaties, the Religionist group fasted instead for “a 21st century without nuclear weapons or nuclear power.” Second, as the commemorations were going on, Japan was being shaken by perhaps the most substantial public political demonstrations since Prime Minister Abe’s grandfather forced through a renewal of the U.S.-Japan Joint Security Treaty in 1960. The bill the government finally did push through the Diet in September re-interprets Article 9 of the 1947 Constitution, “forever renounc[ing] war as a sovereign right of the nation,” as allowing something called a “right of collective self-defense” through which Japan may enter, for example, U.S.-led military interventions. The movement against it, which took form in mass demonstrations in many cities as well as surrounding the Diet building, was quick to name it the “War Bill” and to see in it a dark turn in Japanese politics away from democracy and peace. Prime Ministers have spoken at both ceremonies for several decades and their remarks, which follow the “pledge for peace” (heiwa he no chikai) read by local children, are the one unscripted part of the program. Abe’s remarks at Hiroshima were criticized for mentioning neither Article 9 nor Japan’s so-called “Three Nuclear Principles” (not making, not possessing, not harboring nuclear weapons) and in Nagasaki he did make a gesture at the latter. Because the programs are timed so carefully around the exact moment of the detonation, demonstrators were able to intrude sonically on Abe as he spoke, reminding the assembled that he had not earned a sacralized atmosphere. By way of conclusion, I would like to go a little deeper into the work of religion in memory: to the concept of sacrifice. Recently, the secular philosopher Takahashi Tetsuya has named a sacrificial system which inculcates the belief that some part of the community must accept that it must be sacrificed for the whole: his examples are Okinawa, where American military bases are an obnoxious and destructive presence, and Fukushima, the cost of which is far from understood but the calculations were made long ago by politicians, electric company executives, compliant scientists and the public.

Since I first visited

Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the mid1990s, the Japanese State has built its own memorial halls in each place (Hall to Pray for Peace and Eulogize the Atomic Bomb Dead). Borrowing methods from Holocaust memorials, these halls seem set to counter the city-run museums which set the cities apart as universalized sacrifices (hence the slogans: no more Hiroshima, no more Nagasaki, to which is now added no more Fukushima) apart from the nation. Even so I was surprised by the statement at the entrance in Hiroshima: in the official translation: “The National Peace Memorial Halls for the Atomic Bomb Victims in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are an effort by the Japanese national government to remember and mourn the sacred sacrifice of the atomic bomb victims. They are also an expression of Japan's desire for genuine and lasting peace.” Sacred sacrifice by whom, for what? Can we continue to allow there to be sacrifice without meaning? Is that a question religions and/or religionists should try to answer? One answer is in the refusal to sacrifice or to sacrifice others. Here the example of a second Japanese intellectual Takagi Jinzaburō. Takagi promoted the idea of the “citizen-scientist” who can utilize the knowledge and method of science but is self-consciously independent of power, including the intimate relationship of the university with the military, government, and the corporate world. 34

For a nuclear

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

chemist like Takagi, severing ties with this kind of power meant loss of access to the high-tech methods of research but it also gave him the freedom to use his knowledge to counter the government and academic experts, particular in their interpretation of data most citizens cannot make sense of, which sometimes, as with nuclear power, has life-and-death consequences. With the prize money from the 1997 Right Livelihood Award, sometimes called the alternative Nobel Prize for lives well lived, his little community gives small grants to independent science and, after the March 11 th triple disaster, they, the Citizens’ Nuclear Information Center (www.cnic.jp) were some of the very few independent experts who could understand what was happening and counter the official government-corporate assurances that nothing was wrong. On one hand, citizen science might be understood as the most secular conclusion to the idea of the rational scientist, but on the other was Takagi’s Buddhist ethic of reverence for all life, which came through less in some kind of religionist practice than in his love of the Buddhist Japanese writer Miyazawa Kenji, who died in 1937 and did not see the destruction of August 1945. But we have seen it and we must learn to see it from below the mushroom cloud. And remember.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Undertaking Global Health Issues through Research and Innovation Gloria Shiela E Coyoca Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology College of Nursing

Abstract There is an estimated 8.2 million under –five child deaths per year, and from this number, 3.3 million occur during the neonatal period – babies in their first 28 dyas of life. Around 66.67% of these newborn deaths are preventable if effective health interventions are provided at birth & during the first week of life.Moreover, maternal mortality is exceesively high, around 830 women die daily from preganancy or childbirth - related complications globally and these deaths could have been prevented. The aim of this study is to identify the contributory factors of maternal and neonatal mortality globally and to determine interventions in addressing these global health issues. Meta – analysis showed that the contibutory factors of both maternal & neonatal deaths include LACK, this is an acronym, which stands for L- location, A – age, C – cultural beliefs, and K – knowledge deficit.For the location, it has been validated by published researches that the distance of the home residence among pregnant mothers would greatly affect their utilization of maternal health care services, as to age, it has been found out that extreme age, adolescents (13 – 17 years old) and 42 years old and above have been associated with both high maternal & neonatal deaths, in addition, cultural beliefs was the priority measure that

pregnant mothers would embrace in dealing with their

pregnancy problems, and employing health care services would be their last resort, regarding knowledge , it has been revealed that insuffient knowledge of mothers on the complication of pregnancy and the importance of

pre natal check up affects their

utilization of health care services, furthermore, deficient knowldge of the health care providers also contributed to the increasing maternal & neonatal deaths. For the interventions, HEALTH should be implemented, H – stands for health education, educating mothers, families, communities on the importance of pre- natal and post – natal check – up, nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding, complications of pregnancy, would change the mothers behavior, there will be improvement in their utilization of health care services, educating health care providers through trainings, seminars and workshops, E – stands for empowerment , building capacities of mothers families and comminity, A stands for access, health care insurance should be provided to all mothers, focusing on those living in the remote areas, establishing birth camps should also be introduced to those far away areas, E also refers to the implementation of 36

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Essential Intrapartum Newborn Care, L – stands for leadership and governance, which specifically comprised five (5) equally important variables, and these include, transparency & accountability, community participation, fair access to quality care, increase coverage of skilled care at birth in health facilities, and sustainable programs, T – stands for technology, all health care facilities should be equipped with sufficient supply of medicines, devices, laboratory agents, equipments for medical and surgical procedures, laslty, H – stands for home visits, health care providers should visit the mothers and their newborn on the first day, third day and seventh day after delivery, to thoroughly assess the mothers and their babies , to be able to address any untoward complcations. Employing the HEALTH interventions may be able to solve the maternal and neonatal deaths. Keywords:

Location,

access,

cultural

beliefs,

knowledge,

health

education,

empowerment, essential intrapartum newborn care, leadership & governance, technology, home visits, maternal & neonatal deaths

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Climate Change: Its danger for our production and why it escapes our prediction Cornelis Johan (Keess) Stigter International Society for Agricultural Meteorology (INSAM) Abstract Our planet earth has a unique but complicated climate that presently is changing due to the influence that our (mankind’s) activities appear to have on the composition of its atmosphere. agricultural

It is called

anthropogenic

systems

(man made) climate change. The world’s

face

an

uphill

struggle

in feeding a projected nine to ten billion people by 2050. Climate change introduces a significant hurdle in this struggle. There is general and widely held scientific consensus that the observed trends in atmospheric & ocean temperature, sea ice, glaciers as well as climate extremes, during the last hundred years, cannot be explained solely by natural climate processes and so reflect human influences. The argument that what we experience could be natural climate change can also be refuted by the fact that present understanding of cyclic climatology of the past points to a cooling planet without the presence

of mankind. On the simplest level,

the weather is

what is

happening in the atmosphere at any given time. The climate, in a narrow sense, can be considered as the “average weather”. In a more scientifically accurate way, it can be defined as: “the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time”. One may argue that “global warming” is like “ageing”: You can reduce the consequences but it will continue to happen. Stopping it is impossible, so adaptation is necessary.

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SOCIAL, CULTURE, ARTS and ECONOMIC SCIENCE CHAPTER Asnawi, Bachtiar Akob, Mufti Riyani: Social dysmenorrhea: Impact Forecast in the Social Process (Case Study in Acehnese Community, Indonesia)

39

Cut Khairani: Forms of Social Interactions of People in Coffee Shops in Banda Aceh

45

Iswadi: Acehnese Cultural Heritage: Between A Black Portrait and Hope

55

Ruslan: Agriculture as the Basis of Indonesian Culture: Understanding Agriculture as the Basic Ability of Civic Education

65

Saifuddin A. Haitamy: How English Infiltrated Into Acehnese Language

75

Sufri Eka Bhakti: The Uses and Effects of Online Social Media among Acehnese Students

83

Wildan: Epistolary Technique in a. Hasjmy Novels

94

Hamdani: Analysis of Organizational Culture and Job Rotation Regional Secretariat on employee performance in Bireuen

102

Khairil Anwar, Naufal Bachri: Role of Wage and Gross Domestic Product in Declining the Rate of Unemployment in Indonesia

110

Nova, Megasari Gusandra Saragih: Effect of Competence, Task Attractions, Situational Factors Toward Employee Motivation and Performance in Central Administration of the University of Almuslim

122

Sabri: The Economic Community of Asea 2015 Trade Liberalization and Investment Trade and Investment Realize Southeast Asia Regional Economic Interaction

133

Syaifuddin Yana, Badaruddin, Syamsul, Bahtar: Supply Chain Performance Management Toward Plastic Waste Suppliers With Using Analytical Hierarchy Process

144

Zulkarnaini, Zuarni, Fakriah: The Contribution of Corporate Social Responsibility on External Stakeholders Perspective

156

Benni Sinaga: Relationship Factors Economic Growth with Environmental Quality in Indonesia

165

Hendra Raza, Rita Meutia: The Indirect Effect of Empowerment, Innovation, Professionalism, Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict to Organizational Commitment, Individual Performance and Turnover Intention

179

Nurhalima Pandiangan: Employee Satisfaction Analysis on PT. Bintang Surya Perkasa Medan

190

Sitti Zubaidah: Potential of Sustainable Livestock Agroindustry in Indonesia

196

Togu Harlen Lbn. Raja: Behavior Analysis of Employees and Human Resources Development Policy to Performance of Employees at Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi LMII Medan

209

Aditya Wardhana, Win Konadi: Analysis of Factors Consumer Preferences Ojek Online in Indonesia Using Conjoint Technique Analysis

217

Em Yusuf Iis: Human Resources Management and Performance of Employees at Bureau of Aceh Government

224

Hilmi, Mukhlis Yunus: Determinant Factor of Competencies and Implication to Performance

234

Muammar Khaddafi, Mohammad Heikal: Micro Finance Model of Agriculture in Supporting Economic Growth in Aceh

243

Rasmulia Sembiring: The Effect of Individual Skills, Motivation and Support Organization to Performance Employees in Torganda Company, Medan

256

Sonny Muhammad Ikhsan Mangkuwinata: Implications Local Revenue against Public Welfare Improvement in Bireuen

268

Zahraini: Role of Microfinance Institutions (MFIS) in Poverty Alleviation

277

Ridwan: Human Resources Management Function in Developing the Discipline Reform in Education, Youth and Sports Lhokseumawe

287

Hakim Mutaqim: The Role of Gross Regional Domestic Product (GDP) against Poverty in Bireuen

296

Ibrahim, T. M. Nur: Ginie Ratio Analysis

303

H. A. Lawali Hasibuan: The Application of Criminal Sanctions againts the Perpetrators of the Domestic Violence Crime

312

M. Ridha Siregar, Teuku Azmi: Influence Awareness Activities Corporate Social Responsibility and Customer Satisfaction on Purchase Intentions and its Impact on Customer Loyalty in Customer PT. Bank Aceh in Banda Aceh

318

Boriboon Pinprayong: HRM and Change Management in Thai Banking Industry: Case of Siam Commercial Bank

331

Chairul Bariah, Saudah: Analysis of Leadership Style Effect of Camat toward Job Performance Employees

347

Edy Putra Kelana: Education Decentralization Policy Implementation In the context of Aceh Government

359

Muhammad Hatta, Tengku Noor Azira Binti Tengku Zainuddin, Cut Khairunnisa: Role of the Doctor as Expert Witness in Medical Malpractice Cases

367

Amiruddin Idris: Effect of Regulations, the Availability of Budget and Work Motivation of Public Service Quality In Office Of Education Aceh Province

377

Fajri M Kasim, Abidin Nurdin: Local-Wisdom-Based Conflict Resolution in Aceh: (The Study of the Role of Customary Institution for Building Peace in Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia)

384

Roza Espandeary Rosman: Human rights in Indonesia: An analysis of The Effects of Regime Change and Ongoing Economic development on Human Rights Violations in Indonesia

393

Syamsuddin Lubis: How to Find Work Crazy

404

Khairul Hasni: Gold Mines in Four Districts as Economic Sector, and Become Dilemma for Community in Aceh

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Social Dysmenorrhea: Impact Forecast in the Social Process (Case Study in Acehnese Community, Indonesia) ¹*Asnawi, ² Bachtiar Akob, 3Mufti Riyani 1.2.3Department

of History, Faculty of Teaching and Education, Samudra University, Langsa, 24416,

Indonesia;

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract In the social process, we can find a certain social phenomena which precedes other phenomena. Acehnese society have a unique phenomenon. Acehnese, often feel that certain social mobility is a sign of the coming of a recess, chaos or crisis. The Acehnese people who believe in the forecast ensure that a crisis will repeat in a phase of 10-year and responded through various actions that would hamper social mobility. This forecast reflects the condition of social cognition community. Simply put, social cognition to explain the thoughts of the social world. Thus social cognition is a mental framework to organize and use social information.This study aims to determine the causes and effects of the forecast of the social process and finding appropriate treatment. Because there are no adequate social concept, as a conclusion, the writer refer to this phenomenon by borrowing medical terms, dysmenorrhea (social). Dysmenorrhea is a condition which is a nuisance pain during menstruation. Dysmenorrhea is characterized by tremendous pain due to uterine contractions. In a social concept, the womb can be analogized as a public entity. A menstruating can be understood as a common cycle which is prevalent in society. Keyword: social process, social change, forecast, collective experience, social dysmenorrhea

Introduction The alteration is usual cyclical which is absolutely in the society of human being, however, not for all society having prosperity toward it. In the theory of sociology was organic analogy as the classical approach about social change. August Comte divided two of the theory of system. There were social statistic and social dynamic. Based on the difference, Herbert Spencer was analogized society as the biological organism. Social statistic has been examining social anatomy divided from the structure and 39

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

social function. The social function has been marking the manner of operation and social change in society. Furthermore, social dynamic has been focusing itself on the social psychology or social processing (Sztompka, 2008). In the Acehnese, occasionally were traumatic social changes as far as decennials. The alteration being reduced in the collective memory had been called as “prognosis”. It has been existed and rounded like as snow ball and spreading from each other, including migrant. Consequently, there was physical phenomenon like as anxiety, traumatic and others, which obstructed social dynamic. It might be marked as the negative social process. At the time it has been oriented on the social changed, Acehnese were experienced what be called “abdomen disorder” or social strain because of conflict. It was the illness of society on psychopathology on the broad of sociology. The social process can be found on other society with different causing and preventing. The probably causing might collective memory sources by Acehnese. As the partial social research, this case purposed to answer some basic problems. There were understanding causes of social dysmenorrhea in the Acehnese, finding effective preventing to the problems. The research trying to establish the hypothesis that social reaction against social process connected with mentality or cognition of society. Research Methods Subject of the research are Acehnese, they were people who inhabited on the promontory northern of Sumatera, Indonesia. Acehnese can be divided of people were inhabited on eastern and western territories of coast of Aceh. Eastern Acehnese having various type and social information sources because there were being border territory and centre of external social migration. On the other hand, western Acehnese were much more homogeny.

Sources from the two of countries purposed what

indications in social process of the meaning had been happened broadly or segmented. This is social research with case study. Following Robert K. Yin (1989) case study is efficient used to “empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real ice context”. The focusing of it is social dynamic based on physical society in the social process. The methodology of research is called diachronic research which being centre of modern sociology study. The research has been being used observatory technique, literature, and interview. Observation has been done directly on the object of the research as the participant. The sources can be found through intensively communication with Acehnese to get opinion, behaviour, belief, motive, perception, and knowledge of society about the prognosis. Literature was used as the supplement sources to understanding processing of prognosis and social psychology and break in hidden transcript in collective memorial Acehnese. Analyse of source exploration with other approach that suitable to goal of research. Procedures Procedures of research have beginning from problem formulation, determining of hypothesis, object and subject of research. It was followed by collecting of source in qualitative form. The kinds of sources are opinion, behaviour, motive, belief, perception, and knowledge of research subject. The following step is 40

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

technique of source verification of triangulation. Next, exploration analyse and interpretation.

It is using

historical approach, cultural, and psychoanalyze. Finally, the research is using inductive-deductive interpretation to get generalization. Results and Discussion Social dysmenorrhea as the physiological phenomenon has been based on source collecting by subject of research. People’s opinions about the prognosis objectively were various respecting of meaning it as the preventive act. Most people and more grassroots were having much belief of decennial prognosis of conflict. The social dysmenorrhea indicated as the physiological phenomenon can be seen by existing of anxiety and social strain. Nearly decennial cycling of conflict, most of Acehnese will be frightened toward the conflict. Certain social group will be limiting social movement and other communication to the other. Social strain has been exhibited by limiting social access.

Social Cognition Sources of Knowledge and Behaviour Post the Helsinki Convention on 2005, conflict will be repeating about the year of 2015/2016 according to the most of people. It can be seen from dissociative social process. Almost of Acehnese have been recognized the decennial prognosis of conflict. The older group viewing the nature of it, but the younger groups were not any information about it. The reactions of social movement were various. However, generally, if social strain intergroup were existing, hostility between apparatus and civil mysteriously will be seen as the truth of the prognosis. Any discuss at the corner coffee, market, or other public were the issues of it. This research ever is done by any local researches. One of the research is the study of Ajar Triharjo, ”Pancasila: Between The Myth of Messiah and Pancasila Education”. (Proceeding of Congress Pancasila IV: Strategy of Institutionalizing the Value of Pancasila, page 150-157). The research is focusing on the prognosis of King of Java, Jaya Baya. He was predicted will be presented of Kalabendu or destruction era. The prognosis was stated that the Indian Archipelago will be intercrossing Kaliyuga era or mad era. Consequently, the people of the state viewing that every social movement according the prognosis of Jaya Baya, as form of the truth of it. The people unawareness will be reacting toward it. Another alternative has been following stream with dissociative social movement to representation if the era should be destructed according to the prognosis, Ajar called this as cultural pathology. The condition is much different with that of Acehnese. In the Acehnese, the cycling of decennial prognosis is viewed by some historical event causing trauma. It is based on vertical political conflict that impacting horizontally. The beginning spot of internal Aceh conflict involving between ulama group (the priests) and uleebalang (aristocrat). The conflict has been existing since 1945-1946, or known by Cumbok war that having much impact. At the present context, however Cumbok war was took place many years ago, but anxiety which caused by demolished customary law had been being established 41

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

during long period ago in Aceh (Uleebalang Government in Netherland Indies called Uleebalang scappen) (Muhammad Ibrahim, 1983: 87). It was still existing as collective memory. Next, the struggle of DI/TII on 1953-1960 between Acehnese group leading by T. Daud Beureuh and Government State. The end of Cumbok war in 1952 brought Aceh into stability, however Aceh internal social politic have been changed. Conflict again took place when Daud Beureuh who was successor of Indonesia’s Independent, precisely struggling in Aceh against Government State on 20 September (Nazaruddin Syamsuddin, 1990). He purposed to establish Indonesia Islamic State (NII) in Aceh simultaneously between Kartosuwiryo in Java and Kahar Muzakar in Celebes. The motive of Daud Beureuh struggling because of his disappointment to Government State who will uniting Aceh into Northern of Sumatra Province. He is also desired to applying Syariat Islam (Al-Chaidar, 2008: 74). Beside his anxiety of the return of Uleebalang powerful in Aceh (Cumbok war trauma). The ending of DI/TII struggle on 1960, where Aceh be given extraordinary province. This status being new reason struggle of independent Aceh (AM) and Independent Aceh Movement (GAM) in 1976 were established by Hasan Tiro. There were supported by the priest who was interconnecting into PUSA. One of them is T. Ilyas Leube, friend of T. Daud Beureuh, founder of Independent Aceh to the next generation. In true, more much the priests who not supporting Hasan Tiro. Aceh were stated conflict transformation between Cumbok war and DI/TII struggle having historical connecting with Independent Aceh Movement, not only on hostility aspect but also in its actor’s relation. (Sulaiman, 2000). The ending of GAM struggle was peaceable where two rivalry objects agreeing Memorandum of Understanding in Helsinki, 15 August 2005 (Wahyudi, 2011). On the next improvement, conflict in Aceh has not stopped until 2005. After the agreement, in 2006 Indonesia Government has been applying extraordinary acts about Aceh Government through UU No. 11 2006 as mandatory of the first point in agreement notes (Wahyudi, 2011). The combinations of event if accounted mathematically were not exactly decennial of conflict. Among the conflict time, peaceable, to others connecting event has been changed to collective experience which reduced as “prognosis”. It has been being survived by oral culture. On the Malay society, oral culture is different from literature inclined on the certain group and oral culture directly intercourse on grassroots with different social cognition. The prognosis as if a great energy, there were connecting between limited duration and combination of traumatically period which shortly after. It was also caused by historical perspective in memory with its social time through Acehnese (Ishak and Syamsuddin, 2013). Social time according to Sorokin and Merton: “In general a time filled with varied and interesting experiences seems short in passing, but long as we look back. On the other hand, a tract of time empty of experiences seems long in passing, but in retrospect short” (Sorokin and Merton, 1937). In the present context, collective experience about the conflict time, not repeating steadily only connected with the other connecting event. People became not objective to view the signal of event and social processes are called social dysmenorrhea. 42

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

The analysis to understand causing, impacting, and preventing from Acehnese physiological were the first Freud’s psychoanalyzed. It was supported by historical and cultural approaches. In time of social movement, Acehnese unawareness will be their social communication by built homogeneity of community, imitation with the other society, exodus planning, and arranged aggrandizements analyse toward changed of the future. There were called by social anxiety. It was being patternmaking action unconsciousness’ caused by repression (Ackerman Raquel, 2000). Freud’s psychoanalyze called it as neurotic anxiety (Mc. Crone John, 2004) not objective anxiety. It was being frightened from effect if a desire or necessity being be done. The necessity in the social concept called as social change itself. The anxiety has been reduced socially as preventing act. However, because it neurologic, so the reaction of social act became not planning and intrude on social dynamic. Different from Freud’s analyse, so in the case of social psychopathology sourced by historical repression. There were as same as of political repression in the Acehnese. Acehnese collective experience established traumatic based on the failure of principle and identity negotiations. Identity of group had ever repressed causing social cognition of unconsciousness (Russel, 2006). Historical traumatic in the case of Acehnese cause them on disappointment dilemmatic and treatment of identity rooted by not clearing problematic in the past. According to Freud and Breur dysmenorrhea or social pathology that ego either conscious or unconscious which they called defense mechanism to preventing of anxiety. It was yet Acehnese’s. It must be found through social collective experiences in history or culture of themselves. Social invention need to therapy of them. Psychoanalyze therapy trying to demolish the prognosis repression and helped people against past conflict based on reality. Second approaches are social cognition. It is a mentality design to organized social information. They act to responses social movement as the same as social cognitive of them. It is focusing on experiences structure of them, awareness and transformation of stimulate into using information. Prognosis is working as information to emotion forming and social behaviour. Information was given from older group as the part of actor and narrator of history to younger group or others. They were in the collective behaviour became mediation of group who purposing to give awareness all of people toward social change of decennial conflict. The information became collective behaviour on the type of Acquisitive Crazes or spreading belief (Coleman, S. James, 2001). Social cognition is ideology representation towards social world. Post decennial perception causing political trauma. Either internal or external social movement responded by stimulation form resulted internal meditational respond of active interpretation aspect. If mediation group has been seeing stimulation automatically, cognitive group would view character minor of reinforcement. Handling model of it can be done by cognitive therapist to their patients. They were trying to suggested mind process of them to changed their emotion and behaviour. Some of therapy models were introduced: cognitive restructuring by Davidson, rational emotive by Albert Ellis and selectively by Aaron Beck. On the indication of social dysmenorrhea, social activity will be stagnated and obstructed wealthy. It is suitable to Robert Nisbet’s theory. He revised ideology of developmental and evolutional of materialism 43

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history. He stated that social development and alteration have been not naturalistic and absolute, but there were special factor natured by social history of a society. References Aackerman, Raquel. Sigmund Freud: Conflict and Culture. American Antropologis;Mar 2000; 102;1; Art and Humanities. Full Text.Pg 147. viewed 1 sep 2015, http://proquest.umi.com/>. Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., & Harrison, R. 1983. Cognitions, attitudes and personality dimensions in

depression. British Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. Ajar Triharso. 2012. Pancasila: Antara Mitos Ratu Adil dan Pendidikan Multikultural. Prosiding Kongres pancasila IV: Strategi Pelembagaan Nilai-Nilai Pancasila.pp.150-157). Baron & Byrne. 2003.Social Psychology.Allyn and Bacon Coleman, S James. 2011. Dasar-Dasar Teori Sosial:Referensi Bagi Reformasi, Restorasi dan Revolusi. Bandung: Nusa Media Darr, Orna Alyagon, The devil’s mark: a socio-cultural analysis of physical evidence. Continuity and Change 24 (2), 2009, 361–387.

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http://proquest.umi.com/> Ishak, Otto Syamsuddin. 2013.Aceh Pasca Konflik; Kontestasi 3 Varian Nasionalisme. Banda Aceh: Bandar Publishing. M. Isa Sulaiman. 2000.Aceh Merdeka: Idiologi, Kepemimpinan dan Gerakan. Jakarta: Pustaka Al Kautsar McCrone, John. 2004. THE LANCET Neurology. Vol 3 May 2004; http://neurology.thelancet.com. viewed 01 sep 2015, http://proquest.umi.com/> Muhammad Ibrahim, et. Al. 1983. Sejarah Revolusi Kemerdekaan di Aceh. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Nazaruddin Sjamsuddin. 1990. Pemberontakan Kaum Republik, Jakarta: Graffiti Robert K. Yin. 1989. Case Study Reserch Design and Methods. California: Sage publishing, Inc, p.23 Russel, Ian. Freud and Volkan; Psycoanalysis, group identity and archeology . Antiquity; mar 2006; 80; 307: Arts and Humanities Full Text. Pg185. viewed 1 sep 2015, http://proquest.umi.com/> Sorokin and Merton. 1937. Social Time; A Methodological And Fungtional Analysis . American. Journal Of Sociology, Vol 42, Issue 5, pp.616-617 Sztompka, PiÖtr. 2008. Sosiologi Perubahan Sosial. Jakarta: Prenada Wahyudi Djafar. Menyelesaikan Masa Lalu, Memulihkan Aceh Sepenuhnya , dimuat dalam Jurnal Juris, Lembaga Kajian Keilmuan (LK2) Fakultas Hukum UI, 2011.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Forms of Social Interactions of People in Coffee Shops in Banda Aceh Cut Khairani Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Almuslim,

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract The objective of this study was to find out the forms of social interactions that took place among the coffee shop customers in Banda Aceh. This study used survey method with observation conducted in three sample coffee shops in Banda Aceh involving 14 informants. Data analysis was conducted from the time prior to making the field visits, during the field visits and after the field visits by using coding procedure as guidance, namely open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The result of this study indicated that social interactions that took place in coffee shops were associative in nature, resulting in various forms of collaboration, an attitude caused by the relaxed cultural room in coffee shops where such collaborative attitude could develop profusely, enabling to bridge various structural and cultural differences among the coffee shop customers. Traditional form of collaboration and harmony is the image of Acehnese community cultural activities that take place among the customers in the coffee shops. The form of collaborative bargaining and coalition in coffee shops occurring in coffee shops is relatively free of psychological and sociological encumbrance so that various forms of social interaction can manifest without any negative propensity among the customers. Coffee shops in Banda Aceh have become a non-formal arena where cultural contacts occurs, social structural barriers become dissolved, going on within the corridor of politeness.

Key words: Forms of social interaction, coffee shops, Banda Aceh city. Introduction Aceh is one of western-most provinces in the unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia, which has special cultural structures. One of them is coffee shop culture which has been going on since the time when Aceh was ruled by sultans. Coffee shop or Keude Kupi (Acehnese) is a kind of shop where ‘sell and buy’ takes place particularly coffee in the form of beverage. The fact that coffee shops also sell various kinds of 45

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

other beverages such as tea, syrup, and bottled or canned beverages, and various kinds of light food such as noodle (called mi Aceh), “martabak” Aceh, and Acehnese cakes (Khairani, 2014). Coffee shop has become a sign of strengthened new identity of Acehnese people, developed through the meetings of people of all kinds, various institutions, different social statuses, and those with multicultural identities. At such a stage of a shifting mode as this, coffee shops could colour the emergence of cultural narration that crosses Acehnese cultural boundaries. On the one hand, coffee shops have been able to become a kind of cultural cohesion, which is acceptable to all different social levels, on the other hand the creation of such community centres as these can become part of cultural escalation process that can bring about the emergence of new identity in the young generation in Aceh. In line with this, at this stage there should be followed with some forms of delicate and more critical reading of the cultural change phenomena (Mujib, 2009).

Mushalla (meunasah, praying house) as well as coffee shops (keude kupi) are two social institutions in Acehnese community, which are inseparable in their daily life and have become part of Acehnese community itself. The existence of the two institutions has largely spread in all corners of Aceh and the two institutions have similar functions as media for socialization and interaction activities among the people of the community. While the existence of Meunasah could be described to have been present in Aceh since the time Islam was initially spread in Aceh, the existence of coffee shop, on the other hand, could hardly be traced historically. Coffee shops, however, are presumed to have been present since the time of Dutch colonization, and it was there where people at that time could probably socialize and associate freely. Formerly coffee shops were mostly developed within the vicinity of the mosques, which were taken as a place where participative cultural system and positive climate were inspired in the life of Acehnese community. It was these places that eventually brought about the birth of Islamic civilization in Aceh, which was renowned to the entire world. When the call for prayers was made, the people would in groups hurry to the mosques. When it was the time for ‘religious course’, they would leave the coffee shop for the place where they would learn religious teachings and other general fields of study. In addition, when there were problems in the community, they, in full respect of moral codes, would discuss in the coffee shop to seek solutions to the problems, and then they would take the case to the mosque if the discussion in the coffee shop met a stalemate. There was indication that coffee shops turned to be so popular during the 1980s through mid-1990s when DOM (Military Operation Region) was imposed on Aceh. There was even a discourse that said that coffee shops also became coordinating media and as well among the commanders of the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), and this place was also used for informal peace negotiations between GAM and TNI (Indonesian National Military). However, in various news media the spotlight was only beamed on the uncountable number of coffee shops and the habit of the Acehnese people sitting idle in coffee shops. Up to the present there has been no information that describes in details whatsoever was there behind the habit of 46

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

sitting idle in coffee shops as such and what forms of Acehnese people’s social interactions that take place in the coffee shop ambiance. Research Methods Research location refers to the definition of place or location of social research, which is characterized by the existence of three elements: the actor, the place, and the activity that can be observed. The research was conducted during the year 2013 in three locations, namely 3 (three coffeeshops) in separate locations of Banda Aceh city area. Coffeeshops which were deemed representative as the objects of this study were: Warung Kopi (coffee shop) “Cut Zein”, “Solong coffee shop”, and “Cek Juke coffee shop”. These coffee shops were regarded to represent all other coffee shops in Banda Aceh city. These coffeeshops were fixed as objects of the study based on several reasons: business experience, customers elements, and the locations being in Banda Aceh. Cut Zein is a coffee shop managed in relatively traditional nuance. “Solong coffee shop” represents all coffee shops that have been operating for a long time in Banda Aceh and have spread to several other towns in Aceh. Cek Juke coffee shop represents those that were classified as new and modern with high number of customers. All of these coffee shops are those most called on by visitors from outside Aceh. Study approach which was regarded suitable in this study was Descriptive Qualitative Research with the objective being to develop the natural traits of an individual, situation, symptom, or of a certain group, and/or to determine the frequency or the spread of a phenomenon in the community at present (Koentjaraningrat, 1991), Moleong (2006). To develop a theory at substantive level, it was needed a model analysis known as grounded theory approach (Strauss dan Corbin, 1990). Formulation of theoretical interpretation was based on the data resulting from field observation. Grounded theory is a theory inductively originated from the study of phenomena that represent it. Those phenomena were about the discovered, the developed and the provision of stitistical data through data collection and data analysis that represented a phenomenon. Thus the collection and the analysis of data and the theory, were based on reciprocal relation of one with another. The study about the forms of social interactions in coffeeshops was conducted directly coming down right to the field without having any concept, theory or hypothesis. The expectation was so that the researchers would not be tricked into verificative study that would use emperical level adjusted to conceptualtheoretical desire, and they would fully be able to catch the reality based on the field facts, both in describing what happened and in explaining why such thing happened. Thus in theorecal formulation, the concept about the forms of social interactions in coffee shops was really based on the data resulting from obervation, which was developed inductively. The study was focused on the forms of Acehnese people’s social interactions that take place in coffee shops, with indicators being as follows: (1) Associative cooperation with indicators and subindicators as follows; cooperation that covers spontanious cooperation, direct cooperation, traditional cooperation, harmony, bargaining and coalition; (2) Culturalization or culture contact, a social process that emerges as the result 47

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

of cultural attitude of accepting elements of an alien culture without causing the negation of the Acehnese people’s own cultural dignity. The determination of samples in this study was the kind of nonprobability due to the fact that it was very much dependent on the researcher’s choice and objective. The most important thing in sampling technique in qualitative research is how to determine key informant or certain social situation and condition, which are full of various kinds of information relevant to research focus. Therefore the determination of samples in this study used purposive sampling technique. The researcher chose informants who visited the coffee shops and the managers of the coffeeshops who were considered having deep and incredible information to be data sources. In determining informants or respondents, the researcher referred to Rahan’s statement (2011) and Bakri’s (2002), namely: (1) the subject should be long and intensive enough being united with the activity or with the field activity about which information was inquired; (2) the subject was still actively involved in the environment or activity which was the object of the rearcher’s attention; (3) the subject had sufficient time to be interviewed; and (4) subject, in giving information, should not be inclined to manipulate or to be prepared in advance. In order to obtain the diversity of study result, informants were fixed to be 14: (1) the owners or the managers of the coffeeshops, 3 persons; (2) civil servants, 3 persons; (3) businessmen, 2 persons; (4) politicians, 2 persons; (5) ordinary people, 4 persons. Data analysis technique in this study also used those as developed by Strauss and Corbin (1990) in

Basic of Qualitatie Research, Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques , that is coding procedure consisting of three stages; open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The process of analyzing the data was done before the researchers came down to the field, while in the field and after completing work in the field. In the data analysing process, the researchers used coding procedure as guidance, namely open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The validity of all of the research data was done by using triangulation, that is a technique to check the validity of data by using something other than the data as comparison against the data that have been collected from the research objects (Bungin, 2009). Triangulation can be done by using different techniques (Nasution, 2003); interview, observation and documentation. Triangulation used in this study covered triangulation with data sources, observers, theory, and triangulation with methods. This triangulation was not only used for checking the validity of data but also used for enriching data. Other than this, triangulation could also be of use to assess the validity of the researcher’s interpretation of the data, therefore triangulation is reflective in nature. Results and Discussions The Form of Associative Cooperation Spontaneous cooperation that is cooperation that emerges spontaneously and immediately. The result of the study indicated that spontaneous cooperation in coffee shops emerged without being planned in advance. The coffee shop customers got together and mixed with themselves, paid the bills for what they 48

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

had consumed together in the coffee shops; cooperation in the use of information media facilities or any other information aid available in the coffee shop area. Whereas Directed Cooperation, it is a cooperation that takes place because there is an order from the top or the one in authority. This kind of cooperation often comes about in coffee shop in response to the command from the top of an organization, either a formal or a non-formal one. This direct cooperation in coffee shop took place Banda Aceh community just like what happens in direct cooperation of bank marketing, promotion and selling activities, as well as services such as safety lockers of various products. Contractual Cooperation is a cooperation based on certain stipulation jointly agreed upon for a certain period of time. In this case the visitors deliberately come to the coffee shop to discuss cooperation related matters in certain field and conclude with a contract document. What is going on in the coffee shop is only limited to discussion about aspects needed to be considered in order to achieve mutual understanding between the parties, either regarding the requirements, obligations, and duties and responsibilities, time limit, and other matters deemed as necessary. The result of the study about contractual cooperation taking place in coffee shops shows that a contractual cooperation that takes place in coffee shops is usually one that is designed and agreed upon in coffee shop space, stipulating matters about leasing of buildings and vehicles, heavy equipment, products, projects and services. The role of coffee shops as information centres in Acehnese community is still going on until now. With presence of printing media, electronic media, coffee shops provide newspapers, and television, as well as internet connections free for their customers. This is done so in order to attract customers, because people need information, and therefore while enjoying drinking coffee the customers would access to information they need. Sometimes the customers receive various kinds of information from other customers. All kinds of information are talked about in coffee shops, from issues that are flowing at the village level to international issues. This is because coffee shops in Aceh are a public place accessible to all community elements. Therefore various forms of associative social interactions can take place in coffee shops, as customers’ background, coffee shop atmosphere, and the facilities are very supportive of the occurrence of people’s social interactions (Hayati, 2015). As a phenomenal public space, the presence of coffee shops creates pluralism culture in the community of the coffee shop customers. Pluralistic in cultural diversity, social situation, social stratification, gender egalitarianism; and even religious differentiation is not recognized in a coffee shop. Everyone can freely come into a coffee shop. This condition has been able to create an acculturation form of social interaction, harmony, coalition, and even traditional cooperation. It is understandable that coffee shop culture has the tendency toward values and norms identical to modern culture, a culture that is always tolerant to the various differences in existence. So coffee shops become a medium in creating associative social process like brotherhood (ukhuwah) and friendship and it is gender respective (Khairani, 2014; Khoironi, 2009).

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Harmony, Bargaining and Coalition Another form of cooperation which often occurs in coffee shop is cooperation for harmony aimed at developing activities which are mutually carried out. This kind of cooperation takes place in amongst village government officials of a village in planning a mutual work activity in the village (Kampung or Desa). The social interaction with cooperative in manner also often occurs in the community at the commemoration ceremonies of Islamic Holidays such as the Prophet’s Birth Day, Friday’s cleanliness mutual work, and mutual work to build a mosque. In several areas of Banda Aceh, coffee shops also function as a place where bride or bridegroom escorts will get together, and those in the activity to pay condolence visit to a family suffering from a calamity or to an ailing one. In human life there always occurs some kind of reciprocal relationship, there always occurs an interaction according to a traditional system which is perpetual in manner. Several kinds of social process in the life of a community turn to be identifications of perpetual interactions (Cita, 2015). Such relationships have been illustrated by Abdullah (2007) and Wibowo (2004), identifying the existence of Acehnese people in four icons: Aceh is known as a territory where religion and tradition become two important pillars of the social structuring; Acehnese people are known as brave; having high confidence attributable to their pride as Acehnese; and upholding collective values as reflected in their habit of getting together, visiting one another, having activities, and reflected in the coffee shop phenomena, and in ceremonies that involve a large number of people. Bargaining is an agreement implementer regarding the exchange of goods and services between business agencies or organizations through bargaining process. Based on the result of the study it was found bargaining cooperation that takes place in coffee shops was often done by coffee shop customers whose professions were sale agents of various products and services; among others, selling and burying cars and motorcycles, land, shop buildings, houses, and goods, and bargaining in carpentering services, labour, and rental or leasing services. Coalition is a form of cooperation in social interaction, which is a merging between two organizations or more that have the same objectives. Regarding the social interaction in the form of coalition in coffee shops, it is obvious in the coalition in the use of the coffee shop space between the food sellers and the managers of the coffee shop. The coffee shop manager often rents some space of the coffee shop to food sellers, such as rice, noodle, and “martabak” sellers. On occasion, there are coffee shops that develop coalition with other parties by allowing the coffee shop space to be the an activity/program or by renting it to an institution like legal aid, or renting it as a boarding place, or as office of an organization. The form of social interaction of coalition type in coffee shops is obvious in the way the customers sit together by combining the tables and the chairs into a unified unit, and in the sharing of the coffee shop space between the manager of the coffee shop and the food sellers in the coffee shop, or between a certain social organization and a banking institution. 50

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Coalition as a type of cooperation in a social interaction in coffee shops in Banda Aceh downtown, generally occurs between the coffee shop management and government or non-government institutions, and social organizations. A number of the said coalition forms which are often encountered within coffee shop space are, among others: (1) coalition between a banking institution and the coffee shop, a bank would install an ATM unit at one of the corners of the coffee shop; (2) coalition between the coffee shop and a social organization, like the coalition with the “Forum Silaturrahmi Kopi Beurawe” (Forsilakubra); (3) coalition between government institution and the coffee shop, usually in the form of dissemination of leaflets from the Mayor to every coffee shop, and these leaflets carry calls to the public; and (4) collaboration between a food and beverage producer and the coffee shop. Social interactions taking place in coffee shops are relatively free of psychological and sociological hitch, therefore it can to eradicate any negative prejudice among the customers. Coffee shops are a social interaction arena that accommodates friendliness attitudes and therefore it can eliminate conflicts among the customers of a coffee shop. The customers are so aware that coffee shops have become a public forum and therefore the customers are more attentive toward other’s feeling and as the result they communicate vigilantly by advancing or fostering togetherness and mutual respect. Coffee shops and cafés (especially in Banda Aceh city) have become a ‘non-formal’ arena, where social structural barriers are temporarily disregarded though still within the acceptable corridor of politeness. People, especially the youth, would find a more lax or slack arena where for the time being they can find themselves free of economic burden, social structure, authority pressure, or probably of the shadow of past psychological pressure due to the long conflict (Elip, 2010). The local wisdom that has developed as cultural ideology in Aceh is in need of identity symbols which of course are not only acceptable to the Acehnese people with their various created moral consensuses, but also able to bridge the diverse aspects that come from the various subcultures that develop in Aceh (Mujib, 2009). Of the factors that render the sense of peace and convenience to the people in coffee shops are the mutual respect, the sense of togetherness, and the sense of mutual work. According to Prihartanti, Taufik, and Thoyibi (2009: 114), mutual respect is recognition or reciprocal acceptance

that every

individual has the right and freedom to manage himself/herself primarily in actualizing their respective convictions, and that everyone has his/her own natural propensity, which should not be necessarily the same as that of other person. Acculturation Acculturation or culture contact is a social process that emerges as the result of a culture receiving elements of an alien culture without causing own identity and culture to be ignored. The advent of acculturation in coffee shops is often obvious in the fashion culture, particularly of women; Muslim fashion and national fashion or non-Muslim fashion of women among coffee shop customers. The culture intended here is among others the culture of visiting coffee shops by women, something rarely done by women before tsunami. The reason was coffee shop was a place for men to get together. So there was 51

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

the feeling of shame or discomfort for women to sit and drink coffee in a coffee shop. An acculturation thus has occurs in coffee shops, that is the cultural contact has resulted in the change of cultural value in the life of women who now have begun to visit coffee shops, something which was before regarded as taboo or shameful now has become common and taken for granted. Acculturation is also obvious in the way people greet one another in coffee shops. Coffee shops as public space are understood as a space that can be used for conducting open critical discussions for everyone. In this public space, private persons get together to form a public (community) whose logical reasoning are led to social, economic, cultural and political activities. Public space is assumed to have freedom of speech and freedom of gathering, press freedom, the right to freely participate in all aspects of discussion such as political and decision making. Furthermore, public space in this case consists of information media like newspapers and televison, and internet. In addition, included in public space are drinking places, coffee shops, meeting halls, and other public spaces where sociopolitical discussions may take place (Jasmadi, 2011; Firmansyah, 2014; Cita, 2015). Coffee shops have widened cultural space in Aceh. On the one hand, in the past not many Acehnese women participated in coffee shop cultural processes as such. At present, quite a few Acehnese women begin to fill in coffee shop cultural spaces (Khairani, 2014). On the other hand, the entrance of global culture post-tsunami Aceh also has indicated various traces of change at various levels. From life style, life view, mentality, imagination, to materialistic values, all have expanded into the very heart of the Acehnese people (Derwentyana and Dharmawan, 2011; Mujib, 2009). During the period of rehabilitation and reconstruction program in Aceh until now social interactions with cultural nuance remain solidly visible in coffee shops. Foreign workers can be recognized easily based on the skin colours, physical movements, and the language they use. Similarly as well, the workers from outside Aceh obviously appear to be different in the language and the way they are clad. Language plays a large role and becomes important basic identity in a community. Language issue and its relation to culture in theoretical frame work are known as utterance ethnography that is it has something to do with language study and linguistic practices (Mahali, 2008). In a more macro view, coffee shops also are a part of subculture that brings into contacts various new cultures and identities. It could thus be imagined the emergence of large global culture in Ace, which slowly but certainly has formed orientation, mentality, life style, and even the formation of new social capital that will usher Acehnese people dissolved in political symbols of culture. Social capital is the power that can move people, developed through various social interactions and social institutions (Rudy, 2006). According to an initiator of social capital, Robert Putnan, social capital is a part of social organization and mutual trust that facilitates coordination and cooperation for common interest (Putnam, 1995). Thus no wonder, coffee shop culture politics, when the time comes, will become a new agent toward the emergence of openness culture in Aceh.

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Conclusion Social interactions that take place in the space of coffee shops are associative, resulting in various forms of cooperation. This has been due to the laxness culture space in the coffee shop for the cooperative attitude to develop, and to be able to bridge the various structural and cultural diversities of the coffee shop customers. The form of traditional cooperation and harmony are the image of cultural activities of Acehnese people that occur among the customers in the coffee shops. Bargaining cooperation and coalition in coffee shops relatively free of psychological and sociological hindrance so that various forms of social interactions could exist without negative prejudice among the customers. Coffee shops in Banda Aceh city have become a non-formal arena where cultural contacts take place, social structure barriers become fused in coffee shops but all remain within the corridor of politeness. Customers cross gender boundaries by adjusting fashion culture, expressions of greetings, and tolerance attitude in an interaction that takes place. References Abdullah, I. 2007. Kontruksi dan Reproduksi Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Offset. Bakri. 2002. Metodologi Penelitian KualitatifbTinjauan Teoritis dan Praktis . Malang: Lembaga Penelitian Universitas Islam Malang. Bungin, B. 2009. Analisis Data Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: Rajagrafindo Persada Cita, G. 2015. Studi fungsi warung kopi bagi masyarakat di Kota Bagansiapiapi. J. Jom Fisip. Vol. 2, No. 2. pp. 1-13 Derwentyana dan C. Dharmawan. 2011. Desain interior kedai kopi dan gaya hidup masyarakat di

Indonesia (Studi komparatif gaya hidup Antara konsumen kedai kopi tradisional dan kedai kopi modern). Maj. Ilmiah Unikom. Vol 9. No 2: pp. 125-132 Firmansyah. 2014. Pemanfaatan warung kopi sebagai ruang public di Kota Banda Aceh . Skripsi. Prodi Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, Universitas Gadjah Mada Hayati, N. 2015. Eksistensi Penggunaan WIFI di warung kopi di Kota Banda Aceh . J. Al-Ijtimaiyyah. Vol 1, No.1. pp. 64-72 Jasmadi. 2011. Media cetak dan kesehatan mental masyarakat Provinsi Aceh . J. Psikologi An Nafs, Vol. 1, No.1. Khairani, C. 2014. Pendorong interaksi sosial masyarakat Aceh dalam warung kopi. J. Lentera, Vol.14, No. 10: hal. 50-58 Khairani, C. 2014. Warung Kopi Sebagai Media Interaksi Sosial Masyarakat Aceh (Kajian Realitas Sosial

Masyarakat Kota Banda Aceh). Disertasi. Program Pascasarjana Universitas Merdeka, Malang 53

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Khoironi, F. 2009. Ekspresi Keberagamaan Komunitas Warung Kopi (Analisis Profil Komunitas Warung

Kopi “Blandongan” di Yogyakarta. Skripsi. Yogyakarta, Fakultas Ushuluddin Universitas Negeri Sunan Kalijaga. Koentjaraningrat, 1991. Metode Penelitian Masyarakat. Jakarta : Universitas Indonesia (UI-Press). Mahali, S. N. 2008. Social Interaction in Bajau Isun-isun. Akademika. 74:59-87 Moleong, L. J. 2006. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya. Mujib, I. 2009. Pergeseran Ruang Politik: Catatan Etnografis. http://serambinews.net/ news/printit/5108. diakses Tanggal 29 Desember 2011 Nasution. 2003. Metode Research: Penelitian Ilmiah. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara Prihartanti, N., Taufik, dan M. Thoyibi. 2009. Mengurai Akar Kekerasan Etnis pada Masyarakat Pluralis . J. Pen. Humaniora. Vol. 10. No. 2. hal: 107-120 Putnam, R.D. 1995. Bowling alone: American’s Declining Social Capital. J. of Democracy. 6: (1). Hal: 6578. Rahan, N.W.S. 2011. Pola Interaksi Sosial Masyarakat Transmigran dengan Penduduk Lokal di

Kabupaten Pulang Pisau. Disertasi. Universitas Merdeka Malang, Malang Jawa Timur. Rudy. 2006. Hilangnya Ruang Publik Ancaman Bagi Kapital Sosial. J. Inovasi Online, Vol 7 (28). hal: 3132 Strauss, A. and J. Corbin. 1990. Basic of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedure and

Technique. London. New Delhi: SAGE Publication. Thousand Oaks. Wibowo .2004. Kopi Aceh. Aceh Cofee. Banda Aceh: Dinas Perindustrian dan Perdagangan Provinsi NAD.

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Acehnese Cultural Heritage: Between A Black Portrait and Hope Iswadi English Department, Almuslim University Bireuen, Aceh-Indonesia

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract This paper is concerned with the Acehnese cultural heritage that must be explored as an effort to build the cultural consciousness in Aceh. In the conflict era, it seems that Acehnese cultural heritage had been destroyed by political system in Indonesia. The power of political instrument was used by Indonesian government seem to have impact toward Acehnese society in the way of thinking, and the way of life in the daily activities. The values change and money oriented become the dominant problem in the future, without taking care of human values. Therefore, the cultural revitalization becomes the important thing to gain the didactic values through cultural activities like cultural documentation, cultural studies, and cultural exhibition in Aceh. In another word that the impacts of political system in the past seem to have a bad impact toward Acehnese cultural heritage like a black portrait, but in another side that we still have the horizon of hope by doing human values revitalization and creating the success myth based on the history of Aceh in the past.

Key words: Acehnese cultural heritage, black portrait, revitalization.

Introduction When standing a nation state named Indonesia, Aceh has directly mounted as an integral part of the unitary state of Indonesia (NKRI). But if we reflect further, it seems that Aceh as an area that can’t be separated in distress, especially when politics has become a "commander" in this country. Various assumptions negative stereotypes that have been attached to Acehnese has occurred. Aceh is seen as an area of conflict, separatist rebels, to the famous as well as the number one region marijuana fields in Indonesia and various other negative things. This situation is certainly not all true, but Indonesia seems to have conditioned the political situation in Aceh like that and it is no wonder that people from outside of Aceh and other peoples from various parts of the world are reluctant even harder to visit Aceh.

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The situation and condition likes above make Aceh has been lost in the world of tourism both locally and foreign countries. And even more ironic is that Aceh throughout history is seen as a nation that likes to fight, not only to fight against Dutch colonialism, but also the fight against the occupation of his own people Indonesia, and also have ever occurred a civil war or perhaps there will be a civil war which only caused by political interest and economic group of humans who have covered his soul by humanitarian values. The condition like this seem to have a negative impact on the people of Aceh as if Aceh was closed for other nations in the world and if it is not corrected through the truth of course, also be harmful to the morale where the Acehnese is a nation that is loaded with values become Muslim in Mecca's porch country. In other words that the political situation in Indonesia has brought disorder to the peoples of Aceh are not only physically and mentally, but also has destroyed the Acehnese civilization through historical heritage and culture of Aceh and it will be unclear situation caused by prolonged conflict for more than 30 years. Therefore, it is need to revitalize the various historical and cultural heritage of Aceh, where it is not only belong to the nation's heritage of Aceh, but also can be seen as a world heritage which are located in different parts of the world. History has shown that the conflict situation in Aceh coupled with natural disasters such as earthquakes and Tsunami, make Aceh better feel devastated again. This situation impacts on the system of development in Aceh are not balanced between physical development to the development oriented precisely the values contained in the various local heritages and different artefact charged seen the values of local wisdom. This is where we need to realize that development of values oriented is as important as the development of economic and development-oriented physical material. Therefore, it should be carried out various development activities of values as an effort to maintain the balance of life more meaningful and unseen. What is meant by the development of values in Aceh is in the form of activities that are not only the reconstruction of various artefact of Aceh that has been lost, but also necessary for revitalization of the values contained in it and to build a sense of moral responsibility which have reciprocal relationships between history and the results of culture with the people of Aceh as the owner as well as with the local government of Aceh which was already responsible ought to be able to accommodate some things like this. The series of activities within the framework of the development of values through the exploration of various wisdoms that exist, can systematically be done in the form of activities: 1). Documenting the cultural heritage and history of Aceh, 2) .maintenance of the Acehnese heritage as a priority , 3) .doing assessment that can reveal the existence of values and a variety of local wisdom that exist, and 4), do the exhibition (exhibition of culture) in order to promote tourism and cultural history of Aceh that could increase the country's foreign exchange through tourism visit to Aceh more Islamic. Because of the 4 series of activities that had to be integrated with each other, then as a first step in this activity need to be an understanding in advance of how important the documentation and preservation, and will then be forwarded to the program further the assessment and attributed to the tourism world 56

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history and culture of Aceh. It is necessary to involve a wide range of experts from both within the country and abroad with the interdisciplinary approach, so that the cultural heritage of Aceh will be understood as a whole (total studies). In other words that the existence of the history and culture of Aceh during this can be seen as a portrait of black, of course, would be a hope that can provide enlightenment for the people of Aceh and for the world community. Data Collection and preservation (maintenance) of Aceh's heritage as an effort to build the cultural consciousness Although it can be said that the period of war and conflict in Aceh is a period of darkness (the dark ages), but the people in Aceh seem to never feel hungry. This is because it is the natural wealth of Aceh were very supportive and coupled with a sense of social attitudes which should help one another fellow human beings in the midst of the people of Aceh are also very pretty good. Even at the time of the tsunami in Aceh people are not starving because of the food aid, clothing, housing, and other demands of other nations in the world. Unfortunately, since the state (nation state) Indonesia, apparently through its policy, it has been exploiting natural resources benefit of the people in Aceh for the central government in Jakarta. The political situation like this has conditioned the people of Aceh as a nation are marginalized, deprived and full of pace, especially in the economic field which will have an impact on other fields such as education and culture. This situation also continued during the post-conflict and post-tsunami where Aceh ethnography is a portrait as a nation that must grapple with a variety of economic activities. The condition as above, directly or indirectly have the affects on the pattern of thinking, way of life, and Acehnese world view. In the political and economic situation that is uncertain as it is, it seems there has been a paradigm shift in thinking that as if no money everything can’t be up and running as it should, so it does not have time to think about values and various wisdom that can maintain the balance of life, In other words that there is a tendency to think pragmatically for the people of Aceh post-conflict and tsunami that practical thinking where what matters is "peng" (money). Hence activities of documentation and preservation of the cultural heritage of Aceh is considered not so important because it is practically regarded as activities that can’t produce economically. For that is necessary to build cultural awareness so that the Acehnese people will not lose his soul as a nation of Aceh that has values and various wisdoms through documentation and do the preservation of historical and cultural heritage of Aceh. The efforts to build the cultural awareness for the importance of documentation and preservation of the cultural heritage in Aceh would not be successful without the people amend thought patterns that appear to have been dominated by a way of life oriented to the physical material culture and money. For that need to be instilled awareness orientated values that can build the character (character building) of Acehnese themselves which are believed to exist and had triumphed in the past were photographed through the relics of cultural heritage. In other words, the act of doing the data collection and preservation of cultural heritage will not succeed entirely without returning the function of the value to the community owner of the culture. 57

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If the Acehnese people have realized that all forms of Acehnese heritage will give the value to the life functions as the moral values and the various values of didactic values, then the data collection and conservation measures will be easier done. It is due to be the emergence of collective consciousness that is a sense (sense of belonging) to the cultural heritage. Furthermore, if we have created an atmosphere of feeling a sense of belonging, it is easily to make the steps of mapping and preservation (maintenance), and it can be done in an integrated manner with the cultural community. For those, the involvement of community leaders, religious leaders, traditional leaders, local governments and various other related institutions is necessary, and this is what is meant as an attempt to build an integrated cultural awareness and not merely political interests and benefit projects for a particular party and contemporary nature only. The effort of documentation and preservation of historical and cultural heritage of Aceh today is an effort to revive the Acehnese civilization through the values that had been destroyed by political instrument in Indonesia. The strength of the political instrument through republic of Indonesian armed forces has deep wounds and black portrait which is an act of destruction of Aceh civilization .It is not wonder if in the midst of the bitterness of the people in Aceh, revealed the words addressed to the government of Indonesia namely: "come take M16, brought home 16M". Coupled with a system that did not reflect the culture ministry in favour of the public needs that should not be repeated. That is why the revitalization of values through the preservation of cultural heritage Aceh becomes very important. Conduct a study of the legacy of Aceh as efforts to revitalize the values. Until now, it seems that a review of the various Acehnese heritage is still very little compared to what has been done as a scientific tradition in Western countries and Europe. The background which depicting the prolonged conflict situation in Aceh is certainly no excuse for not bounce in building a more civilized society in Aceh. That’s why, it need to be replicated back to the various forms of culture in Aceh either the form of culture that are non-physical and physical culture (artefact) to uncover the return values contained in it, so that any Acehnese culture form will be viewed not only as a spectacle but also guidance in cultural life behaviour. As has been mentioned above that the documentation and preservation of the heritage of Aceh in principle is to maintain the authenticity and continuity, but there is still more important that is to use it as an object of study that may reveal the spirit of the times (zeitgeist) to be used in building values through existing of social system. An example is the saman dance is one of Aceh art products that have been registered in UNESCO as a non-physical cultural heritage needs to be studied and reflected further.

Saman dance that has a lot to amaze audiences from all over the world seem to have a pattern of hand gestures with the rhythm and the time is so fast and devastating, but it looks so beautiful, harmony, and it never happens clash fellow dancers on the stage that will lead to an unpleasant sight. If we reflect further, the meaning is that the people of Aceh also never crash fellow Aceh and also among others, which means that the saman dance here may also be viewed not only as a spectacle but also as a guide that provides lessons on the audience. 58

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However, if in fact that the people of Aceh are still also always experience the horizontal conflict among the Acehnese and causing social conflict in the midst of the society, this means that we have not learned through Saman dance and also do not make the saman dance as an instrument of culture that can be used as instructional media. Therefore, students of culture today or cultural researchers have to be able to bridge uncover values and various wisdom contained in the cultural heritage of the people of Aceh to the owner. Thus, all forms of cultural heritage of Aceh in the future can be used again as an instrument of culture, where it is very important as same as a political instrument. In other words that the approach used to build the Acehnese society that would be more dignified is a cultural approach, and using the instrument of culture will be better than a political approach where during this time it will produce a wide range of policy and political decisions in favor of the interests only. It is very sorry for this country if the cultural heritage of Aceh had seemed lost, the suburbs, and even may have been exploited only for the sake of money and positions in which the holders of power that has been given a mandate by the people just behave politically as if it had thought through rules and regulations which have been made. While some of non arts universities in Aceh also has rightly providing support to the development of the values of cultural heritage, and not otherwise make products of Acehnese arts such as saman dance,it has been used as an instrument of political imagery to be sold outside the country as if also promote culture but the substance of what has been promoted seem empty. It would be like an empty keg tinny sound. In 2010, I and some friends lecturer in one of the non-arts college in the land of Mecca porch has won the goodwill proposal of arts abroad which to some Asian countries with funding of Higher Education Jakarta. For me this is the first step in post-conflict and tsunami to revive Aceh's cultural heritage through a program which includes the Higher Education; goodwill arts, performing MOU with several universities abroad, and no less important is the cultural discussion after the signing of the MOU in order to reveal and inform important substance contained in the cultural heritage of Aceh. But what is happening today? Various attempts to uncover vital substances through the cultural heritage of Aceh had apparently been politicized for political gain university imaging. It would not be ethical we as citizens are only able to manipulate other people's efforts to be success as a track record in order to win the goodwill institution-goodwill subsequent arts abroad and only for mere imaging without cultural understanding. The above situation is quite so sad as Aceh Islamic nation. Never imagined if a college is supposed as an agent of moral strength and social change, was actually behave manipulative because just to cover his great inability and so is seen by the public. Consciously or unconsciously, it is a reality that should not be repeated. Therefore scientific tradition must be rebuilt through total studies. Various studies of the cultural heritage of Aceh after tsunami and conflict must be done by involving the kinds of experts from both within and outside the country. It is possible if the various values and local wisdom that there are also the universal values that apply to all nations, and it is time for the Aceh government to be more open to the presence of other nations to each other which can contribute in building the wisdom of the nation.

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Currently, the studies relating to the cultural heritage of Aceh both done within the scope of local, national, and international numbers are still very little compared to what has been done in Java and elsewhere in Indonesia. It has occurs because of the political situation and the economy in Aceh unstable and greatly influence the mindset and way of life of the people in Aceh who tend to be pragmatic. It means that the people of Aceh are now more inclined to build its economic life in accordance with the realities of life there rather than to think about anything else. While the organizers of governance in Aceh apparently still running in place and have not thought about let alone accommodate the problems of cultural heritage as it may be regarded as a project that can’t make money or provide direct economic benefit. How to think like that should not happen in the effort to build values and local wisdom through cultural studies. Instead they should be constructed balance between economic needs as the demands of life with the needs of these values as character development efforts of the nation. In other words that the efforts to revitalize the values through studies of the cultural heritage of Aceh can be done not only to be supported by the government and related institutions, but also by the paradigm of thinking of the people in Aceh. That is why, the study results will be important to be understood and to be published, so that the public will also be easier to get the information of culture. In addition, the study results also will be recommended to the government as contribution for Aceh and other related institutions and to be considered more objective in taking policies. Here, the position of the cultural heritage of Aceh will have more significance, so it will be a cultural instrument that can provide the educational sustainable. Acehnese cultural heritage significance will be clear to the public as the owner if it is done by deeper understanding through cultural studies, seminars, workshops, and a variety of other discussions. So it will be revealing various cultural elements that reflect the way of life of the Acehnese as how it is used in the system of social and religious, Acehnese language, Acehnese arts, system of livelihood, system of technology used, and how the way of life of people in Aceh (Acehnese world view) are reflected in it. The dance of Ranup Lampuan for example, has shown that how arts of Acehnese who not only can be enjoyed from the values of aesthetics only, but also illustrates how the Acehnese always respect other people (guests) are photographed through certain events such as Preh dara baro (waiting for the bride),

Preh linto baro (waiting for the groom) and social events as well as various other ceremonial. Not only those,where the people of Aceh have also been attached to the tradition of glorifying the guest (tradisi

pemulia jame) that if we reflect further basically, Acehnese society is a society that is always open (welcome) to the presence of various other ethnic groups and not as imagined has always been closed to other nations that may also be the political provocation which seems as the truth, especially when linked with the small door of Aceh as a symbol that seems to indicate a boundary that covers the entry of other nations. From the description above, of course, can be traced further that all Acehnese cultural heritage both physical and non-physical form, now it is time to be used as an instrument of national character building. In this case, the strategy is certainly needed as cultural strategy (not political strategy), and that is a way to build the values-based on society and a variety of cultural heritage. An example is if it had been done 60

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the exhibitions and promotional products of Acehnese culture both at home and abroad, but substantially apparently has not happened something "catchy" (for something that can evoke feelings and thoughts) are positive, and has a unique of its own, as well as the wisdom and something that can be taken that are not included in the territory of other cultures. This is where the cultural strategy is necessary not only through exhibitions and promotions, but also have to do with creating a cultural provocation or reconstruct myths that illustrate the successes and the figure of the Acehnese in the past time. Conducting the exhibition and promotion of the heritage of Aceh in order to build the success myth of Acehnese as a cultural strategy If in America we know the dream of the American people to make himself successful (American dream), then there is no harm in also if today we build the myth of the successful people in Aceh (Acehnese success myth) that can be used as inspiration, motivation, and at the same time a dream that will translate into success in the land of Mecca's porch. What is meant by success myth for Acehnese people here is something that is believed to exist in the mindset of the people in Aceh as something form the successes that have been made by the ancestors of the nation of Aceh in the past. Forms of success that will be revealed through various forms of cultural heritage that reflects the life of the nation is a wise and prudent of Aceh in the past time, such as the Acehnese believe their heyday during the Sultan Iskandar Muda who has provided the best of all aspects of human life. Here we need a cultural strategy by doing an exhibition and promotion as well as to reconstruct the myths of success (success myth) that exist in the cultural heritage. So the exhibition and promotion of Acehnese culture is not solely for the benefit of the development of tourism as it will increase the number of tourists to the province and will be also increased foreign exchange income, but also to build the mindset of success as had happened in the history and culture of Aceh in the past. In other words that all forms of Acehnese heritage here can be viewed as an instrument of culture which used to revive the flow of public awareness that there is something important (significant) which may be taken as a learning cultural heritage reversed itself. It means that the cultural heritage of Aceh not only seated as relics merely just "stroked" and "hailed" for his prowess in the past, but also something which can lead to the creation of the myth of success both successful in the economic, social, constitutional, literary, and others. The next steps here is that the successful in the past should be promoted in the mindset of society so that they can also build the new dreams towards a better life. During this time we stopped at the level of exhibition and promotion of culture, so that not yet have maximum impact on social life and others. Building a successful myth in the middle of the Acehnese people must also be supported by the government of Aceh as the strengthening of culture as well as cultural pride that will have an impact on confidence as a nation of Aceh that had been destroyed by various political conspiracy in Indonesia. No one is sure of the Acehnese people today who are not proud of the series of names like; Sultan Iskandar Muda, Malikulsaleh, Syiahkuala, until lately appeared Tun Sri Lanang name the legacy of the region of Samalanga Bireuen district of Aceh, and many more series of other names. Although the people of Aceh 61

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has experienced the change from one generation to the next, but the feeling of pride in the names of the above example will still dwells in every generation of Aceh. This is due to the belief that in all activities and the whole heritage legacy attached to themselves to have the values of success in his time that can be used as examples in the life of mankind in the past, present, and future. It is different with what has been true in America that the myth of the successful of American people seem to have packed into the dreams of Americans (American dream) who believes that America is the land promised by God (promised land) as a land that promises to anyone who want to be success and come to America for making the dream become successful. But what has happened in the midst of the people in Aceh just the opposite. Various myths of success that essentially there had to be resurrected and revitalised, it seemed obscured by the situation and the political situation in Aceh. All the dreams of the people of Aceh have been destroyed by various political machines either from the start of operational areas of Indonesian army to national parties or local filled with promises and dreams, but in reality it has destroyed the civilization of Aceh. The existence of the power of the political machinery of Indonesia has made the people of Aceh is now losing references that refer to his ancestors, so do not be surprised if there are deviations of behaviour and ways of life of the Acehnese ostensibly seem like a nation of Aceh in general. And this is where a variety of local wisdom and something that can be taken from the Acehnese ancestors is due to maintain the cultural identity and re-establish the values that should not be sacrificed in the interests of the political machine. To rebuild the successful creation of the myth of the people in Aceh so that’s not run over again by the political machine in Indonesia would need to be created first; build self-confidence and pride in the cultural heritage of Aceh with the substance of everything that exists. It means that the people of Aceh should be proud and not ashamed to be the Acehnese as a whole with all its inherent ethnicity. Secondly, strengthening identity as a nation of Aceh with dignity caused by the power of the values as had happened in the past, and not dignified because the legitimacy of political correctness that is oriented to the contemporary interest. Third, make values and a variety of local wisdom that exist, as well as various myths of success in the past to strengthen the local identity which automatically will support the national identity. Because in essence that the substance of national culture are various ethnic cultures that exist in all parts of Indonesia, including Aceh and also with their culture. Furthermore, it is also necessary

demonstrated to the world through a variety of information of

technology that the people of Aceh is not as bad as what might be imagined by people from outside of Aceh, and it has been caused by the political provocations that divide the nation. Therefore, it is necessary to do an exhibition and promotion of cultural heritage of Aceh which charged the values and various wisdoms that can create a successful myth of the Acehnese. However, it should be noted here that the myth of success referred to in this article is not related to the myths associated with the world of the mystical and superstitious example of what is happening on the island of Java, or the myth of success figures of mafia or figures thuggery in Medan, North Sumaetra , but is related to the myth of success and

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wisdom of the people of Aceh and also for creating the horizon of expectations (horizon of hope) to get up to success for generations in the future. Conclusion As a citizen of Indonesia that should already guaranteed in the Basic Law 1945 and various government regulations that exist to undergo various life activities well, but in fact the people of Aceh seems to be fighting for his life from a variety of political action in Indonesia with various of the political instruments has been ravaged the Aceh civilization. Moreover, if politics had acted as a "commander" who have done in the name of the interests of the integrity of the nation and the State unitary republic of Indonesia and nationalism, then the political situation is certainly Aceh in position cornered and is regarded as separatist, rebels, and others which must be destroyed by political machine. This situation once had destroyed various cultural activities and replaced with activity area of war and conflict. The above situation coupled with the earthquake and tsunami on December 26, 2004, it was complete that the Acehnese people with all their cultural heritage looks like a portrait of an increasingly dark days, turned into months and years of increasingly unclear changed his ethnicity. The lack of clarity is due to the criminalization and decay of the cultural values and religion as well as a variety of local wisdom in the midst of the people of Aceh who have been conditioned as an area of conflict. Acehnese cultural values that do not conflict with Islamic law and values of religion (Islam) which is an absolute need in the midst of the people of Aceh are 100 % Muslims appear to have hegemonized by national political interests. This means that the people of Aceh have lost their rights in social life, culture, and religion that should be accommodated in order to establish the dignity of the people of Aceh and not even done the decay of the substances contained. In such conditions above, there should be a variety of efforts to revitalize the cultural heritage of Aceh in order to restore the integrity of the national identity of Aceh who have been marginalized. And one strategy is to reveal the return values and the various existing wisdom through various cultural heritage in Aceh both cultural heritage in the form of physical culture (artefacts) and intangible cultural heritage. Further departing from the values that can be used as the best of the way of life of the people in Aceh, and to be recreated the myth of success that will build a positive mindset, and that is the mindset of a successful dignified that reflect on the success of his ancestors in the past. And this is one of hope for the people of Aceh which be able to bounce back from the various adversity. Insha Allah. References Alfian, Teuku Ibrahim, 2005. Wajah Aceh Dalam Lintasan Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Bustamam Ahmad, Kamaruzzaman, 2012. Acehnologi. Banda Aceh: Bandar Publishing. Cassirer, Ernst, 1987. Manusia dan Kebudayaan. Jakarta: Gramedia.

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Haslinda Muda, Hj Pocut, 2011. Tun Sri Lanang Dalam Sejarah Dua Bangsa Indonesia – Malaysia. Jakarta: Yayasan Tun Sri Lanang. Hadiwinata, Bob Sugeng, Dkk., 2010. Transformasi Gerakan Aceh Merdeka. Jakarta: FES. Harun, Mohd., 2012. Pengantar Sastra Aceh. Bandung: Citapustaka Media Perintis. Ismail, H.Badruzzaman, 2013. Sistem Budaya Adat Aceh Dalam Membangun Kesejahteraan . Banda Aceh: CV.Boebon Jaya. Kawilarang, Harry, 2010. Aceh Dari Sultan Iskandar Muda Ke Helsinki. Banda Aceh: Bandar Publishing. Loh Angen, Thayeb, 2014. Aceh 2025. Banda Aceh: Yatsrib Baru. M.Ditiro, Tengku Hasan, 2013. Aceh Di Mata Dunia. Banda Aceh: Bandar Publishing. Syamsuddin Ishak, Otto, 2006. SAGO. Jakarta: Penerbit Aceh Kita.

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Agriculture as the Basis of Indonesian Culture: Understanding Agriculture as the Basic Ability of Civic Education Ruslan Lecturer of Civics, Faculty of Education, Unsyiah University, Banda Aceh

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract Agriculture in general is defined as the effort to take advantage of natural resources by farming, livestock breeding, fishing and other industrial attempts like the fish industry etc. Through agriculture, and of course by society being able to utilise agricultural technologies and agricultural yield, Indonesia can achieve self-dependency. Agriculture is a fundamental part of Indonesia, therefore, has to be cultivated into further generations. The effort of cultivating through civic education has three domains; civic knowledge, civic skills and civic disposition. From these three domains, civic skills constitute and appropriate means of agricultural cultivation. Civic skills are skills that are developed by civic knowledge so that the knowledge attained can become useful and fully utilised in order to solve problems in society. These problems haves to be viewed holistically because the scope of human life is not only humanity itself, but also the earth and all its inhabitants. Agriculture helps students understand human problems in a more holistic manner. Understanding the importance of agriculture as a substance is plants produce oxygen for human life which means a place to life, due to this an increase of population in Indonesia should be balanced by an increase in plants. Agriculture as a basis of civic skills is the ability for every young generation of Indonesia to identify and describe, explain and analyse, evaluate, decide and hold on personalities or opinions that are part of public problems in a holistic manner that is useful not only for the continued living of humans in Indonesia but also the Indonesian ecology. Strategies for agricultural cultivation as a basis for cultural civic skills must be done in stages and through the education system by making use of green education.

Keywords: Civic Skills, Agriculture, Culture, Green Education Introduction Agriculture to the Indonesian people is not only a form of occupation, it is a cultural part of Indonesia and has been done since 2500 to 3000 BC. Agriculture in general is defined as the effort to take advantage of 65

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natural resources by farming, livestock breeding, fishing and other industrial attempts like the fish industry etc. (http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pertanian). Through agriculture, the Indonesian people can fulfil the needs of the economy as a primary producer and as a means to create a balanced ecosystem. Civic education becomes very important in creating a stable ecosystem by following the first goal of civic education, developing good and smart citizens. In order to fulfil the aforementioned goal, civic education has to pay attention to 3 components identified by Margaret S. Branson (1999:8) that are civic knowledge, civic skills and civic disposition. These three components complement each other and can’t be separated, even so the component that best fits agricultural cultivation is civic skill because by planting awareness about the importance of a stable ecosystem cannot be through theory alone, it has to be implemented into agricultural skills in order for students to fully understand the nature of an agricultural nation. Implementation of agricultural skills in civic education is best implemented in the domain of civic skills, that involve the ability in order for students to be democratic citizens that can fully master a wide array of intellectual skills and participatory skills required by living in a society. The relation between agriculture with civic skills namely; First on the terms of the nature of Indonesia, the implementation of civic skills which includes two components are always based on the interests of agriculture. Second, the implementation of democracy in a country based on the active participation of citizens. It is very important to instil an understanding of agriculture to students as a fundamental basis of civic skills. Discussion Views on civic skills and the role of agriculture in life in Indonesia Civic skills are, with respect to the learners, skills in order to become democratic citizens by mastering a number of abilities, further Margaret S. Branson (1999: 70) stated; “If citizens are to exercise their rights

and discharge their responsibilities as members of self-governing communities, they not only need to acquire a body of knowledge such as that embodied in the five organizing questions just described, they also need to acquire relevant intellectual and participatory skill”. From the statement above, civic skills include intellectual skills and participatory skills in society. Intellectual skills are essential for the formation of citizens who are knowledgeable, effective, and responsible. Those skills, among others identify and describe, explain and analyse, evaluate determine and maintain the attitude or opinion with respect to public affairs. While participatory skills are the skills required for the participation of citizens knowledgeable, effective and responsible in political processes and in civil society such as the skills to interact, monitor, and make a difference (Branson. et.al, 1999). Agriculture's role in the life of the Indonesian people is that Agriculture is a series of activities that cultivate plants and animals on a piece of land for the necessities of life without damaging the plants (Tati Nurmala, et al., 2012). Plants and animals that are processed from agriculture are very important in the balance of the ecosystem in Indonesia and has a major contribution in the production of clouds in the air. 66

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EQUATORIAL WALKER CIRCULATION

(Source: IndroyonoSoesilo/ Kompas/ Sabtu 17 Mei 2003 - Hal 33/ Zadrah/ Mezak/ Pr/ Sobirin-Mubiar/ Dpklts-2003) Indonesia, Brazil and Central Africa are the region most active in cloud formation and as a centre for global or macro climate changes, environmental damage in these areas can disrupt the global climate. Mostly Indonesia over Brazil and Central Africa, as it has wide and shallow seas and abundant amounts sun, resulting in very active convection currents. Due to this, imbalances in the Indonesian ecosystem could lead to global climate changes. In turn it is almost mandatory for the development of industries in Indonesia be focused around agriculture in order to keep the ecosystem balanced (Putrawan, 2014). Economic needs are divided into three types: primary, secondary and tertiary need. Primary needs that are fundamental to human life is food obtained from agriculture. But industrial development is not based on agriculture and the government adopts a capitalist economy. As a result, industries have been growing more rapidly consuming agricultural lands and waste generated by these industries have damaged agricultural lands surrounding industrial land sites (Daryanto, et al., 2013). Analysis of Agricultural Relations with Civic Skills Analysis of agricultural relations with the civic skills of Indonesian people based on some rational consideration, namely; first, the function and role of agriculture is fundamental to life and living for the people of Indonesia; Second, the balance of the ecosystem affects the social system; Third, agriculture is the implementation of the philosophy of Pancasila in Indonesia. First, the implementation of agriculture in the broad sense that takes into account the balance of the ecosystem is the duty of every citizen, because every human life is always in need of oxygen. Each of the plants produces oxygen and absorbs carbon dioxide, therefore for every population growth there must also be a proportionally equal amount of plant growth.

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Advantages of trees: 1.Produces 1.2 kg of oxygen/tree/day 2.Absorbs 8x as much heat 3.Evaporates back 75% of rainwater 4.Hold water in soil

Forests and Jungle

Natural Infrastructure Cycle of Space

Generates: Air Cycle Oxygen Cycle Biomass Cycle

Life Cycle

Source: Mubiar P, 2015 Agriculture is the main solution in order to protect the living space of Indonesia, this is based on the fact that Indonesia is made up of thousands of islands with the majority of the territory being water. On the basis that the main interest of life is to maintain the presence of oxygen, civic skills in Indonesia is designed around the importance of nature conservation based on agricultural value. Agricultural values developed based on the philosophy of Pancasila modelled through the rice crop. Rice crops consists of roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and the fruit, which in turn is the basis of civic skills. Secondly, the balance of the ecosystem affects the social system.Agriculture functions as providing the nutritional needs of the Indonesian people as economical needs, but aside from that plays an active role in the balance of the Indonesian ecosystem. The social system is strongly influenced by the ecosystem, the relationship between the social system and the ecosystem is built by the interaction betweenthem. The interaction is described as follows.

Source: A. Terry Rambo (1983) in Amos Neolaka, (2008) The imbalance of the soil, water, air and other parts of ecosystem will affect the flow of energy, materials and information submitted to the social system, and more so, the social system would otherwise affect the 68

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

ecosystem. The reciprocity between them means that selection and adaptation happens to each individual citizen. To strike a balance between adaptation and selection between them, intellectual skills and citizen participation must protect the balance through agriculture. Third, agriculture is the implementation of the Indonesian philosophy, which is Pancasila. Pancasila excavated by Soekarno from the nature of Indonesia and agreed upon by the Indonesian people through BPUPKI conference. The origins of Pancasila being the basis of Indonesia is the fact that Pancasila is dug from the morals and life views of the Indonesian people. (Kaelan, 2013). Human of Pancasila in Indonesia is described as follows.

The manifestion of nature through agricluture

God’s Creation Inorganic Vegetation Animals

Creativity

Mind Creatio

Body Individual

Feeling

CIVIC SKILLS

Intentions

Social

Self Esteem

Source; Sunarjo W (2014). Humans of Pancasila are inspired by the values of Pancasila and are hierarchically related to one another, meaning that the meaning of the 1stvalues precepts the principle of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th values. While the 2nd values, based on the 1st, and precepts the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and so on for every value that is above precepts the underlying principle of the one underneath (Sapriya et al., 2013). Implementation of civic skills, that consists of intellectual skills and participatory skills inspired by Pancasila, is then used as the basis for the implementation of good agriculture as an attempt to balance the ecosystem and life of the Indonesian people through the fulfilment of primary needs. Nature conservation through agriculture and as a fulfilment of primary needs is as follows. Civic Education and Skills through the implementation of agriculture Understanding agriculture for students in the education system as a fundamental basis of civic skills can be done by implementing agriculture into the curriculum. Implementation of agriculture as an intellectual skill of citizens by ‘Taman Siswa’ has been held the in year 1941 in Jogjakarta. (Ki Hadjar D, 2013). The principle of kindergarten is a representation of the values of Pancasila, this is evidenced by the statement Soekarno made in the book ‘Celebrating 30 years of Taman Siswa’. The principles of ‘Taman Siswa’ include the underlying fundementals of nature, independence, nationality, culture and humanity. Human nature means that humans are a biological and psychosocial entities, between these two entities lie an entity of true self or God Almighty (Kierkegaard in Hendrik R.Wulf MD, et al., 2015). The biological human entity relates to nature and the psychosocial entity is associated with intellect, the mind and the heart which is the basis of civic skills. Independence is the independence of the mind and heart to achieve happiness. Culture is the wisdom of every citizen of Indonesia in filtering and associating foreign cultures 69

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

for the advancement of the nation's culture. Nationality manifests from the uniting of all ethnic Indonesian cultures for the sake of unity and a sense of purpose through all the hardship, for a happy life. While humanity is the need of well-being from every human being to another human being for the sake of happiness and peace of mind IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURE AS AN ABILITY OF CITIZENSHIP Operationalising Pancasila

A

One

Principles

and

Only God

the

of

values of Pancasila into

Components

Taman Siswa

agriculture by using the

of

philosophy of rice crops

Civic Skills

Principles

of

Nature

The roots are used to

1.

absorb

communicate

water

and

Indonesia with the basis of

rest of the plant, which

social responsibility.

mirrors

how

2. The ability to organize in

absorb

an environment with full

the

The

awareness

stem

humanity

process the knowledge Culture

Indonesia

logic

that

and

social

responsibility.

mirrors

human of

to

and distributed to the

civilised Unity

ability

argumentatively in Bahasa

knowledge Independence

The

nutrients from the soil

humans A fair, just and

Civic skills relate to

Intellectual

3. The ability to participate

Skills

in a school or community

The leaves mirror the

environment

human heart that guide

and with full personal and

logic

social responsibility.

so

information

that

the

processed

intelligently

4. The ability to make

has moral values

smart

The flower mirrors the

decisions as an individual

is governed by

processing

or group.

wise leaders

synthesising

A society that

Nationality

and of

and

5. The ability to implement

knowledge and wisdom

individual

so that the information

decisions

becomes useful

responsibly

70

responsible

or

group

smartly

and

with

the

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Social for

justice all

citizens Indonesia

Humanity

The fruit is useful for

Participatory

appropriate context.

the

other living beings and

Skills

6.

of

bows down in order

communicate smartly and

mirror

the

ethically

implementation of said

context.

knowledge

7. The ability to influence

without

arrogance

The

ability in

to

the

right

public policy in accordance with the norms applicable in the context of a sociocultural environment. 8. The ability to build teamwork on the basis of tolerance,

understanding

and mutual interests. 9. The ability to compete to achieve better and be more useful. 10. The ability to actively discuss

social

issues

intelligently

and

responsibly. 11. The ability to oppose various

forms

of

harassment against civic skills in a way that is socially

and

culturally

Acceptable. 12. The ability to resolve social conflicts in a way that right and acceptable. 13. The ability to critically analyse social problems by

using

a

variety

of

existing sources. 14. The ability to lead community activities in a responsible manner. 15. The ability to support 71

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

and give responsibility to future

leaders

in

their

have

the

environment. 16.

Students

ability to provide healthy and sincere support to the democratically

elected

leaders. 17. The ability to perform a variety of social obligations as members of society with full awareness. 18. The ability to build mutual

understanding

between

different

ethnicities, religions, races and classes in order to maintain the integrity and spirit of family. 19. The ability to establish mutual

understanding

among

nations

various

through

social

and

communication

medias

available 20. The ability to strives and

improve

personal

abilities and socio-cultural activities

with

the

awareness to do better. Source:

Udin

S.

Winataputra 2001 Model developed by Ruslan Conclusion In a democratic society, citizens are decision makers. So to make decisions that reflect smart and good citizenship, civic skills have a significant role. Due to that, decisions made by citizens must be supported 72

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

by a set of civic skills. Civic skills include intellectual skills participatory skills in society (Margaret S. Branson, 1999). The civic skills of Indonesia are based on some rational consideration, namely; first, the function and role of agriculture is fundamental for life to the people of Indonesia; meaning, on the basis that the main interest of life is to maintain the presence of oxygen, civic skills in Indonesia are based on the interests of nature conservation from agricultural values. Agricultural values are developed based on the philosophy of Pancasila, which are values derived from the rice crop. The philosophy of rice crops consists of the roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruit, which in turn is the basis of civic skills. Secondly, the balance of the ecosystem affects the social system. That is, an imbalance the soil, water, air and other parts of the ecosystems will affect the flow of energy, materials and information given to the social system, and vice versa. The reciprocity between them means that selection and adaptation happens to each individual citizen. To strike a balance between adaptation and selection between them, intellectual skills and citizen participation must protect the balance through agriculture. Third, agriculture is the implementation of the philosophy of Pancasila. That is, the implementation of civic skills. Skills that consists of intellectual skills and participatory skills inspired by Pancasila which is then used as the basis for the implementation of good agriculture as an attempt to balance the ecosystem and life of the Indonesian people through the fulfilment of primary needs. On the basis of these ideals, understanding of agriculture for students as a fundamental basis of civic skills can be conducted using aspects of civic skills described above by implementing agriculture through the education system based on the principles of ‘Taman Siswa’.

Reference Branson, Margaret S., et all., 1999. Belajar “Civic Education” dari Amerika. Yogyakarta. LKiS. Daryanto and Agung S., 2013. PengantarPendidikanLingkunganHidup. Yogyakarta: Gava Media Kaelan, 2013. Negara Kebangsaan Pancasila: Kultural, Historis, Filosofis, Yuridis, dan Aktualisasinya. Yogyakarta: Paradigma. Kahin, George McTurnan, 2013. Nasionalisme dan Revolusi Indonesia. Depok: Komunitas Bambu. MajelisLuhurPersatuan Taman Siswa, 2013. Ki Hadjar Dewantara: Pemikiran, Konsepsi, Keteladanan,

Sikap Merdeka. Yogyakarta: UST Press. Neolaka, Amos, 2008. Kesadaran Lingkungan. Jakarta: RinekaCipta Nurmala,

Tati,

et

all.,

2012.

Pengantar

Ilmu

Pertanian.

Yogyakarta:

GrahaI

lmu.

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pertanian/ accessible 7th May 2015 Putrawan, I Made, 2014. Konsep-Konsep Dasar Ekologi dalam Berbagai Aktivitas Lingkungan. Bandung: Alvabeta. 73

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Sapriya and A. Aziz Wahab, 2011. Teoridan Landasan Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan. Bandung: Alvabeta Soesilo, Indroyono/ Kompas/Saturday 17 May 2003 - Page 33/ Zadrah/ Mezak/ Pr/ Sobirin-Mubiar/ Dpklts-2003 Taman Siswa 30 years’ remembrance committee. 1952. Buku Peringatan Taman Siswa 30 Tahun. Yogyakarta: Taman Siswa 30 years’ Remembrance Committee. Wreksosuhardjo, Sunarjo, 2014. Berfilsafat MenujuI lmu Filsafat Pancasila: Padmonobo Pembawa

Amanat Dewata Mengajarkan Kesaktian. Yogyakarta: Andi.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

How English Infiltrated Into Acehnese Language Saifuddin A. Haitamy Language Center of Almuslim University, Bireuen, 24261, Indonesia

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract Throughout of its history, the Acehnese language had adopted a vast number of loanwords from the English language. Most of the loan-words had gone through slight variation in morphology, pronunciation, and meaning, but the words are still easily recognized that they are derived from English language. The process of this adoption is called borrowing in linguistics. The borrowing naturally happens in any language as a consequence of intensive interaction between two nations speaking different languages. The British and the Dutch who once lived in Aceh and used English when communicating with the Acehnese people had allowed this borrowing to take place. Because of the limited space, the writer only presents 30 data (words) in this presentation, among of them are six data having the similar pronunciation and the meaning but a little difference in the morpheme, while the other 24 data have slightly changed in the morphology, the pronunciation, and the meaning. The data were collected from the literatures (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Acehnese – Indonesian – English Thesaurus and Linguistics) and field interview. The interviewees were the elders living in Aceh, who had once communicated with the Dutch during colonization era. So, the borrowing had allowed the English language to penetrate into the Acehnese language.

Keywords: Acehnese, English, borrowing, loaned-words, similarity, slight variation

Introduction A great deal of words in the Acehnese language (a local language used by the Acehnese people) are nearly similar in morphology, pronunciation and meaning with the words of English language. Even though most of these words had gone through variation in the morphology and the pronunciation, but they still remain similar in the meaning. The slight variation in the morphology and the pronunciation was mainly caused by the adaptation to the tongues of speakers and the span of time that took for centuries of their usages. It is assumed that the intensive interaction between the Acehnese and the English people

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

for centuries ago had allowed the Acehnese language to borrow a vast number of loaned-words from the English language. Princess Elisabeth of England (1558 – 1603) sent Sir James Lancaster with four armadas which were full of the British to Banda Aceh on 26 May 1602. Since then, the relationship between the Acehnese and the British flourished until the military conflict flared up in 18 th century (aulia87.wordpress.com). It means that the relationship between the Acehnese and the British blossomed in 200 years. In that long period, the Aceh language was infiltrated by the English; this infiltration occurred when Aceh people borrowed the English words to enrich and develop the Acehnese language. Another assumption for this language borrowing is that the Dutch, who colonized Aceh for quite many years (1873 – 1942) used English as lingua franca when they communicated with people in Aceh. This assumption was based on the interview conducted to the elders, who once lived in Aceh and interacted with the Dutch in the time of the Dutch colonization. The Dutch might think that English was an appropriate medium of communication with the indigenous people because they were once exposed to English when the British lived in Aceh before the Dutch arrived. Language borrowing is a word or phrase which has been taken from one language and used in another language (Jack Richard, 1985:30). And the borrowing naturally happens in any language as a consequence of intensive interaction between two nations who speak different language. For instance, English adopted a great number of loan-words from other languages, including alcohol from Arabic, boss from Dutch, piano from Italian, tycoon from Japanese, yogurt from Turkish, and zebra from Bantu. The loan-words may slightly change their morphology, pronunciation or even meaning for at least 2 reasons: First, the speakers adapted the words to their tongues. Second, the words were used for centuries. Here are some examples: Japanese borrowed the word supermarket from English then it becomes suupaamaaketto, radio becomes rajio, etc. English borrowed the words salaam from Arabic then it becomes so long (Alice Oshima, 2006) and borrowed the word ubermensch from German and it becomes superman, lehnwort becomes loan-word (Refnaldy, 2003:4.28), Indonesian borrowed the word

organization from English then it becomes organisasi, management becomes manajemen, Acehnese borrowed the word batu from the Indonesian language and then it becomes batèe, baju becomes bajèe etc. In short, the borrowing had allowed the English language to penetrate into the Acehnese language and a loan-word might slightly change due to the time span and adaptation to the tongues of the speakers; however, the loan-words still can be easily recognized that they originated from the English language. Methodology The methodology used for this study is the library research and field interview focusing on words in the Acehnese and English languages which have similarity in morphology, pronunciation, and meaning. The data source is the Acehnese language words listed in Acehnese – Indonesian – English Thesaurus and

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the English language listed in the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary and the field interview conducted to the Acehnese elders living in Peusangan, Bireuen Regency. Result and Discussion The data were listed in the table which describes some similarities in the morphology, pronunciation, and the meaning between Acehnese and English words. The English words were defined by referring to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary and the Acehnese words are defined by using Acehnese – Indonesian – English Thesaurus or the data obtained through interview in the field. The phonetic symbols of words for both languages are also referred to the phonetic symbol used in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Due to the limited space, the writer only presents 30 data; whereas there are still a lot more data stored in my file. Table of Data Display English

Acehnese

Remarks

Road /rƏυd/, hard surface built for vehicle

RÖt /rot/, hard surface built for vehicle to

Data 1

to travel on

travel on

Crux /krɅks/, the most important or difficult

Krak /krɅk/, the most important part

Data 2

Dèn-dèn /dændæn/, series of movement

Data 3

parts Dance /dæn/,

series of movements and

steps that are usually performed to music.

and steps that are usually performed when one is feeling severely hurt.

Broken /brƏυkƏn/, that has been damaged

Brôk /brƏυk/, that has been rotten or

or injured.

damaged.

Wring /rIŋ/, to twist and squeeze clothes,

Hréng /hreiŋ/, to twist and squeeze clothes,

etc

etc

Prate /preit/,

(disapproving) to talk too

Prak /prɅk/, (derogatory remark) to talk too

Data 4

Data 5

Data 6

much in a stupid or boring way

much in a stupid or boring way

Rewind /ri:waind/ to make a tape in a

Riwang /riwang/ to return or go backwards

Data 7

Good /gυd/ of high quality or an acceptable

Gôt /gǝt/, high quality or an acceptable

Data 8

standard

standard

cassette player etc to go backwards

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Lame /leim/ unable to walk because of an

Leumiek /leumiek/ soft, unable to walk

injury to the leg or foot

because of an injury to leg or foot

Male /meil/ belong to sex that does not give

Malé /malei/ (esp. female) that does not

birth to babies

give birth to babies

Yoke /yǝυk/ a long piece of wood that is

Yôk /yǝυk/

fastened across the necks of two animals,

fastened across the necks of one or two

especially oxen so that they can pull heavy

animals, especially oxen so that they can

load.

pull heavy load.

Up /Ʌp/ to suddenly stand up and do

ôp, /ǝp/ to stand, especially an order given

something suddenly

to a toddler to stand up and move

Sieve /sIv/ to sort out things between small

Seut /seut/ to sort out grain between small

size and the big size by using net

size and the big size by using winnow

Rampage /ræmpeidƷ/ to remove through a

Rampôt /rampǝt/ to remove through a place

place in a group, usually breaking things

in a group, usually breaking things and

and causing damage

causing damage

Shield /ʃi:ld/ a plate or screen to protect the

Seung /seuŋ/ a makeshift shelter to protect

machine or person using it from damage or

person from sunlight

a long piece of wood that is

Data 9

Data 10

Data 11

Data 12

Data 13

Data 14

Data 15

injury Grunt /grɅnt/ to make a short low sound in

Gram /grɅm/ to make a short low sound in

your throat especially to show you are in

your throat especially to show you are in

pain, annoyed or not interested

pain, annoyed or not interested

Plunge

/plɅndƷ/

to

move

or

make

Plueng /plυǝŋ/ to run or move

suddenly

somebody move suddenly forward

forward

Hint /hint/ something that you say or do in

H’iem /h’im/ puzzle or something you say

an indirect way in order to show somebody

or do in an indirect way in order to show

what you are thinking.

what you are thinking.

Chance /tʃa:ns/ possibility of something

Can /tʃa:n/ good opportunity or possibility of

happening, especially something that you

something happening, especially something 78

Data 16

Data 17

Data 18

Data 19

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

want

that you want

Glee /gli:/ a feeling of happiness, usually

Gli /gli:/ a feeling of fun or excitement when

because something good has happened to

you are tickled

Data 20

you. Pause /pↄ:z/ to stop talking or doing

Posé /pↄsei/ to stop playing game for a

something

short time before continuing. It is commonly

for

a

short

time

before

continuing Burping /bƷ:piŋ/

Data 21

used in football game. to let out air from the

stomach through the mouth, making noise

Beuténg

/beuteiŋ/

suffering

from

Data 22

stomachache where the stomach is full of wind

Plateau /plætǝυ/ an area of flat land that is

Panté /pɅntei/ an area of flat land on river

higher than the land around.

beach

Blank /blæŋk/ an empty space on a printed

Blang /blɅŋ/ an empty space of land in

form

which no tree grows, usually rice is grown

Data 23

Data 24

in it. Drop /drα:p/ to fall or allow something to fall

Drap /drα:p/ to make an opponent fall to the

by accident

ground in order to stop them running (in a

Data 25

football game) Kiosk /ki:ɒst/ a small shop/store open at the

Kios /ki:ↄs/ a small shop/store open at the

Data 26

front, where news paper, drinks, etc. are

front, where news paper, drinks, etc. are

sold.

sold.

Be good /bi:gυd/ behave in a good manner.

Beu gôt /beu gǝt/ be careful.

Data 27

Hook /hυk/ fasten something on something

Huk /hυk/ fishbone fasten on the flesh in

Data 28

else using a hook.

your throat when you eat fish, or bullets fasten in a rifle barrel.

Dogged /dɒgId/ showing determination; not

Dok /dok/ engrossed in something, showing 79

Data 29

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giving up easily

determination and not easy to switch the attention to something else

Sway /sweI/ movement from side to side

Suwé /sweI/ propeller (the device with two

Data 30

or more blades that turn quickly from side to side)

If the words pairs (English and Acehnese in the table) are compared, you cannot encounter the exactly similar morpheme and pronunciation; they have been slightly adapted to the speakers’ tongues and modified by the centuries of their uses; nevertheless, the meaning remain similar even if it changes slightly in the context and the situation. The following is a description showing the slight variations both in meaning and morpheme. Data 1. The words road and rÖt have slight variation in morpheme and pronunciation but have the similar meaning. Data 2. The words crux and krak have slight variation in the morpheme but they are rather similar in the pronunciation and the meaning. Data 3. The words dance and dèn-dèn have slight variation in the morpheme (the word is pronounced twice in Acehnese) but the meaning is fairly similar; the difference is only the context in which the word is used. Data 4. The words broken and brôk have a little variation in the morpheme and the pronunciation but have a similarity in meaning. Data 5. The word wring and hréng have a little variation in the morpheme but they are fairly similar in the pronunciation and very similar in the meaning. Data 6. The word prate and prak have a little bit variation in the morpheme and pronunciation but completely similar in the meaning. Data 7. The words rewind and riwang have a slight variation in the morpheme, the pronunciation and the meaning. Rewind has a specific meaning that is to make a tape in a cassette player etc. to go backwards;

rewang is used for wider meaning that is to return or go backwards that includes making tape in a cassette player to go backwards. Data 8. The words good and gôt have a little variation in the morpheme and the pronunciation but they are completely similar in the meaning. Data 9. The words lame and leumiek have a difference in the morpheme and the pronunciation but have similarity in the meaning. 80

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Data 10. The words male and malé have the similar morpheme, the only different is the use of apostrophe on the letter e. The pronunciation and the meaning have a little variation; malé means a female who does not give birth to babies. Data 11. The words yoke and yôk have a little variation in morpheme but they are very similar in the pronunciation and the meaning. Data 12. The words up and ôp have a little variation in the morpheme but have the similarity in the meaning. The only difference is that the word ôp is specifically used when asking toddlers to stand up. Data 13. The words sieve and seut have the slight variation in the morpheme and the pronunciation but have the same meaning. The difference only with the tool used to sieve. Data 14. The words rampage and rampôt have a slight variation in the morpheme and the pronunciation but they are quite similar in the meaning. Data 15. The words shield and seung have variation in the morpheme, the pronunciation, and have a little change in meaning, but the similarity is at the material used to protect person from injury. Seung is a makeshift structure whose roof is made of coconut leaves or hay. It is used in the rice paddy to protect people threshing rice from sunshine. Data 16. The words grunt and gram have a tiny change in the morpheme and the pronunciation but they are similar in the meaning. Data 17. The words plunge and plueng have a little variation in the morpheme, difference in the pronunciation, and have a little bit difference in the meaning. Data 18. The words hint and h’iem have a slight difference in the morpheme and the pronunciation, but they have the same meaning. The only difference is that h’iem can also mean puzzle. Data 19. The words chance and can have a little difference in the morpheme and the pronunciation but have similarity in the meaning. Data 20. The words glee and gli have a slight difference in the morpheme and the meaning, but have similarity in the pronunciation. Data 21. The words pause and posé have a little difference in the morpheme, the pronunciation, and meaning. Data 22. The words burping and beuténg almost have the same morpheme, the pronunciation, and the meaning. The obvious difference is that burping to let out air from stomach but beuténg the situation where stomach is suffering from excessive wind. Data 23. The words plateau and panté almost have the same morpheme but have the difference in the pronunciation but they are nearly similar in the meaning. The only difference is that panté is the flat land beside the river, but plateau is the flat land in general. 81

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Data 24. The words blank and blang almost have similar morpheme and pronunciation, and have a similarity in meaning. The difference is in the use of the word, blank is the space on the printed form but

blang is the space on the land. Data 25. The words drop and drap, drop has general meaning but the word drap has specific meaning, it is only used in football game. Data 26. The words kiosk and kios almost have the similar morpheme and pronunciation but have a similar meaning. Data 27. The phrases be good and beu gôt have a little difference in physical form and pronunciation but have similarity in meaning. Data 28. The words hook and huk have the similar pronunciation and the meaning, but the morpheme is slightly different. Data 29. The words dogged and dok have the similarity in the pronunciation and the meaning but a little difference in the morpheme. Data 30. The words sway and swé have the similarity in the pronunciation and the meaning but have slight difference in the morpheme. Swé is almost similar with the windmill but its blade is made of wood strip. In Aceh, it is a kind of game played in the rice paddy in the harvesting season. Conclusion It is assumed that the existence of many English words in Acehnese language was caused by the intensive interaction between the Acehnese and the British or the Dutch. Both foreign peoples used English in their communication with the Acehnese; therefore, the Acehnese people adopted some English words from those foreigners in order to enrich their language. This borrowing naturally happened in all languages as the consequence of intensive interaction between two nations who speak the different language. For instance, English adopted a huge number of loan-words from other languages as Arabic, Dutch, Italian, Japanese, Turkish, etc. the Indonesian borrowed some loan-words from the English, the Acehnese borrowed from the Indonesian. Even though the loaned-words changed, but their origins remain recognizable.

References Daud Bukhari, Durie Mark. 2002. Acehnese-Indonesian-English Thesaurus. PDIA. Hornby, A.S. 2003. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford University Press Oshima Alice. 2006. Writing Academic English. Longman Aulia87. 2011. Hubungan Mesra Aceh dengan Inggris (Online) Refnaldy, et.al. 2003. Introduction to Linguistics. Universitas Terbuka Richard Jack, et.al. 1985. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. Longman

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The Uses and Effects of Online Social Media among Acehnese Students Sufri Eka Bhakti Almuslim University

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract Students on Social Media have dramatically increased in recent years. Online media such as Facebook, Instagram, Path, LiNE, WhatApp and Twitter allows millions of students to create their personal profiles and also learn about bridging and bonding relationship. Using the uses and gratification theory approach, the study was written with the intent of discovering study about common typologies of Social Media use generally. The study purposed to find out the reasons and effects of students used Social Media to satisfy their needs and wants. This exploratory study examined students through survey and in depth interview on Acehnese Students Community. This theory is expected to help communication researchers enhance a better understanding of the powerful influence Social Media have on students. Based on the results acquired through the questionnaire quantitative approach, it was discovered that there were actually three typologies which were information, entertainment, and social interaction underlying the Social Media usage. Therefore, specifically many students shared that they used Social Media to inform their friends about information and events quickly.

Keywords: Social Media and Uses and Gratifications

Introduction Social Media has become the most popular networking site on the web today, such as: US, Indonesia, Japan, and Malaysia, Philippine as the five largest Social Media users in the World (E-marketer – 2015). Now, Social Media is not only an integral part of college students' vocabulary, but it has also become a verb. Students exclaim to new acquaintances." Social Media has become, like Google before it, something to do and not just somewhere on the internet to be. (Sarah K. Foregger - 2008). Social Media allow students to present themselves, articulate connections with others and built their social networking. In addition, it’s also enables to maintain social capital that assessing bonding and bridging on Social 83

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Media. Individuals can develop their own home page to include their information, messages, music, and photos. Many online social media such as Facebook, Instagram, Path, LiNE, WhatApp and Twitter have attracted millions of students who socialize with other students on the university. In addition, many of Social Media are of students. Social Media became popular as social networking site among students in Indonesia. Therefore, few academic studies seek to theoretically understand its popularity. This study utilized the uses and gratifications approach, which has long been employed to understand the audience appeal of mass media and the assumptions of which are particularly applicable to interactive media. Students oriented social networks because these networks offer wealth of personal data to built relationship and share about information. Social Media has brought different lifestyle and has been known to make changes to the way students communicate. In fact, now students have new communication channel and tools than before. Despite the large number of studies that have recently examined kind of social media, there continues to be a gap in our understanding of why people use Social Media among local students in Aceh. This study is expected to help communication researchers and educators develop a better understanding of the powerful influence of Social Media have on students. Social Media Social media define as social network sites which are the web based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site. (Boyd and Ellison, 2007).What makes social network sites unique is not that they allow individuals to meet strangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks. This can result in connections between individuals that would not otherwise be made, but that is often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between "latent ties" (Haythornthwaite, 2005). Social network sites may help individuals create and maintain social capital because the technical and social affordances of Social Media enable interaction, and therefore reciprocity, with a larger network of social connections. These large networks are more likely to include “weak ties,” such as acquaintances and friends of friends, who are more likely to provide new information and diverse perspectives (Joan M. DiMicco, IBM Research, 2007). Therefore, Social network sites (SNSs) have the potential to fundamentally change the character of our social lives, both on an interpersonal and a community level (Nicole B. Ellison, Michigan State University). Social Media may foster relationship building by allowing users to track other members of their community. People more likely to participate in online surveys may also be more likely to be Social Media participants (Cliff Lampe, Nicole Ellison, Charles Steinfield, 2008, Michigan State University). Social Media enable individuals to play an active role in the socialization process and in constructing their own identity (Mark A. Urista, et al 2008 - University of Pacific). Every month, more than 70% users engage in Platform applications. More than 15,000 websites, devices and applications have integrated Social Media 84

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Connect since its general availability in December 2008. More than 1.6 million active Pages on Social Media and have created more than 5.3 billion fans. Social Media, a social networking site that began with a focus on colleges and universities, but now includes high schools and other organizations, has been studied (Acquisti and Gross, Lampe, Ellison, and Steinfield, Stutzman, 2007). The use of technology to carry out communication leads to persistence (Erickson and Kellogg, 2000). The web traffic data for Social Media, a social Networking site oriented towards college students, shows 15 million unique US visitors a month (QuantCast, 2007). Social Media is an online social networking community that has become popular at academic institutions (Anne Hewitt and Andrea Forte, GVU Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006). Uses and gratifications According to Ruggiero (2000), what mass communication scholars today refer to as the uses and

gratifications (U&G) approach is generally recognized to be a sub tradition of media effects research (McQuail, 1994). Early in the history of communications research, an approach was developed to study the gratifications that attract and hold audiences to the kinds of media and the types of content that satisfy their social and psychological needs (Cantril, 1942). Much early effects research adopted the experimental or quasi-experimental approach, in which communication conditions were manipulated in search of general lessons about how better to communicate, or about the unintended consequences of messages (Klapper, 1960). The uses and gratifications approach focuses on the audience member rather than the message. This approach imagines the audiences’ member to be a discriminating user of media (Stephen W. Littlejohn, 2002:323). Many researchers believe that uses and gratifications approach is well suited for studying the internet (Eighmey & McCord, 1998; Johnson & Kaye, 2004; Ko, et.al, 2005; Ruggerio, 2000; Stafford, 2004). The uses and gratification perspective as focusing on “the social and psychological origins of needs, which generate expectation of the mass media or other sources, which lead to different patterns of media exposure resulting in need gratifications and other consequences ” (Katz & Foulkes, 1962; Ruggerio, 2000). Furthermore, the uses and gratifications approach is especially well suited for studying the internet, as the interactive nature of the internet underscores the "core notion" of uses and gratifications; that of audience choice (Ruggerio, 2000). However, Katz proposed that we should focus more on the question “What do people do with the media?” than on the question“What do media do to people?” (Katz, 1959). Other researchers reopened the basic question of “what do we use the media for” by beginning with focus groups (Charney & Greenberg, 2001). This resulted in the discovery of “new” gratifications that were either downplayed in conventional mass media Uses and gratifications research (e.g. interpersonal communication, Papacharissi & Rubin, 2000). The uses and gratification perspective as focusing on “the social and psychological origins of needs, which generate expectation of the mass media or other sources, which lead to different patterns of media exposure resulting in need gratifications and other consequences” (as cited in Rubin, 1994, p. 419). Uses and gratifications assumptions which

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are: communication behavior is goal-directed, purposive, and motivated, people select media, many factors guide media selection (Rubin, 1994). Studying Social Media with the uses and gratifications approach (Blumler & Katz, 1974) may help people to enhance better understanding and answer questions about student use. Social Media is most often labeled as a social-networking site. Social Media such as Facebook, Instagram, Path, LiNE, WhatApp and Twitter according to Ellison, et.al. (2006) are "online spaces where individuals are allowed to present themselves, articulate their social networks, and establish or maintain connections to others. Social Media is, as he states, a way to share information through the "social graph" - a term that Zuckerberg defines as a digital map of our real-world connections (Social Media.com; Levy, 2007).The network feature of Social Media distinguishes it from other Social Media where users typically meet new people online and then move toward offline friendships (Ellison, et.al., 2006).Uses and gratifications research emerged as a distinct shift away from the traditional media effects perspective toward a more functionalist approach (Katz, et.al., 1974; Rubin, 1994) Research Questions Using an analysis of survey and interview responses, this study attempts to answer the following questions: 1. What are factor affecting Acehnese students used Social Media?. The questions purposed to find out the typologies of students use Social Media. 2. Why Acehnese students used Social Media? The questions purposed to find out the reasons and effects of students use Social Media Research Methods The study of an online social media designed for students in a specific media to meet specific needs. To answer the research questions, this study used mixed-methods. First, study using a quantitative online survey. Second, study a series of qualitative in-depth interview. Survey results provided demographic data about respondents, frequency using Social Media and described activities of online communities and related to factor affecting students of using Social Media at a particular point in time. Follow-up depthinterviews will be conducted to further explore purposefully selected participants’ online community needs to explore why students used Social Media as Social Media.

Survey Survey user on Social Media allows respondents to answer more specifically. Another Important way researcher use e-mail is to participate in electronic discussion groups (Rubin, 2005, p.87). The survey respondents need to choose a suitable answer in form of questionnaire. Purposive sample was used because the study was more exploring the correlations between Social Media use and the uses and gratifications of seeking dominant factor affecting student’s use of Social Media. 86

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The survey was pre-tested by 11 students recruited from the any school in all over university in Aceh who are concern with media development. The students took the survey and then were interviewed to determine whether questions were ambiguous or unwell utterance. The pre-test helped this research improve the validity of the survey. The survey was available for responses for three weeks. After pretested, 192 students examine demographic, frequently using and online activities of Social Media, as well as the uses and gratifications factor affecting the student’s use of Social Media specifically. The survey was entered onto Zoomerang.com and surveymonkey.com. The results of the survey were analyzed using SPSS. Statistics descriptive were run to obtain uses and gratification of Social Media in general.

Interview The purpose of in-depth interviewing is not to get answers to questions, nor to test hypotheses, and not to “evaluate” as the term is normally used. The root of in-depth interviewing is an interest in understanding the lived experience of other people and the meaning they make of that experience (Irving Seidman, 2006, 7:10). A total of 11 students were interviewed: 7 male and 4 female participants using a different question asking if they would be willing to participate. Furthermore, a qualitative component was used to ask more in-depth questions on how students used Social Media to satisfy their needs and wants. These interviews ranged in length from 25 to 40 minutes, and consisted of a series of questions asking about why students used.

Participant The participant took Acehnese Students Community. The rationale for these populations was students because they are the largest number users in Aceh. Researcher also feel attracted to Acehnese students because the assumptions that they are far from crowded of capital city which only small village that far away from technology development. Thus, they need Social Media also to bridging, bonding and maintaining a relationship. Therefore, participants were 192 Social Media users who recruited through a number of different methods: postings to the ‘wall’, email, and private message. Result and Discussion Students in Acehnese Students Community completed a survey on Social Media. Respondents' majors represented all school that enrolls undergraduate and postgraduate students. Demographics Respondents' majors represented all Students in Aceh that enroll as Acehnese Students Community. The sample size is 192 respondents based on PPI group members on Social Media. The respondents ranged in age from 18-32, with a mean age of 22.26 (SD=1.69). Table 1. Level in School Level in School

Male

Female

Total

Undergraduate

42

27

69

Graduate

31

13

44

Master

26

11

37 87

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Doctoral

19

3

22

Total

118

54

172

+20 "no responses" for sex were not included in this table: 17 undergraduate, 5 graduates, and 3 'other'; 2 students did not provide their year in school. Table 2. Frequency Using Social Media Respon

Male

Female

Total

More than once in a day

42

27

98

Once a day

31

13

66

More than once in a week

26

11

20

Once a week

19

3

11

Table 3. Information Factors 1

N

Min

Max

Mean

to look at pictures of my friends' friends

165

1

5

2.82

to see if my friends in common

173

2

5

3.72

to look at the photo of people I know

171

1

5

2.91

to help me put faces to names

177

2

5

3.60

to see who knows who on it

176

2

5

3.41

to find out what friends are up to now

171

2

5

3.34

Valid N

103

Table 4. Entertainment Factors 2

N

Min

Max

Mean

just to waste time

176

2

5

3.28

using Social Media is enjoyable

166

2

5

3.34

because it's interesting

171

2

5

3.63

when I'm using Social Media, I'm entertained

166

2

5

3.27

for me, Social Media prevents boredom

155

2

5

3.37

when I'm on Social Media, time flies by

164

2

5

3.56

because it's fun

168

2

5

3.42

when I don't want to study

169

2

5

3.25

to pass the time

181

2

5

3.08

Valid N

59

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Table 5. Social Interaction Factors 3

N

Min

Max

Mean

is a great way to contact out of state friends

172

2

5

3.12

to find out what family are up to now

175

2

5

3.21

to keep in touch with High School friends.

183

2

5

3.86

to keep in contact with friends of my friends.

170

3

5

3.87

I am part of the offline community.

175

3

5

3.69

I trust Social Media friends.

192

3

5

3.70

I ask my friends to do a small favor for me.

179

3

5

3.89

I feel like a part of a larger online community.

167

3

5

3.81

to find information about a job or internship

178

3

5

3.80

There is someone at Social Media I can turn to for advice

192

3

5

3.64

to find out about events in another town

192

3

5

4.03

Valid N

89

Based on the categories revealed by the analysis run on the online survey, the interview transcripts were reviewed for similar themes of social interaction, entertainment, information or surveillance. As the findings of researchers that uses and gratifications approach is well suited for studying the internet. Therefore, expectations of Social Media which lead to different patterns of media exposure resulting in need gratifications and other consequences”. The overall convenience of using Social Media was predicated social interaction was also frequently mentioned as a use of Social Media. It offers a kind of communication methods for students to use to keep in touch and make new friends. Some students use Social Media for entertainment. They report using and liking Social Media simply because: its fun interesting, or entertaining. Social Media is a way to pass time. It’s also a convenience came up as a reason for using Social Media, in particularly relating to the communication properties of the social network. So if it wasn’t information specific to a user’s friends, surveillance was one of important factor in why the interviewees used Social Media. Furthermore, the students reporting using Social Media for information. Many students volunteer that they use Social Media to observe what is going on in the lives of those also on Social Media. "I use Social Media to check up on my friends". A few of the closed-ended questions asked whether students used Social Media to find out information such as events or announcements, and several students wrote informational purposes, such as finding out the latest new gadget, book and movie release. Other interviewee said that additional function of Social Media. Many students feel a Social Media more easily to send email, save contact and address. In response to close ended questions, students reported logging onto Social Media to upload photos to their albums and log on in order to adjust their profile information. Checking sell and buy stuff was also reported to be a reason for using Social Media. One 89

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

student mentioned using Social Media 'in lieu of Yahoo Messenger and Twitter. However, some scholars (Ferguson & Perse, 2000) have used the uses and gratifications approach to examine how then-new technologies replaced older ones (i.e.: internet replacing television). Discussion This study is concerned with patterns of consumptions in typology and process of Social Media use among student. Survey follow up with interview will explore factors affecting students use Social Media and other issues about the use of Social Media because the uses and gratifications approach focuses on the audience member rather than the message (Stephen W. Littlejohn, 2002). The respondent indicated they

felt

four

dominant

factors

of

Social

Media

use:

Social

Interaction,

Entertainment,

Information/Surveillance, and Function. Social interaction is the most frequently mention based on mean scores for factors, the overall maintenance of using Social Media is often predicated as replacement function in lieu yahoo messenger to Social Media chat. Each major piece of uses and gratifications research has yielded its own classification scheme of audience functions (Katz, Blumler and gurevitch).This is an important finding when considering the potential of Social Media as a tool for directory function that enable students to maintain contact and information their friends. The student assumes that using Social Media is used to maintain their social. Social capital is "the ability of people to work together for common purposes in groups and organizations" (Fukuyama, 1995). "Social capital can be defined simply as the existence of a certain set of informal values or norms shared among members of a group that permit cooperation among them". Social Media considered being part of the daily routine of student in a social searching. "Social capital is defined by its function. It is not a single entity, but a variety of different entities having two characteristics in common: They all consist of some aspect of social structure, and they facilitate certain actions of individuals who are within the structure" (Coleman, 1990). This process of Social Media seemed to indicate that social interaction such as: establish old ties, seeking was more important in how interviewees sought out social capital found on Social Media. Woolcock define social capital as "the information, trust, and norms of reciprocity inhering in one's social networks" (1998). Recently, this study has emphasized the importance of online social media for the strenght of weak ties. Additionally, on Social Media, I come into contact with new people all the time.” It is enables that new pattern of social capital and relationship developing will occur in Social Media as social network sites enables several other students to solve their problems each other. Conclusion Based on survey and interview in this study, Social Media used by many Indonesian students and seem to see Social Media as a social interaction tool, an information source and entertainment. Social Media allow them to articulate their social networks, and establish or maintain connections with others. Now, Social Media enable students to play an actor in socialization process. The social interactions among students through online social media help to assessing increase social capital. Both the quantitative and 90

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

qualitative data suggest that Social Media was an easy to use tool that enabled users to effectively communicate with friends. Uses and Gratifications researchers, communication on the Internet also leaves a trail that is easily traceable. Messages have time stamps, accurate to one hundredth of a second. Content is readily observable, recorded, and copied. Participant demography and behaviors of consumption, choice, attention, reaction, and learning afford extraordinary research opportunities (Newhagen &Rafaeli, 1996). For Indonesian student such as: text, voice, pictures, animation, video, virtual reality motion codes, and even smell have already become part of the Internet experience (Newhagen and Rafaeli, 1996). James et al. (1995) also suggested internet forums such as Social Media fulfill many expectations of both mass and interpersonal communication. Hence, if the Social Media is a new dominion of human activity, it is also a new dominion for Uses and Gratifications researchers. References Anderson, K. 2001. Internet Use Among College Students: An Exploratory Study. Journal of American

College Health, 50(1), 21. Retrieved October 13, 2007, from Academic Search Premier Database. Bagozzi, R. P., & Lee, K. H. 2002. Multiple routes for social influence. The role of compliance, internalization and social identity. Social Psychology Quarterly, 65 (3), 226–247 Bailey, D. S. and E. D. Zanders 2008. Drug discovery in the era of Facebook - new tools for scientific networking. Drug Discovery Today, 13(19-20): 863-868. Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y., & Fitzsimons, G. M. 2002. Can You See The Real Me? Activation and Expression of The "True Self" On The Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58 (1), 33-48. Bhakti, Sufri Eka. 2012. Students on Facebook through Uses and Gratifications Perspectives. Komunika,

Volume VIII, No.2. Universitas Sumatera Utara. Boyd, D. M. and N. B. Ellison. 2008. Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of

Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1): 210-230. Bryant & D. ZiIImann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research. Hillsdale, N J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Cassidy, J. 2006. Me media. The New Yorker, 50-59. Cheung, C. M. K., P.-Y. Chiu, et al. Online social networks: Why do students use Facebook? Computers

in Human Behavior In Press, Corrected Proof. Cliff Lampe, Nicole B. Ellison, Charles Steinfield. 2008. Changes in Use and Perception of Facebook.

Computer Support Cooperative Work '08, November 8-12, 2008, San Diego, California, USA Coleman, J. S. 1988. Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94, S95-S120.

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Creswell, J. W. 2003. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Daymon, C. and Holloway, I. 2002. Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relation and Marketing

Communication. UK. Routledge DiMicco, J., D. R. Millen. 2008. Motivations for social networking at work. Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. San Diego, CA, USA, ACM: 711-720. Emarketer.com’s website Top 10 countries. 2015. Ranked by Gain in Facebook Users. Fisher, R. 2010. Generation f: How Facebook is changing our lives. The New Scientist 207(2768): 39-41. Foregger, S. 2008. Uses and gratifications of Facebook.com. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University. Granovetter, M. S. 1973. The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78 (6), 1360-1380. Giles, J. 2010. Is Facebook. taking over the world? The New Scientist, 206(2766): 50-50. Gross, R & Acquisti, A. 2005. Information Revelation and Privacy in Online Social Networks (The Facebook case). Pre-proceedings version ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society

(WPES). Haythornthwaite,

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Communication, & Society, 8 (2), 125-147. Hogan, B. 2011. Visualizing and Interpreting Facebook. Networks. Analyzing Facebook Networks. Boston, Morgan Kaufmann: 165-179. Joinson, A. N. 2008. Looking at, looking up or keeping up with people: motives and use of Facebook.. Proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. Florence, Italy, ACM: 1027-1036. Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. 1974. Uses and Gratifications Research. Public Opinion Quarerly, 37 (4), 509-524. Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. 2002 . Internet Paradox

Revisited. Journal of Social Issues, 58 (1), 49-74. Lampe, C., and N. B. Ellison. 2008. Changes in use and perception of Facebook. Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. San Diego, CA, USA, ACM: 721-730. LaRose, R., Mastro, D., and Eastin, M.S. 2001. Understanding Internet usage: a social cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Social Science Computer Review, 19(4), 395-413. Littlejohn, Stephen 2002. Theories of Human Communication. California, Wadsworth Publishing Company. 92

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Mark A. Urista, Qingwen Dong, Kenneth D. Day. 2008. Explaining Why Young Adults Use MySpace and Facebook through Uses and Gratifications Theory, Human Communication. A Publication of the

Pacific and Asian Communication Association.Vol. 12, No. 2, pp.215 – 229. McQuail, Dennis. 1987. Mass Communication Theory: an Introduction. Thousand Oaks California. Sage Publication. Nosko, A., E. Wood. 2010. All about me: Disclosure in online social networking profiles: The case of FACEBOOK. Computers in Human Behavior. 26(3): 406-418. Rosengren, K. 1974. Uses and gratifications: A paradigm outlined. In J. G. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The

uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research (pp. 269-286). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Yusoff, M. M. 2006. "Mass media in Malaysia: diversity in changing times”. Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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Epistolary Technique in A. Hasjmy Novels Wildan Lecturer at Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract This study is about epistolary technique which is normally used in the novels written by A. Hasjmy, an Acehnese writer. The aim of the study is to analyze such technique of epistolary as a technique to express opinion/ideas and narration. The study is quantitatively approached. The finding of the study shows that Hasjmy commonly used two kinds of letter writing in developing his novels, viz., fully-letter and partly-letter. Epistolary technique in the form of fully-letter consists of the following categories: (a) fully common letter, (b) fully diary letter, (c) fully-letter inserted into diary, (d) fully-letter followed by poem, (e) fully document letter, (f) fully-letter as novel ending point. The epistolary technique in the form of partly-letter is considered as partially letter which is inserted into novel. The analysis concludes that literary writing may be developed by means of epistolary technique, through which A. Hasjmy expounded his novel as if it is the factual phenomenon, in which it brought about the impression of the perfectness of story line and conveyance of gist of the story. Such impression represents the nuance of specific notion for the characteristics of his (Hasjmy) novels. Key word: epistolary, novel, A. Hasjmy

Introduction Based on study on the content of A. Hasjmy novels, it can be said that his novels could deliver many massages. He used a range of techniques in delivering the problems and one of them is the epistolary or corespondence technique among others such as speech, diary, poem insertion, and footnote. The application of epistolary technique will be discussed aiming at finding how work of literature takes role in delivering various matters and stories. A Hasjmy is a writer, a muslim leader, a culture expert, a historian, a statesman, politician, and also an academician. He is an Indonesian novelist from Aceh that had started his works in the colonial era as the era of Angkatan Pujangga Baru (the generation of new artists) in 1930s and continued to the

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Independence and post independence era. He was born on March 28, 1914 in Montasik, Aceh and died on January 18, 1998. The study of the epistolary technique is based on seven of his work of literature, namely (1) Melalui Jalan

Raya Dunia (Through the world’s main road) (1938), henceforth will be mentioned as MJRD; (2) Bermandi Cahaya Bulan (Moonlight shower) (1939), henceforth will be mentioned BCB; (3) Suara Azan dan Lonceng Gereja (Azan and Church Bell) (1940), henceforth will be mentioned as SALG; (4) Nona Pressroom (Miss Pressroom) (1951), henceforth will be mentioned NP; (5) Elly Gadis Nica (Elly the girl of Nica) (1951), henceforth will be mentioned

as EGN; (6) Meurah Djohan: Sultan Aceh Pertama

(Meurah Djohan: The first Sultan of Aceh) (1976), henceforth will be mentioned as MJ; and (7) Tanah

Merah: Digul Bumi Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (Tanah Merah” Digul The land of Indonesian National Heroes) (1976), henceforth will be mentioned as TM. Discussion Epistolary means correspondence (refer to Lodge, 1992:21-24). The epistolary technique is dominant in A. Hasjmy novels in delivering various messages and stories. The technique is one of storytelling technique as well as a media for him to develop his novels. There are twenty seven letters in his novels. The letters in A. Hasjmy novels are divided into two kinds, namely fully-letter and patly-letter. Fully-letter is the letter that appeared completely, meanwhile partly-letter means only parts of the complete letter were discussed. Fully-Letter The delivery technique in full letter is used by A. Hasjmy for some category, namely (a) fully common letter, (b) fully diary letter, (c) fully-letter inserted into diary, (d) fully-letter followed by poem, (e) fully document letter, (f) fully-letter as novel ending point. a. Fully Common Letter The ordinary full letter used by A. Hasjmy in his novels has some characteristics. First, the letters are explicitly mentioned in the chapter such as “Surat-surat dari Hamid” / Letters from Hamid (BCB 53), Surat-surat dari Medan/ Letters from Medan (BCB 76) and Dua Pucuk Surat/ Two letters (SALG 57). Second, the letters are appeared continuously as if attach in series. This kind in two situation, there are (1) among those letters label as ‘the first letter’, ‘the second letter’, ‘the third letter’, and ‘the fourth letter’ (BCB 53-61), and (2) among those letters without any explanation followed as in five letters in BCB (7685) and two letters in SALG (57-65). Four letters in BCB that come in series of a special chapter entitled ‘Letters from Hamid’ are the letters from Hamid for Zuraida (three letters) and to Halim (one letter). In Hamid’s first letter to Zuraida, A Hasjmy describes the nation fertility along Hamid’s journey from Kutaraja-Medan-Deli to the West Sumatra. The topic of the nation prosperity is related to the ownership by the foreigners and the labor

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

conditions of being underpaid. The image of prosperity is highlighted by referring Aceh as Tanah

Rencong, Deli as Dollarland, Medan as the Paris van Sumatra or the Mesir van Andalas (BCB 53-4). The progress of religious practice is mentioned in the second letter. Here A. Hasjmy describes West Sumatra as the center of Indonesian Islamic development. The fact that people of that area pilgrimage to the grave of Syekh Burhanuddin in Ulakan, Pariaman and the Tabut celebration on 10th day of Muharram; the first month in Islamic calendar are critized by A. Hasjmy since those practices are forbidden in Islam. He also admit that ”… Sumatera Baratlah menjadi jiwanya kebangunan ummat Islam

Indonesia.” (the West Sumatra is truly the spirit of the Moslem awakening in Indonesia.) Even so, the expression, ”Tidak tahukah, orang muda, bahwa kalau genap tujuh tahun berturut-turut menziarahi

kuburan itu di bulan ini, sama pahalanya dengan pergi naik haji ....?’ jawab perempuan tua itu dengan yakinnya.” (don’t you know young man, that if you pilgrim for the straight seven years to the Syekh grave in this month, the reward is similar if you go on Hajj to Mecca?’ answer the old lady conficingly.) this fact is the sign that the Islamic practice is far from the true practice (BCB 53-7). The similar description is also applied for Hamid letters to Halim. In those letters Hamid informed the terrible condition of the Java people whose lands and plantation are taken over by the foreigners. For seeing those conditions that finally Hamid decided to join the political party to stand for the true practice of Islam and improve the economic condition of his people. These two things are ultimate objective of Hamid’s struggle in BCB (57-8). In the next letter, also through Hamid, A. Hasjmy expresses his nationalism in term of social levelling. A. Hasjmy intends to change the condition. He delivers the message through Hamid’s letter to Zuraiada, one of which as follows:

Jika di zaman kita masyarakat masih membagi-bagi manusia, sehingga satu golongan terlarang berjalan seiring, dengan golongan yang lain dalam melalui jalan raya di taman hidup ini, janganlah sampai di anak kita tetap demikian juga. ..., marilah sama-sama kita dengungdengungkan semboyan: Hiduplah persaudaraan! Hiduplah persamaan! Hiduplah persatuan! (BCB 58—60) (If in our era the society still devide people so that one social group of people are forbidden to walk along with other social group on the road of this life garden, hopefully in our children’s era things are improving. .... let’s unite to shout: Long live brotherhood! Long live equity! Long live unity! (BCB 58-60) Those four letters are designed by giving words or expressions of connection as ’ surat pertama’ or ’surat

kedua’ (the first letter or the second letter) and so worth in between the letters. The next dicussion will be on the letter insertion of continuous letters that does not mention as the above expression. In the chapter “Surat-Surat dari Medan” (Letters from Medan) all the letters are for Hamid. In those letters the ideas of A. Hasjmy about patriotism, the spirit of independent struggling particularly in ommiting feodalism in the life of the nation. The letters express A.Hasjmy persuasively, for example in the first letter (BCB-76-7), Rusli, the character admits, ”... Hati saya yang keras, sebagai seorang politik yang selalu 96

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

menghadapi soal-soal yang pelik...,” (... My tough hard, as a politician always experiencing complicted problems...”) is weaken at seeing Zuraida’s condition after the disaster. Here, before closing the letter, Rusli informed her the efforts that the party made in east Sumatra were satisfying especially because there are party’s branches in most places. The third letter (BCB 80-3), contains complaints of Zuraida on Hamid effort to avoid her. She informed him that she needs his help urgently. Zuraida regretted how Hamid has neglected her where she suffers alone. She still remembers that Hamid promised her to fight together against the inequality in the society particularly practice by the feudal. The idealism of the struggle is continuing in the next letter (BCB 83-4), the letter from Halimah informing Hamid that Zuraida was saved as the access of the struggle. Zuraida found her identity as to fight for her nation because of Hamid’s letters. Next, there are also fully letter appear continuously without spacing, that are the letters from Amiruddin to Ramayati and Ramayati’s reply to Amiruddin (SALG 57-65). The term “Dua Pucuk Surat” (Two Letters) is used as the title of the chapter. In the first letter, Amiruddin stated after he returned from Aceh, he is now in Jakarta with new ideas and ideology, that is the awareness of his religion, and starting to leave his way of life as an urban person. Amiruddin asked Ramayati to think about their will of a marriage of two different religions. The next letter is an independent common full letter. It means the letters are shown once in a time based on the novel’s context. One of those letters is the letter from Hamid to Halim that informed about Zuraida’s family had a train accident in Medan. Hamid also informed that he will continue his journey to Aceh in order to spread his party’s idealism. Hamid expressed his satisfaction on Halim success in developing the farmer union as a political movement in every village in Aceh. (BCB 66-8) b. Fully Dairy Letters The second category of epistolary technique is applied by A. Hasjmy in BCB novel. In one of the letter (BCB 38-46) of eight-page long from Hamid to Zuraida that contains Hamid daily notes. In that letter, Hamid expressed his disappointment of Zuraida’s father refuse his proposal. The refusal is caused by their social level difference. Hamid wrote, “It is my fault of not considering first before I proposed you to your father, has it come an era where my request is not on the right place? ... that ‘equal society “ has not come real yet, it is in my ideas.” Hamid also expressed that he is freed from the disappointment. He hopes that young people of his age should be alert on whatever situation they face. The young people should not behave negatively if they face problem in life. It can be concluded that through this letter A. Hasjmy conveys his ideas to lit up the spirit of the young people. c. Fully-Letter Inserted into Dairy The example of this technique is found in NP novel (22-4). The letter is written by Nila Kesuma to Suryadi contains her reply of Suryadi suspicion that she deserted to the enemy. There are many things expose in the letter. There is an image of argumentation among the characters and certainly will add to the logic of the story itself. Through it A. Hasjmy wants to show how persistent the warriors are, men and women, all 97

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

take part in the freedom of the nation. The confession of Nila Kesuma in her letter is the proof of women involvement in the struggle. She worked as the informant in the Ministry of Information, in the Indonesian Radio Broadcast and also in the state intelligent agency. Through this letter A. Hasjmy shows women contribution for the nation. Nila Kesuma involved in the aggression done by the Dutch. In the first aggression, she entered Semarang to contact the sabotage army where she stole the Dutch map of defense area in Semarang and the ammunition storage of the Dutch. d. Fully-Letter Followed by Poem This technique is found in NCB and MJRD. In BCB (80-83), the letter is written by Zuraida to Hamid. Here the poetry is to beautify the letter which means the poetry is not used as the technique to deliver A. Hasjmy ideas. Full letter with poetry insertion is also found in MRJD novel of totally five letters. In one of Ridwan letters, he wrote, “… in our village the paintings of nature are beautiful that brings to wonder the bless of The All Mighty and the beauty of our nation. …. Our land is beautiful indeed, Rusmawar, ….” Ridwan also mentioned about making the graveyard of a certain honored person as the worship place by some people. To him, it is a sign of awareness of the people in the religious practice. He hopes that one day the forbidden practices will vanish in this nation. It is what the young people fight for. Ridwan also tells about the hospitality of the people who served him in a hut with coconut drink and coffee leaves in a coconut shell bowl. All are from coconut, which is the symbol of Indonesian land. According to A. Hasjmy, agriculture is one of the noble works in achieving the people prosperity. He thinks that a country will be in destruction if its people neglect the agriculture and underestimated by the young generation. Through this letter, A. Hasjmy reminds the importance of loving and appreciating agriculture sector. e. Fully Document Letter It is found in EGN where the withdrawal of the nation independent declaration was mentioned. First, the letter is in the form of secret document on the betrayal of the feudal that is the agreement made by Raden Sastra Atmaja aiming at asking the Ducth to govern Indonesia again (EGN 42-3). The letter signed on January 3rd, 1946 contains information such as the statement that Sunda, not Indonesia as the nation identity. Besides being anti-colonialism, A. Hasjmy also shows his hatred on the royal by describing their foolishness. It is indicated with the harsh language in the letter. Second, the letter also mentioned some ideas about Indonesia as a republic, some made countries by other party such as Pasundan State, Indonesian State, Eastern State of Indonesia and Dutch Indies. f.

Fully-Letter As Novel Ending Point

Full letter is also used by A. Hasjmy to end his novel. It is found in EGN novel. It is Elly’s letter to Raden Sastra. She informed that she is caught by the republic spies, Rusmiati (EGN 57). Through the letter Elly requested Raden Sastra Atmaja to tell the Dutch to realize their mistake. She also hoped that the Dutch not ”... lagi terus-menerus memperkosa Kedaulatan Negara Republik Indonesia.” (to 98

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

keep raping the dignity of the Republic of Indonesia.) On the other hand, the Dutch should withdrawal themselves from all the islands of Indonesia, ”agar rakjat Indonesia mendapat kesempatan menjusun ta-

nah airnja sendiri.” (so that the people of Indonesia have the chance to manage their own country.) Partly-Letter A. Hasjmy is persistent in using epistolary technique also found in partly-letter form. The letter is inserted in the diary such as in NP novel (15-6 and 19). In the other letter (NP 19) contains Suryadi suspicion that Nila Kesuma has betrayed and pro the Dutch. Through his letter, Suryadi expressed his disappointment. He informed her that ”... aku telah berangkat

untuk menunaikan kewadjibanku sebagai putera bangsa. Kemana dan dimana aku tidak perlu engkau ketahuinja. ....” (… I left to fulfill my responsibility as a child of the mother nation. Where I am and where I go should you not concern about. …) Suryadi really shows his hatred to his lover for double crossing the nation. Suryadi’s attitude is actually the reflection of A. Hasjmy himself, the nation’s dignity is above everything. In TM novel, besides 50 words mention letter, there are three letters that their parts are inserted explicitly. The first one is the letter from father (Teungku Syahkobat) that was received by Jalaluddin on his 23 rd birthday and was reread when he turned 25 (TM 59-64). As a flash back, the letter is not completely exposed; hence it is only as a clip. There are many issues discussed in the letter, particularly concerning to Indonesian condition in the physical revolution era, the post-independence era, including the era when Indonesia started to build its nation. Teungku Syahkobat told his son that in the physical revolution era (1945-1949), the people of Indonesia were gambling with god’s name to defend the independency that was withdrawal by the Dutch. However, after the nation gained its victory by the sacrify of its people that 95% of them are Moslem including the Digul warriors that are mostly Moslem, the Islamic practice is taken for granted. Syakobat was worried if the victory gained would be in vain if god curses the people of Indonesia. People have forgotten that the victory after the Ducth is the blessing from god to the Indonesian people. In his letter, Syahkobat also mentioned about many issues around Aceh; security recovery, the development of education (Kopelma Darussalam), the development of Islam, and also about communism. It is shown that A. Hasjmy through Shaykobat letter has given a special concern on Aceh. Also, the attention is also given for Irian Jaya, especially Digul where he was expelled by the Dutch. Syahkobat expected his son, Jalaluddin willing to devote himself to Tanah Merah since there are four kinds of enemies he would face; false beliefs, stupidity, illnesses, and poverty. He expected Jalaluddin to be able to improve the condition of his nation that has been deteriorated.

Pada akhir surat, ayah memberi nasehat kepadaku, agar aku tetap thaat kepada Allah, tekun belajar, berbakti kepada Agama dan Tanah Air, membela rakyat jelata yang tertindas. Ayah mengharap aku mengabdi kepada tanah tempat ayah dibuang. (At the end of his letter, father advice me to worship Allah, study hard, devoted myself for the religion and the nation, defend the

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weak and the oppressed people. Father expected me to devote myself to the place where he was expelled.) The second one is in the letter from Markus Kaisiepo, a native Papuan. The letter is for the Dutch government that was posted in the newspaper Penyuluh published by NICA in Brisbane, on Saturday, September 8, 1945 (TM 83-4). The content of the letter was memorized by Hamra. It was about the hope for the Dutch government to free Papuan from colonialism. The next one is the letter from Salahuddin to his brother, Jalaluddin, that was written in Tanah Merah on September 1962 and send through Port Darwin (TM 94-9). The letter was about parachute troops landing and the struggle of Salahuddin with his friends in West Irian and the death of Hamra parents in Irian. The letter described Salahuddin experience in an ambush of the city of Tanah Merah in the dust of August 17, 1962. With the force of a fully armed troop and 35 people from Mandobo tribe armed with poisoned arrows, they defeated the Dutch-Indo troop and the city of Tanah Merah was taken over. Hamra parents died in the ambush and were laid in The Heroes Cemetery in the city of Tanah Merah. In addition, some of the A. Hasjmy novels also mention about the existence of the letters. It means the letters do not exist, but their existence is still mentioned as the method of narration. For example, beside the letters inserted in the letter as parts of the text, correspondence is also mentioned among the characters in MJRD novel. One of the issues is about the request of an official letter from the Sultan of Aceh by the Engku Penghulu (the traditional leader) when Ridhwan reported to Batu Sangkar (60-70), about Ridhwan correspondence with his mother (91-91, about Rusmawar who missed the letter from Ridhwan who was still in Aceh (105) and letter to Rusmawar and his family when he was about to return to Padang (108), and other issues. Correspondence is very much highlighted in MJRD. It is proven by mentioning the word letter for sixty nine times. A. Hasjmy also does not mention the letter when describing Hamra’s intention to send letter to his parents in Irian Jaya and it would be sent through Salahuddin (TM 89). Also in MJ, there are many issues deliver through letters, but the letters are not inserted in the novel. Another example is the narration about the request of Indera Purba military to the Islam sultanate of Perlak that is sent via special messenger. There are some indications why A. Hasjmy uses lettering techniques in delivering his ideas. The first one is the development of knowledge and technology of the era when he became a writer that is the era of the New Writer (1930s) (Nasution and Sartuni, 1980), also influence his way of writing. The trend of era was on correspondence technique. The second reason is that A.Hasjmy was used to write letters in his daily life. He even wrote two books that contains letters, that are Risalah Akhlak: Surat-Surat Ayah kepada

Anak (The moral notes: Father’s letters to his childern; A. Hasjmy, 1976c) and a book of Surat-Surat dari Penjara: Surat-Surat Ayah kepada Puterinya (Letters from the prison: The father’s letters to his daughter; A. Hasjmy, 1976d). The third reason, epistolary technique us easy to develop and comprehend easily by the readers. The fourth, letters can provide a space between the author and the characters so that the readers feel that it is the character’s letter not the property of the author. Lodge (1992:21-24) stated that a letter is always to a particular addressee, that enable the respond estimation in the paragraph. Rethorical 100

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

letters are very complex and interesting, that is sometime appears as a dramatic monolog. The technique develops the text to be a kind of writing that exposes the first person narration, although it is not as compact as autobiography, and the process is ’in progress.’ A fictional letter certainly differenciable than the real one. Conclusion The literature concept as an imaginative work of art that can develop well through epistolary technique. Through it, A. Hasjmy has shaped his novels as if they are exist. He use this technique to deliver various messages in his novels and he uses it to provide impression of the perfection of a novel and significantly shaped it. It is obvious that through epistolary technique applied by A. Hasjmy, he expressses his own background and it becomes the characteristic of his novels. References Hasjmy, A. 1976a. Meurah Djohan: Sultan Aceh Pertama. (Novel). Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. Hasjmy, A. 1976b. Tanah Merah: Digul Bumi Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Indonesia . (Novel). Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. Hasjmy, A. 1976c. Risalah Akhlak (surat-surat ayah kepada anak). Seri I. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. Hasjmy, A. 1976d. Surat-Surat dari Penjara (surat-surat ayah kepada puterinya). Seri II. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. Hasjmy, A. 1978a. Melalui Jalan Raya Dunia. 2nd Ed.. (Novel). Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. Hasjmy, A. 1978b. Bermandi Cahaya Bulan. 2nd Ed.. (Novel). Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. Hasjmy, A. 1983. Suara Azan dan Lonceng Gereja. 3rd Ed.. (Novel). Serawak, Malaysia: Angkatan Nahdatul Islam Bersatu (BINA). Hasjmy, A.; A.G. Mutiara; & T.A. Talsya. 1963. Asmara dalam Pelukan Pelangi. 2nd Ed. (Novel). Banda Atjeh: Pustaka Putroe Tjanden. Lodge, D. 1992. The Art Of Fiction: Illustrated from Classic and Modern Text. London: Penguin Books. Nasution, J.U. & Rasyid Sartuni. 1980. A. Hasjmy: Tokoh Angkatan Pujangga Baru. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa. Wildan. 2009. ”Nasionalisme: Kajian Novel A. Hasjmy”. Disertation. Bangi: UKM.

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Analysis of Organizational Culture and Job RotationRegional Secretariat on employee performance in Bireuen 1,2,3

Hamdani

1Commerce 2The

Department, State Polytechnic of Lhokseumawe;

Faculty of Economics, Almuslim University, Bireuen

3STIE

Nationality Bireuen

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract This study analyzed the influence of organizational culture and job rotation on performance. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of organizational culture on employee performance and how the effects of job rotation on employee performance. This study is expected to provide additional references to the object of research is Government Bireuen, particularly the Regional Secretariat of Bireuen in an effort to improve employee performance, as well as a contribution to the development of management science, especially relating to the management of Human Resources (HR), is also expected to provide information additional or comparison to other researchers whose research is similar. To answer the problem posed in this study, the data obtained from 208 employees at the Regional Secretariat Bireuen using questionnaires. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The analysis showed that organizational culture does not significantly affect the performance of employees, while job rotation influence on employee performance. Keywords: Organizational culture, job rotation, employee performance

Introduction Successful organizations affected by the performance of employees. Therefore, employees are assets of an organization or enterprise, because employees can be achieved through the activity of a common goal. To achieve this common goal, an organization needs to make improvements to the performance of employees. Organizational culture is growing and is well maintained will be able to spur the organization towards better development. The values of a strong organizational culture embraced an organization including a 102

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

government organization is indispensable, particularly to overcome the various problems in the development and adaptation of external changes (globalization) and the integration of the internal forces (autonomy). Bireuen District with a total headcount of 9,600 people (Report of February in 2013), in the post-conflict era broad autonomy in Aceh province, an organizational culture that had previously been relatively well organized, there was a shift values of habit adopted by government organizations. This is because of the strong influence of external political forces. The indicator looks at the lack of involvement of employees in decision-making in government organizations (internal), factors outside the government (ektern) is more dominant in influencing any decisions and measures taken by the government. The phenomenon that occurred in recent years seen happen disharmony regional leaders and between leaders and subordinates, and among fellow employees. The indicator visible from the lack of harmony in the relationship and the performance of employees in some tribal agencies in the Government of Bireuen. This phenomenon is seen by many officials, especially former officials eseloning formerly had positions in government and when there are no more positions decreased productivity. While the indicators related to the organizational culture of adaptability within the organization there is no obstacle, especially since they occupy a new government buildings since the year 2010. Government employee Bireuen, especially in the ranks of the Regional Secretariat employees who occupy government headquarters also always involved in every activity and in the mission of the organization in the government. Another factor of concern in addition to the organization's culture is job rotation. Job rotation is a consequence of a change in organizational structure, job rotation policy aims to meet the need for human resources to run the system from the office that has been modernized. Based on observations, this time in the Aceh Government both at the provincial and district governments and municipalities across the province of Aceh frequent job rotation. Surely perotasian process on employee work will greatly affect the performance of employees. In Bireuen, as job rotation has become a routine agenda of government. Rotation intentioned, namely that the addition of new capabilities in the new working environment, gain new knowledge for employees, and reduce the saturation level in the work environment long even be counterproductive if done too often, because the rotation is often done to cause discomfort among employees. This phenomenon is visible in Bireuen District Government, especially at the Regional Secretariat Bireuen. At least in the last five years, namely from the year 2007 2012 has occurred 25 times rotation job. Based on the phenomenon and the above mentioned problems, the object used in this study is an employee at the Regional Secretariat Bireuen. Objects have been selected Regional Secretariat Bireuen is one part of the Government Bireuen, which is considered to be very heterogeneous, as a reflection of the attitude of employees in Bireuen.

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

This study were conducted to: 1) determine the influence of organizational culture on employee performance; and 2) determine the effect of job rotation on employee performance. Literature Organizational Culture Organizational culture and values is a product of the interaction between the selection process, the function of managerial, organizational behavior, structure and processes as well as the environment in which the organization is located. It is as disclosed Robbins (2006). Organizational culture is a system of shared meaning held by members of the organization that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Organizational culture is a system of values that is acquired and developed by the organization and the pattern of habits and basic philosophy of its founder, which is formed into the rules that are used as a guide in thinking and acting in achieving organizational goals. Cultures were grown to become a strong organization capable spur towards better development. Further, Robbins (2006) state Cultural change can be done by: (1) to make management behavior as a model, (2) creating a new history, symbols and customs and beliefs in accordance with the culture you want, (3) selecting, promoting and supporting employees, (4) determine the return process of socialization to the values of the new, (5) to change the reward system with new values, (6) replace the norms that are not written with formal rules or written, (7) scrambles sub-culture through the rotation position, and (8) increased cooperation group. Meanwhile Robbins (2006) also said that strong cultural organizations will have certain characteristics that can provide attraction for individuals to join, think, act and behave in accordance with the values of the organization. Correspondence between the organizational cultures with the values held by members of the organization will lead to job satisfaction, thus encouraging individuals to survive in one company and a career in the long term. Based on some opinions on the above, it can be concluded that the organizational culture as a system of meanings, values and beliefs held together in an organization that is a reference to action and differentiate one organization to another organization. Organizational culture is also a system of shared meaning held by members of the organization that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Organizational culture with regard to the context of organizational development, cultural meaning is rooted in the history of the organization, is believed to be together. Definition of Job Rotation Rotation has an important role in the implementation of employment system of an organization. There are at least three benefits or interests that may be drawn from the rotation, the official interests, the interests of the concerned officials, and the public interest. Robbins (2006) explained the strength of job rotation is able to reduce boredom and increase employee motivation through diversification activities. Of course it also has indirect benefits for the organization, 104

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

because the employees with a wider range of skills that give management more flexibility in scheduling work, adapt to change, and fill in the blanks personnel. Furthermore, Maznah (2012) verivy the purpose of the rotation job (job rotation) is to give employees more variety in his work. Job rotation to move employees from one particular job field to other fields. Employees are trained and given the opportunity to do two or more jobs in a rotation system. With this job rotation, the manager believes can stimulate the willingness and motivation of employees when providing a broad perspective of employees in the organization. Another advantage in this job rotation is to increase flexibility and simplify scheduling employees because the employees have been trained to do different jobs. From the above it can be concluded that the rotation has an important role in the implementation of employment system of an organization. The strength of job rotation is able to reduce boredom and increase employee motivation through diversification activities. Of course it also has indirect benefits for the organization, remain at least 3 (three) benefits / interests that may be drawn from the rotation, the official interests, the interests of the concerned officials, and the public interest. Then the more important of the rotation is is to give more variation in the work of employees. Understanding Employee Performance In the theory of human resources, mentioned performance is a result that has been achieved than has been done, is done in executing the work or task. Performance is the result or the overall success rate of a person during a certain period in the duty compared to the various possibilities, such as the standard of the work, the target or targets or criteria that have been determined in advance and have been agreed. Performance is the translation of the word performance. Robbins (2006) vervy employee performance is a function of the interaction between ability and motivation. In a study of employee performance management there are things that need consideration are important because individual performance of an employee in the organization is part of the organization's performance and can determine the performance of the organization. Success or failure of performance of employees who have achieved the organization will be affected by the level of performance of individual employees or groups. From the definition presented above it can be concluded that the performance of employees is a result achieved by the employee in his job. It is obtained from a function of the interaction between ability and motivation. Success or failure of performance of employees who have achieved the organization will be affected by the level of performance of individual employees or groups. Results Profile of Respondents Research a. Gender

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Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Number of male respondents as many as 108 people (51.92%) while the number of female respondents as many as 100 people (48.08%). The sampling of respondents by sex is almost balanced between men and women suggests that employees who work at the Regional Secretariat Bireuen not distinguish gender in the work, it is because it is in the field of administrative services. b. Age Civil Servants Regional Secretariat Bireuen respondents in this study is based on the age composition is aged less than 30 years as many as 50 people (24.04%), aged 31-40 years as many as 109 people (52.40%), aged 41-50 years were 38 people (18:27%), and age over 50 years as many as 11 people (5:29%). That the largest percentage of respondents aged 31-40 years which at that age, including the productive age group and still be able to work optimally because of physical conditions support so that a positive impact on the work he does. c. Rank / Group Based on an analysis of the 208 respondents obtained data on rank / class of Civil Servants in the Secretariat Bireuen that 107 people (51.44%) have a rank / class II / A-II / d, while the rank III / A-III / d 92 (44.23 %) and rank / class IV / A-IV / d as many as 9 people (4:33%). d. The duration of work Based on the results of the analysis of the characteristics of respondents by length of work indicates that respondents who work period of less than five years as many as 83 people (39.90%), years 6-10 years as many as 72 people (34.62%), 11-15 year tenure as many as 53 people (25.48%). This shows that in general Bireuen District Secretariat employees already have a working life 6-10 years. e. Educational level Based on the analysis of the obtained data on 208 respondents last education level of respondents, the highest composition of the Regional Secretariat staff Bireuen is S1 as many as 89 people (42.79%), then SMU as many as 74 people (35.58%), D. III as many as 40 people (19:23 %) and S2 as many as 5 people (2:40%). This indicates that the majority of respondents in this study educated Strata-1 (SI). Level of education like this allow the respondent's ability to answer the questions properly accountable. f.

Description of Respondents Statement Against Research Variables

To get an overview and information on the research variables used in this study. Description of the variables descriptive statistics were used in this study includes the minimum, maximum, range, mean and standard deviation of the dependent variable and independent variables. Descriptive statistics illustrate the character of the sample used in this study. More descriptive statistics is shown in the following table:

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Table 1. Analysis Descriptive Statistics Min

Max

Mean

Std. Devation

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Std. Error

Statistic

Organizational Culture

2.25

4.75

4.0280

0.03097

0.45299

Job Rotation

1.67

5.00

3.9798

0.03581

0.52392

Employee Performance

3.14

4.86

4.0227

0.02293

0.33547

Valid N (listwise) Source: Primary data (2013) At the data processing descriptive statement of the respondent to variable showed that respondents chose the answer for each instrument question revolves around the value 4 (agree), this result can be seen from the average value of the mean of respondents for each indicator question. Lowest answer to the whole question was 1.67, and the highest is 5:00. Description of Organizational Culture From table can be explained that the answer scores lowest (minimum) is the answer scores of 2.25 and the highest (maximum) was 4.75, with a range of 2:50. The average score of the response variable is the standard deviation of 4.0280 and 0.45299, so that the standard deviation is smaller than the average value. This indicates that the distribution of the data related to the organizational culture variables (X1) at the Regional Secretariat Employees Bireuen is good. Description Job Rotation From table can be explained that the answer scores lowest (minimum) for the variable rotation of the work is equal to 1.67 and scores the highest response (maximum) is 5:00, with a 3:33 range. The average score of the response variable is the standard deviation of 3.9798 and 0.52392, so that the standard deviation is smaller than the average value. This indicates that the distribution of the data associated with the variable job rotation (X2) at the Regional Secretariat Employees Bireuen is good. Description of Employee Performance From table can be explained that the answer scores lowest (minimum) for the variable performance of employees is equal to 3.14 and scores the highest response (maximum) was 4.86, with a range of 1.72. The average score of the response variable is the standard deviation of 4.0227 and 0.33547, so that the standard deviation is smaller than the average value. This indicates that the distribution of the data related to employee performance variable (Y) to the Regional Secretariat Employees Bireuen is good. Discussion Influence of Organizational Culture against Employee Performance

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Organizational culture has a positive influence direction but no significant effect on employee performance, thus it can be concluded that the culture of the organization but not significant positive effect on employee performance. The results of this study reinforce some of the results of previous studies, such as research conducted Miswan, (2008) which showed that organizational climate affect the performance of lecturers by 1.3%. That is the organizational climate showed a positive effect but not significant. Interpretation of the effect it indicates a change in an employee's performance as a result of the influence of organizational climate is not real. The influence of positive and not significant between the culture of the organization with the performance of employees at the District Secretariat Bireuen caused by organizational culture that formed today in the Regional Secretariat Bireuen not yet have specific characteristics in the institutionalization of a culture that is real and concrete, which can be understood or accepted by all employees as something that is believed to be true value which is positive towards the development and progress of the organization. Effect of Job Rotation against Employee Performance Based on the results of the analysis found that the direction of rotation of the work has a positive and significant influence on employee performance, thus it can be concluded that job rotation significantly influence employee performance. Results of this research generally supports much previous research, especially in terms of the direction of a positive relationship and such studies that have been conducted Mansur (2009) showed that the estimated parameters variable job rotation positive effect on employee performance. Conclusions 1.

Rotation direction of work has a positive and significant influence on employee performance. Plus the value of job rotation on the performance of employees at the Regional Secretariat Bireuen caused by the rotation of jobs capable of providing a change so that it is positive towards the development and progress of employee performance.

2.

Cultural organizations but not significant positive effect on employee performance. Then work motivation was also not mediate organizational culture on employee performance in the Regional Secretariat Bireuen.

References Gibson, Ivannevic, Donnelly. 2000. "Organization", Fifth Edition, Jakarta: Erland. Masrukhin and Waridin. 2006. "Effect of Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Culture and Leadership on Employee Performance", Journal of Economics and Business, Vol. 7, No. 2

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Maznah, Jasman J. Ma'Ruf, and Sofyan Idris. 2012. "The Influence of Neighborhood Organizations, Job Satisfaction on Work Motivation and implication in Lhokseumawe State Polytechnic Employee Performance", Journal of Management Sciences, UNSYIAH, Vol. 1, No. 1, in 2012. Mourdoukoutas, Panos. 2009. "Job Rotation and Public Policy: Theory with Applications to Japan and the USA," International Journal of Manpower, Vol.15. Robbins, S.P. 2006. Organizational Behaviour, Issue 10, PT. Gramedia Group Index.

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Role of Wage and Gross Domestic Product in Declining the Rate of Unemployment in Indonesia 1*Khairil

Anwar and 2Naufal Bachri

1Faculty

of Economics and Business, University of Malikussaleh, Indonesia and PhD Student at

Economics of Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia 2Faculty

of Economics and Business, University of Malikussaleh, Indonesia and PhD Student at

Management Science of Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia *Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Abstract This study aims to determine the effect of wages and gross domestic product (GDP) toward the rate of unemployment in Indonesia in the period 2000-2013. The data used in this research is secondary data about the Provincial Minimum Wage, GDP at constant prices in 2000 according to the sector of business and open unemployment rate in Indonesia. The method of data analysis used in the study is the multiple regressions. The study concluded that simultaneously the variable of wages and GDP influence significantly toward the rate of open unemployment. Partially variable of wages positive and significantly influence toward the rate of the open unemployment but the variable of Gross Domestic Product negative and significantly influence the rate of open unemployment in Indonesia in 2000-2013. Keywords: Unemployment, Wages, Gross Domestic Product

Introduction Unemployment is a serious problem and become one of the major problems to be overcome by developing countries. This may have an impact on the country's economy. Unemployment occurs as a result of the lack of jobs that cannot absorb the entire workforce. The total population grow brings as a result of the increase in the labour force every year. It means that the number of people seeking jobs will increase and labour will also increase. Many workers are not able to be absorbed. It will cause unemployment (Murniasih, 2014). Indonesia is a country with a population very much. It will actually provide benefits for Indonesia if it is able to run well. A lot of human resources must be used carefully so that it will produce quality goods and 110

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services which in turn will increase state revenues. The quality human resource can be done by increasing skills and improving education. The fact that a lot of human resource are not able to be managed properly. The economy of Indonesia is in bad performance. The negative impact of human resources is not well managed as the unemployed. According to BPS (2014) From 2000 to 2006, the percentage of open unemployment rate continued to rise significantly, namely in the unemployment rate by 6.08% in 2000 reach 10.28% in 2006, or for 6 years has increased by 4,20%. Of course, a fairly high unemployment rate is a burden of development and can worsen the country's economy. Meanwhile in 2007 to 2013 the unemployment rate in Indonesia began to decline significantly from 9.11% 2007 to 5.80%. It occurred because the government realized that high unemployment will aggravate economic activity so that the various efforts such as increased employment opportunities, the government's effort succeeded in lowering the unemployment rate. Yet still the unemployment rate in Indonesia is still relatively high. Therefore, the government should make greater efforts to reduce unemployment in order that the existing workforce can be absorbed. The Government needs to avoid unemployment by taking into account factors that are strongly associated with unemployment such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and wages. GDP is the market value of all final goods and services produced in a country during a certain period. GDP measures the total income at the same time the total expenditure on various goods and services of an economy. While GDP per capita measure of income and average expenditure per capita of the economy is concerned (Mankiw, 2003). Dornbusch (2004) explains that Okun's Law states that 1 additional point of unemployment weigh on 2 percent of GDP. Some related studies found mixed results, among others; Murniasih et al (2014) who conducted the research in Bali found that GDP variable has positive and significant influence toward unemployment. Research conducted by Kurniawan (2013) in Malang. The result of research that variable of Gross Regional Domestic Product has a negative effect on unemployment. Variable of City Minimum Wage has a positive effect on unemployment. Wijaya (2014) conducted a study on the use of data Gerbangkertasusila years 2007-2012. The results obtained, a variable of minimum wage has a negative correlation to the rate of unemployment. GDP variable has a positive relationship to the rate of unemployment. Utomo (2013) said that the wage variable has a significant impact on unemployment in Indonesia during the period 1980-2010. Mansur et al (2014) said that the variable of wage has a significant negative impact on unemployment in the city of Manado. Literature Reviews

Unemployment BPS (2014), unemployment is someone who does not work but looking for work or are preparing new venture. Besides unemployment can also be said of people not looking for work because of despair or find it impossible to get a job (discourage workers) or people who are not looking for work because they accepted to work or have a job but have not started to work. 111

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According to Sukirno (2012) said that there are three types of unemployment based on the circumstances that caused, among other things: 1. The frictional unemployment refers to unemployment caused by the actions of someone workers to leave work and seek better employment or in accordance with his wishes. 2. Structural unemployment refers to the unemployment caused by structural changes in the economy. 3. Unemployment conjuncture refers to unemployment caused by excess natural unemployment and applicable as a result of a reduction in aggregate demand. Marius (2004) stated that unemployment can be divided into three types, namely: 1. Open Unemployment is the labours that really do not have a job. Unemployment is happening because it has not got a job when I have tried to the maximum and some are too lazy to find a job or lazy to work. 2. Disguised Unemployment is unemployment that occurred because of too much labor for one unit of work while reducing the work force to keep a certain amount does not reduce the amount of production. Underemployment could also occur because someone who works not in accordance with their talents and abilities, ultimately do not work optimally. 3. Under Unemployment are workers who do not work optimally because there is no job for a while. Some say that the workforce is underemployed workers who work less than 35 hours a week or less than 7 hours a day. For example, a construction worker who has completed work on a project, to temporarily idle while waiting for the next project. Marius (2004) added that there are seven categories of unemployment based on its causes, namely: 1. Frictional Unemployment refers to unemployment caused by the movement of people from one region to another, from one job to another, and because of the different stages of the life cycle. 2. Structural Unemployment refers to unemployment is due to changes in the economic structure that causes weakness in other areas of expertise. Example: An area that had an agricultural (agriculture) into an industrial area, the agricultural sector will be unemployed workers. 3. Unemployment Cyclical refers to unemployment that relates to the conjuncture wave, namely the existence of a recession or a slowdown in economic activity. Example: In a company while advancing new labour needed for expansion. Conversely when the business losses continue, there will be layoffs (Termination) or dismissal. 4. Unemployment Seasonal refers to unemployment that occurs because of the changing seasons. Example: during the harvest season, farmers work hard, while previously many unemployed. 5. Unemployment Technology refers to unemployment relates to the use of technology tools that more modern. 6. Political Unemployment refers to unemployment relates to government regulations that directly or indirectly, lead to unemployment. 112

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7. Unemployment Deflatoir refers to unemployment relates to the unavailability of jobs in the economy as a whole, or because the number of workers exceeds the employment, then unemployment arises. The relationship among variables

The relationship between GDP and Unemployment According to Okun's Law (Mankiw, 2003), there is a strong correlation and negative between the unemployment rate and the Real GDP. If rate of unemployment increases 1%, it will weigh on GDP by 2%. If the GDP increase, the demand for goods and services will greater. It means that the company will produce a lot of the goods and services. The increasing of production will increase the use of labour. However, there is strong correlation between the national income and the use of labour.

The relationship between Wages and Unemployment Kaufman and Hotckiss (1999) said described that there is relationship between the wages and the rate of unemployment. The Labour will set the rate of the minimum wage at the rate of a certain wage. If the wage is offered under the wage rate, the labour will refuse the wages. It will consequently lead to unemployment. If the wage is set too low, it will result in high levels of unemployment. However, if the wage increases and the cost are quite high, it will reduce the efficiently spending so that employers will reduce labour in order to reduce production costs. This will result in an increase in unemployment. Research Methods This study uses secondary data collected and obtained in time series of the year 2000-2013. The necessary data for this study are: (a) Data on the rate of unemployment in Indonesia during the period 2000-2013 were obtained from the website of BPS Indonesia (2014), (b) Data on the magnitude of the national minimum wage in the period 2000-2013 were obtained from the website of BPS Indonesia (2014), (c) Data on the amount of the Gross Domestic Product based on constant prices were obtained from the website of BPS Indonesia (2014). Methods of data analysis in the research used multiple linear regression analysis. In the study also test several the classic assumptions include multicolinerity, autocorrelation and normality test. Besides that the research tests the accuracy of the hypothesis as partial, simultaneous, correlation and determination. The function of the multiple linear regression analysis in this study can be denoted as follows: Unemployment = f (wages, GDP)........................................1) The function can be transformed into a semi-log model equations are as follows: UNEM = α + β1LnWG + β2LnGDP + e......................................2) Where: UNEM

: Unemployment Rate

WG

: Wages

GDP

: Gross Domestic Product 113

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Results

Development of Unemployment in Indonesia There are several causes of unemployment in Indonesia, namely; (1) the jobs available is smaller than job seekers. It means that job seekers cannot be absorbed fully, (2) the competence of job seeker is not in accordance with the demand of labour market. It means that the job seeker cannot be accepted on the labour market, (3) there is a lack of effective labour market information for job seekers, and many other factors. The development of the unemployment rate in Indonesia from the year 2000-2013 can be seen in the figure below:

Rate of Unemployment

12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Years Source: Indonesia Statistics (2014) Figure1: Unemployment Rate (Unem) During 2000-2013 Based on Figure 1 shows that the unemployment experiences increasing from 2000 (6.08%) to 2006 (10.28%). In other words, unemployment increase 4.20% during the 6 years. It is caused by declining in economic growth rate because it is not able to absorb the new workforce. It is also caused due to the increasing cases of termination of employment. It is mainly due to the reduction activities of production in the manufacturing sector. It can be concluded that the economic growth measured by Gross Domestic Product continues. This is evident from the number of unemployment in Indonesia is likely increasing from 2000 to 2006. This condition encourages the Government of Indonesia to seek a way out in reducing the number of unemployment. These are creating jobs, increasing economic growth rate, increasing employment opportunities, preparing the workforce through training and so forth. In 2007, rate of unemployment experiences decreasing from 9.11% to 6.14%. The rate of unemployment decrease meanwhile workforce increase. It means that rate of Labour Force Participation increase 0.23% 114

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for one year. The increasing of working population is able to suppress rate of unemployment to 7.87% in 2009 and to 5.80% in 2013. In 2008, Indonesia was ranked first in Asia in the highest unemployment rate. It is considered to threaten the stability of the region because the overall population of Indonesia is larger than Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Thailand and so forth countries. From an economic perspective, unemployment will be the economic burden of the family, community, nations and even can trigger the birth of new models of poverty. This is the poverty that occurs due to the difficulty of accessing employment. In 2012, the unemployment rate experiences declining. It improves formal employment by 2.67 million and decreases informal employment by 1.54 million. This occurs due to the increase of investment in the real sector. From 2001 to 2005, the absorption of new employment opportunities is lower than the new workforce, resulting in rising unemployment. Only later in 2006 began to show improvement through 2012, new employment opportunities are greater than the new entrants so that the unemployment rate has now fallen to the level of 6.14 percent.

Development of Wage in Indonesia Wage is the income of the employee in the form of money or goods that paid by the company or agency or employer after deducting the expenses, mandatory dues, income taxes, and so forth (CBS, 2009). Everybody do a particular job are entitled to receive wages for work that has been done. This has been regulated in Law Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No. 13 Tahun 2003. Wage is too low, it will not be able to meet the needs of the workers decently. However, if the remuneration is charged to the company is too high, it will result in increased unemployment. Therefore, the government has authority to regulate matters concerning the people set minimum wages given to workers to prevent companies do not do justice to its employees as well as to prevent inflation. Here is figure of the development rate of wages in Indonesia from the year 2000-2013: Figure 2 showed that the average minimum wage experiences increasing. It can be seen that the magnitude of the provincial minimum wage in the national average in force always increase from year to year. In 2000 the average amount of wages prevailing in the Indonesian province of Rp. 216 500 (in thousands of rupiah) and reached USD. 1.3324 million in 2013. Wages are very important for employers and workers, as this can indirectly related to the number of unemployed. The wages increase each year because the needs of workers increase over time. However, the increasing of wages could lead to rising unemployment if it is not accompanied by the addition of the company's revenue. The wage directly increased the rate of unemployment from 2000 to 2006. Beside that unemployment decreased even though the wage still increased from 2007 to 2013. It is influenced by other factors such as rate of private consumption increased that led to demand for goods and services increased so that any additional labour.

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The national minimum wage

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1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Years

Source: BPS and Kemenakertrans (2014) Figure 2: The national minimum wage in Indonesia during 2000-2013 The rate of unemployment has experienced decreasing while the production of goods and services increased so that revenue of company increased also. The company does not reduce their production costs by reducing their workforce. The other words, the wage increase be in equilibrium so that it does not cause unemployment.

Development of the GDP growth in Indonesia The economy of a country will go well if it is able to absorb the entire workforce. It is very important for a country to maximize GDP. Here is a picture of the development of the GDP at current prices in Indonesia in 2000-2013: Figure 3 showed that the GDP always increase from year to year in Indonesia. The magnitude of Indonesia's GDP in 2000 amounted to Rp. 1,389,769.9 billion and is increasing until 2013 amounting to Rp. 2,770,345.1 billion. GDP increased relatively slow and very little. This is evidenced by the movement of GDP from 2000 to 2006 can be said to be stagnant because very little movement. As a result of the movement of GDP is very low, in the year 2000 to 2006 the number of unemployed increased. It means that the amount of GDP is very low making economic growth has also become involved low anyway so it is not able to absorb the number of workers that exist in that year. Beside that there are cases of termination of employment. The Indonesia’s economy is not stable after the crisis in 1997. The public real income decreased because inflation soared. It is also influenced rate of workforce participation tends to increase.

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GDP

3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Years Source: Website BPS Indonesia, 2014 Figure 3. Gross Domestic Product In Indonesia During 2000-2013 It means that the number of people who want to work has increased as well so it requires the availability of new jobs. The government conducted stabilizing the economic circumstances in 2007 – 2013. The GDP growth has been slightly higher increase so that at least it is able to reduce the rate of unemployment.

The Classic Assumption Tests Before analyzing the data further, it is necessary to be fully tested toward irregularities classical assumption. These need to be done in order to meet the criteria of the estimation BLUE (Best, Linear Unbiased, Estimator). Some deviation classical assumptions that need to be tested in this study are normality test, multicolinierity test and autocorrelation test. Normality test is analyzed by non-parametric test-Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS). The results showed that data are normally distributed residuals. Multicolinearity test showed that there is not multicolinerity among independent variables. The other one is autocorrelation, the data residual random (random) or nonoccurrence of autocorrelation between residual value.

Model Estimation Results This study uses multiple linear regression analyzes were used to examine whether or not the influence of independent variables on the dependent variable. The independent variable in this study is wages and

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GDP, while the dependent variable is unemployment by using a semi-log regression model. Model estimation results as shown in Table 1 below: Table 1. Regression Analysis Variabel Independen

Koefisien Regresi (α)

Standar Error

t

Sig. t

Konstanta

318,025

32,902

9,666

0,000

LnWG

12,893

1,569

8,218

0,000

LnGDP

-33,268

3,675

-9,052

0,000

R

Sig. F

47,620

0,000

= 0,947

R2 Adjusted

F

= 0,896 R2

= 0,878

ttabel

= 1.796

Ftabel

= 3.982

Based on the estimates of the analysis results shown in Table 1, the constant that is worth 318.025 has meaning if wages and GDP variables held constant, the unemployment in Indonesia amounted to 318.025%. Then the value of the variable wage (WG) has a coefficient of 12.893 means that if wages increased by 1%, the open unemployment rate will also be increased to 12.893%. Furthermore, -33.268 GDP variable coefficient means that the increase in GDP increased by 1% would be able to lower the open unemployment rate amounted to 33.268%. Testing Statistics

Goodness of Fit Test The goodness of fit of model can be seen from the correlation and can also be used the coefficient of determination (R2). The coefficient of determination (R2) is a number that gives the proportion or percentage of the total variation in the dependent variable (Y) which is explained by the independent variable (X) (Gujarati, 2006). The coefficient of determination is between zero and one. R 2 has small value means the ability of the independent variables in explaining the variation of the dependent variable is very limited. A value closes to one means of independent variables provide almost all the information needed to predict the variation of the dependent variable (Ghozali, 2012). Based on the test results obtained by the R value of 0.947, which means that there is a strong relationship among the independent variables, namely wages and GDP toward the dependent variable is the rate of open unemployment. Furthermore, to determine the effect of the variable wages and GDP to variable rate of open unemployment in Indonesia can be seen in the value of R 2. From the test results obtained R2 value of 0.896. It means that 89.6% of the variation changes in the rate of unemployment is influenced by variations in wages and GDP while the remaining 10.4% is influenced by other variables outside the variations of this research model. 118

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Partial Test The t statistical tests conducted to show the influence of an independent explanatory variable individually or in explaining the variation of the dependent variable (Ghozali, 2012). Based on the test results of the wage variable has a tanalysis value of 8.218 with significant at α 1%. It indicates that wages are positive and significant impact on the rate of unemployment in Indonesia. Furthermore, GDP variable has a tanalysis value of 9.052 significant at α 1%. It indicates that the GDP is negative and significant impact on the open unemployment rate in Indonesia.

Simultaneous Test Based on the results of tests that have been carried out simultaneous showed that the Fanalysis value of 47.620 with significant at α 1%. It indicates that wages and GDP simultaneously significant impact on the rate of open unemployment in Indonesia. Discussions Based on the partial testing, the variables wage significant impact on the rate of open unemployment in Indonesia. Results of this study are consistent with the theory of Mankiw (2003). The theory said that the curve of equilibrium wage rate explains that if wages imposed is above the equilibrium level, the quantity of labour supplied will increase while the demand for labour will fall. The excess supply of labour reflects the occurrence of unemployment. In addition, research is also consistent with the theory described Kaufman and Hotckiss (1999). They said that if viewed from the side of the employer or company, the wage increases and the cost is quite high, it will reduce the efficiency of spending so that employers would take the policy of downsizing working to reduce production costs. This will result in an increase in unemployment so that it can be concluded that increasing the wage rate will increase the rate of open unemployment. Results of authors are consistent with previous research that conducted by Murniasih (2014), Kurniawan (2013) and Utomo (2013). It has the opposite result to the research conducted by Wijaya (2014) and Mansur (2014). It is because when the excess supply of labor that led to declining demand for labour in the formal sector when minimum wage increases, the excess supply of labour to migrate to the informal sector so that the open unemployment rate decreased. The variable of GDP significantly influences the rate of open unemployment in Indonesia. The results are consistent with the opinion of economists that said that to reduce unemployment, economic growth must be a minimum of 7% annually. The economy of the country will go well and the country would prosper if it is able to absorb the entire workforce. That is to push the unemployment rate then the entire existing supply must be able to be absorbed by the labour market. A country will be able to absorb all the labour force each year when economic growth is high. Improving economic growth of a country is reflected in increasing GDP is earned by the country annually. In other words, increasing GDP would be able to absorb the available labour supply so that to reduce the rate of unemployment.

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Results of this study are also consistent with Okun's Law (Mankiw, 2003) which suggests that there is a strong correlation between the rate of unemployment and the real GDP. There is a negative relationship between the rate of unemployment and the real GDP. Each of the 1 percent increase in rate of unemployment in a country, it will weigh on GDP by 2 percent. It means that if the GDP has increased, the demand for goods and services is greater so that the goods and services greatly that will be produced by the company. Increasing production is done will increase the use of labour. Thus, there is a strong relationship between the national income/GDP and the use of labour. If the national income increases, the use of labour also increases in the economy. Effect of GDP on unemployment is also consistent with previous studies conducted by Kurniawan (2013), but not in line with Murniasih’s research (2014) and Wijaya (2014). They found that the GDP positive and significant impact on unemployment. This happens because of the economic growth in the regions they studied oriented capital intensive so many companies that reduce the cost of inputs to obtain the maximum benefit either by reducing human labour and replace it with technology. Conclusions The result of linear regression showed that increasing wage 1% will increase the rate of open unemployment amount to 12.893%. An increase in GDP of 1% would be able to lower the open unemployment rate amounted to 33.268%. From the results of correlation, there is a strong relationship between the independent variables (wages and GDP) and the dependent variable (unemployment rate) of 94.7%. Furthermore, result of determination test showed variations in changes in the rate of unemployment is influenced by variations in wages and GDP amounted to 89.6%. The results of hypothesis testing showed that the wages positive and significant impact on the rate of unemployment in Indonesia. Furthermore, the GDP is negative and significant impact on the rate of unemployment in Indonesia. Simultaneously wages and GDP significant influence toward the rate of open unemployment in Indonesia in 2000-2013 with α = 0.01. References BPS. 2014. Konsep Produk Domestik Bruto. http://www.bps.go.id/menutab.php Diunduh Tanggal 7 Desember 2014. BPS. 2014. Produk Domestik Bruto Atas Dasar Harga Konstan 2000 Menurut Lapangan Usaha Tahun 2000-2013. http://www.bps.go.id/tab_sub/ view.php Diunduh Tanggal 1 Desember 2014. BPS. 2014. UMP Rata-Rata Nasional Tahun 1994-2007. http://www.bps.go.id/ tab_sub/view.php Diunduh Tanggal 1 Desember 2014. Dornbusch, Rudiger. Stanley Fischer dan Richard Startz. 2004. Makroekonomi. PT. Jakarta. Media Global Edukasi. 120

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Feriyanto, Nur. 2014. Ekonomi Sumber Daya Manusia Dalam Perspektif Indonesia Cetakan ke-1. Yogyakarta. UPP STIM YKPN. Ghozali, Imam. 2012. Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate Dengan Program IBM SPSS 20. Semarang. Badan Penerbit Undip. Gujarati, Damodar N. 2006. Dasar-dasar Ekonometrika Jilid I. Jakarta. Erlangga. Kaufman, Bruce E dan Julie L. Hotchkiss. 1999. The Economics of Labor Markets Fifth Edition. The Dryden Press. Kurniawan, Roby Cahyadi. 2013. Analisis Pengaruh PDRB, UMK, dan Inflasi Terhadap Tingkat Pengangguran Terbuka di Kota Malang Tahun 1980-2011. Jurnal Ilmiah. Malang. Universitas Brawijaya. Mankiw, N.Gregory. 2003. Pengantar Ekonomi Edisi Kedua Jilid 2. Jakarta. Erlangga. Mansur, Nirmala. Daisy Engka dan Steeva Tumangkeng. 2014. Analisis Upah Terhadap Pengangguran Di Kota Manado Tahun 2003-2012. Jurnal Berkala Ilmiah Efisiensi Volume 14 Nomer 2. Manado. Universitas Sam Ratulangi. Marius, Jelamu Ardu. 2004. Memecahkan masalah Pengangguran di Indonesia. Makalah Pada

Pengantar Falsafah Sains. IPB. Murniasih, Ni Kadek. Ketut Dunia dan Made Ary Meitriana. 2014. Pengaruh Nilai PDRB, Tingkat Upah dan Tingkat Inflasi Terhadap Pengangguran Terbuka Provinsi Bali Tahun 2003-2012. Jurnal

Jurusan Pendidikan Ekonomi Volume 4 Nomer 1. Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha. Singaraja. Sukirno, Sadono. 2012. Makroekonomi Teori Pengantar Edisi ke-1 Cetakan ke-21. PT. Jakarta. Raja Grafindo Persada Utomo, Fajar Wahyu. 2013. Pengaruh Inflasi Dan Upah Terhadap Pengangguran Di Indonesia Periode Tahun 1980-2010. Jurnal Ilmiah. Malang. Universitas Brawijaya. Wijaya, Radewa Rizki Mirma. 2014. Pengaruh Upah Minimum, PDRB, Dan Populasi Penduduk Terhadap Tingkat Pengangguran Terbuka (Studi Kasus Gerbangkertasusila Tahun 2007-2012). Jurnal

Ilmiah. Malang. Universitas Brawijaya.

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Effect of Competence, Task Attractions, Situational Factors toward Employee Motivation and Performance in Central Administration of the University of Almuslim 1*Nova, 2Megasari

1National 2Islamic

Gusandra Saragih

College of Economics Bireuen

Institute Almuslim Aceh

Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract This research aims to identify the effect of competence, task attractions, situational factors to motivation and performance of employee at central administration of the University of Almuslim. There are 150 employees as samples of research. The analytical tool used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS device-20 (Analysis of Moment Structure). The results showed that the competence, task attractiveness, situational, have positive and significantly effect toward motivation of employees at central administration of the University Almuslim. Motivation has a positive and significantly effect toward performance of employees at central administration of the University Almuslim Matangglumpangdua. Motivations mediate with partial mediation the effect of competence, task attractiveness, and situational factors toward performance of employees at central administration of the University Almuslim Matangglumpangdua. Keywords:

Competence,

Task

Attractiveness,

Situational

Factors,

Motivation,

Performance.

Introduction Today employees are viewed as one of the important organizational asset and need to be developed to support the survival of the organization. In order to create high employee performance, organizations need to improve the competence of employees, giving a load tasks in accordance with their expertise in order to increase the attractiveness of their duties, as well as situational factors that the organization is always ready to support each employee. Organizational performance is expected to increase with the employee's performance. 122

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Administrative center is the venue for registration activities (recording), computing (processing), communication and information. The activity was organized to achieve administrative center of which is provide particulars complete and accurate, creating a harmonious working atmosphere and overall, achieve administrative work effectively and efficiently and provide optimal service to all stakeholders exists, be it employee, lecturers, students and the community to improve the performance of the organization, which in turn gives a good image of the organization itself later. Thus was the case with the University Almuslim Matangglumpangdua. The rise in the organization's performance is expected to give a good image of the organization. This study aims to prove whether employees at the Central Administration of the University of Almuslim Matangglumpangdua also experienced the same thing as the alleged Fessler (2003), when the task was initially perceived attractive, incentive-based compensation will decrease the appeal on duty, so its performance will also be lower than when the duty is felt attractive with fixed compensation. And also the study of Arniati (2005) also found the same thing with Fessler (2003) only in research Arniati is unable to obtain empirical evidence about the situational factors (control) suspected that the subject controlled, are not interested in the job-based compensation incentives, performance will be better than the subjects that are not controlled, interested in the task and the fixed compensation. What distinguishes this study with research Fessler (2003) and Arniati (2005), namely the addition of variable competence and motivation variable in this research. Motivated of the phenomenon and the results of previous studies, the researchers are interested to test the extent to which the "Influence of Competence, Fascination task, Situational Factors Employee Motivation and Performance at the University of Central Administration Almuslim Matangglumpangdua". Research Methods The object of this research is the employee at the Central Administration of the University of Almuslim Matangglumpangdua status as permanent employees. And this research is located at Jl. Almuslim Matangglumpangdua Peusangan District of Bireuen. The study was conducted at the beginning of April 2014. The population in this study were all employees at the Central Administration of the University of Almuslim Matangglumpangdua totaling 158 people. In SEM ideal number of samples between 100-200 (Hair et al., 2009) and also should consider the number of existing indicators in the model. Hair et al. (2009) further says for the determination of the number of samples may amount to 5-10 on the number of indicators. In this research, there are 29 indicators so that the sample size could range between 145-290 respondents. The number of samples is determined by multiplying the number of indicators to 5 and the total sample of 29 x 5 = 145 respondents. Since the total population is 158 employees, then the sample is rounded to 158 respondents in case the occurrence of data outliers. Sampling using census method, ie the entire population sampled in the study (Usman & Akbar, 2008). 123

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

The variables that will be observed in this study is limited as follows: competence (X1), the appeal of the task (X2) and situational factors (X3) as the independent variable and motivation (Y) and performance (Z) as the dependent variable. Form a flowchart full model with mediating variables of this study are shown in Figure 1 below:

Figure 1. Research Models Results and Discussion Validity Test Instruments 1. Test Validity In SEM validity testing performed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) each construct is to see the loading factor value of each indicator. An indicator is said to be valid when the loading factor value for each item or indicator is the greater of 0.50 although ideally is 0.70 or higher (Ghozali, 2013; and Hair et al, 2010). 1. Variable CFA Competency Test To see if the construct of competence throughout the indicator variable is valid then tested the validity as in Figure 2 below:

Figure 2. CFA Variabel Kompetensi

124

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

2. Fascination CFA test Variable Tasks To see if a variable constructs Fascination indicator Task valid throughout the validity test as in Figure 3 below:

Figure 3. CFA Variable Task Fascination 3. CFA test variables Situational Factors To see if the construct entire indicator variables Situational Factors valid then tested the validity as in Figure 4 below:

Figure 4. Variable CFA Situational Factors 4. Variable CFA Test Performance To see if the construct of variable performance indicator valid throughout the validity test as inFigure 5 below:

Figure 5. CFA Variable Performance 5. CFA Test Variables Motivation To see if the construct of motivation throughout the indicator variable is valid then tested the validity as in Figure 6 below:

125

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

Figure 6. Variable CFA Motivation 2. Test Reliability Reliability test results can be seen in Table 1 and Table 2 below: Tabel 1. Uji Reliabilitas Construct Reliability dan Variance Extracted Uji NO

Variabel

Construct Reliability

Variance Extracted

Cut

Cut

Of Value

Value

Of Value

Conclusion

Value

1

Efektivitas Kerja

0,70

0,789

0,30

0,386

Reliabel

2

Motivasi

0,70

0,753

0,30

0,381

Reliabel

3

Komunikasi

0,70

0,726

0,30

0,348

Reliabel

4

Lingkungan

0,70

0,825

0,30

0,402

Reliabel

0,70

0,739

0,30

0,365

Reliabel

Kerja 5

Kepemimpinan

Based on the data as shown in Table 1 that can be explained that the overall value of CR is above or greater than 0.70 and the value of VE is above 0.30. Thus the whole construct in this study is reliable so that the model established is eligible to be tested in the next stage. Tabel 2. Correlation Between construct and value Dicriminant Validity Kompetensi Daya Tarik Tugas

Faktor Situasional

Motivasi

0,589

0,634

0,604

Motivasi

0,193

0,445

0,399

0,617

Kinerja

0,175

0,290

0,175

0,414

Kinerja

0,621

Based on Table 2 clearly shows that the latent constructs each have Discriminant Validity good, it can be seen from the square root of VE (√VE) each latent constructs a higher value than the value of the correlation between the constructs. Like the Discriminant Validity value to construct the competence of 0.589 is greater in value than the correlation between motivation.193 with a .175 performance. So is the value Discriminant Validity to construct the appeal of 0.634 tasks of greater value than the correlation between motivation 0.445 to 0.290 performance. Validity Discriminant value to construct situational factor 126

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

of 0.604 is greater in value than the correlation between motivation 0.399 to 0.175 performance. And the last is the value Discriminant Validity of 0.617 to construct motivation is greater than the correlation value is equal to 0.414 performances. Testing Assumptions SEM 1. Sample Size In the SEM analysis, appropriate sample size is between 100-200 (Hair et al., 1999). The entire questionnaire distributed as many as 158 questionnaires had been returned by the respondent and the whole are in good condition and can be treated. After the process of analyzing data using devices AMOS20 with SEM models include 8 (eight) data outliers (data that is extreme or very different from other data), so that the data or samples x should be excluded from the number of samples, thus the number of samples remaining as many as 150 samples. 2. Normality Test Data Based on the data as shown in Table 5:16 that the critical ratio value of skewness none univariate values that are outside the range of values ± 2.58. It can be concluded overall univariate data are normally distributed, as well as multivariate kurtosis value of the critical ratio also were within ± 2.58 that is equal to -, 359 then it can be concluded with both univariate and multivariate data in this study are normally distributed. 3. Outlier Test Data Figures extreme (outliers) is an observation that appears to value the extreme-value either univariate or multivariate, arises because of the combination of its unique characteristics and look very much different from other observations (Ferdinand, 2002: 52). In this study, the test data outliers using Mahalanobis Distance test, by comparing the value of p1 and p2. P1 and p2 values above 0.05 indicates no data outliers again. Based on the analysis of data outliers seen that after the disposal of the entire data outlier data has a value p1 or p2 above 0.05 is thus all the data in the study there are data outliers. 4. Multicolinearity and Singuliritas Data Based on the test results show the value of Determinant multicolinierity of the sample covariance matrix of 0.200 so far from 0, it can be said that there is no multicollinearity (perfect correlation or larger) between the endogenous variables in this study. Suitability Test Model Test the suitability of the model is done through flowcharts in full equation models, the tests performed on the entire both exogenous and endogenous variables that have been combined into one diagram (path) intact through variance or covariance matrix and the full model is referred to as a research model. Full model test carried out in two stages, the full model SEM prior to the modification and full model SEM after modification. 127

Proceedings of The 1th Almuslim International Conference on Science, Technology and Society (AICSTS) 2015 November 7-8, 2015, Bireuen, Indonesia

1. Full Model Before Modified Test SEM full model before modification aims to see the extent to which the basic model established in this study meet the criteria for goodness of fit so that the model can describe the phenomenon of research without any modification. Full model SEM prior to the modification shown in Figure 7 below:

Figure 7. Full Model Before The Modification Based on the data in Figure 7 above that not all values Goodness of Fit (GOF) meets the required criteria, for example the value of Goodness of Fit (GOF) meets the required criteria, for example the value of GFI is still marginal (0.830
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